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Full text of "Switzerland, and the adjacent portions of Italy, Savoy and the Tyrol: handbook for travellers"

BAEDEKER'S GUIDE BOOKS. 



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MONEY-TABLE. 
(Comp. p. xxii.) 

Approximate Equivalents. 



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•g**r A Hebtft, Lr rpjig 1 



SWITZERLAND, 

AND THE ADJACENT PORTIONS OF 

ITALY, SAVOY, AND THE TYROL. 



HANDBOOK FOR TRAVELLERS 



K. BAEDEKER. 



With 24 Maps, 10 Plans, and 7 Panoramas 



SEVENTH REMODELLED EDITION. 



LEIPSIC: KARL BAEDEKER. 
LONDON: DULAU AND CO., 37 SOHO SQUARE, W. 

1877. 

All Rights Reserved. 



■ftc, little book, Hod send thee good passage, 
And specially let this be thy prayere 
Unto them all that thee will read or hear, 
Where thou art wrong, after their help to call, 
Thee to correct in any part or all.' 

CHAUCER. 



PREFACE. 

J. he object of the Handbook for Switzerland is to 
render the traveller as independent as possible of the 
services of guides, valets-de-place, and innkeepers, to 
inform him what places are best worth seeing and how 
they are most conveniently reached, and to enable him 
to derive the utmost possible pleasure and instruction 
from his tour in this magnificent country. 

With improved facilities for travel, and owing to 
the wide extension of railways of late years, the number 
of travellers in Switzerland has enormously increased, 
while their spirit and ambition have been proportionally 
stimulated. Summits once deemed inaccessible, or prac- 
ticable only to the chamois-hunter or the hard)' native, 
accustomed from boyhood to feats of peril , are now 
scaled annually by enterprising travellers from all parts 
of the world. The achievements of the English and 
Swiss Alpine clubs have dimmed the memory of De 
Saussure, Auldjo, and the other pioneers of these icy 
regions , and even ladies now frequently vie with the 
stronger sex in their deeds of daring. 

The Handbook is based on the Editor's personal ac- " 
quaintance with the places described , most of which he 
has carefully and repeatedly explored. The present 
edition, which corresponds with the seventeenth in Ger- 
man, has been carefully revised, and furnished with the 
most useful new information obtainable since the last 
summer season. 

As the Handbook must necessarily contain imper- 
fections, and the arrangements for the accommodation 
of travellers are liable to frequent alteration , the Edi- 
tor will highly appreciate any communications with which 
he may be favoured by travellers, if the result of their 
own experience and observation. The information already 



vi PREFACE. 

received from numerous correspondents, which he grate- 
fully acknowledges, has in many instances proved most 
serviceable. 

The Maps and Plans, on which the utmost care 
has been bestowed, will greatly facilitate the traveller's 
proceedings, and will frequently enable him to dispense 
with the costly and uncongenial services of guides. 

Time Tables. Information regarding trains, steam- 
boats , and diligences is most trustworthy when obtained 
from local sources. The best Swiss publications are the 
'Coursbucher (time-tables) of Kriisi of Bale, and ofBftrkli 
of Zurich (50 c. each). 

Heights are given according to Dufours Map and 
from the other most recent sources of information (re- 
duced to English feet; 1 Engl. ft. = 0,3048 metre), and 
the Populations from the statistics of last census. Dis- 
tances on high roads and railways are given in English 
miles ; while those on bridle and footpaths, mountain- 
expeditions, and glaciers are expressed by the time in 
which they are usually accomplished. 

Hotels. Besides the first-class hotels, the Handbook 
mentions many of the more modest inns which may be 
safely selected by the 'voyageur en garcon', with little 
sacrifice of real comfort, and great saving of expense. 
The average charges are stated in accordance with the 
Editor's own experience, or from the bills furnished to 
him by travellers. Hotel charges, as well as carriage- 
fares and fees to guides , generally have a strong up- 
ward tendency, but an approximate statement of these 
items will often be of service to the traveller, and enable 
him to form an estimate of his probable expenditure. 

To hotel-keepers, tradesmen, and others, the Editor 
begs to intimate that a character for fair dealing towards 
travellers forms the sole passport to his commendation. 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

I. Plan of Excursion, etc xix 

II. Travelling Expenses. Money xxii 

III. Hotels and Pensions xxiii 

IV. Passports xxiv 

V. Walking Excursions xxiv 

VI. Maps xxvi 

VII. Guides xxviii 

VIII. Carriages and Horses xxix 

IX. Diligences, Post Office, Telegraph xxix 

X. Railways xxxi 

XI. History xxxii 

XII. Constitution and Statistics xxxv 

XIII. Geology of the Alps xxxvii 

XIV. Glaciers xlii 

Abbreviations xliv 

Route 

1. Bale i 

2. From Bale to Bienne (Bern and Neuchatel) through 

the Munster-Thal 6 

1. From Delemont to Porrentruy 7 

2. From Munster to the Weissenstein 8 

3. The Pierre Pertuis 8 

4. From Bevilard over the Montoz to Beuchenette ... 8 

3. From Bale to Geneva by Neuchatel 9 

1. From Sissach to Aarau by the Schafmatt 10 

2. Frohburg. Wartburg 10 

3. From Soleure to Burgdorf 11 

4. From Soleure to Lyss 11 

5. The Isle of St. Peter 11 

6. From Neuveville to the Chasseral 12 

4. Soleure and the Weissenstein 13 

1. St. Verenathal. Wengistein 14 

5. From Bale to Bern by Herzogenbuchsee 14 

1. From Herzogenbuchsee to Soleure 15 

6. From Bale to Lucerne 15 

7. From Bale to Zurich (Botzberg Railway) 16 

1. Abbey of Konigsfelden. Vindonissa 17 

8. From Olten to Waldshut by Aarau and Brugg ... 19 

1. The Habsburg 20 

9. From Bale to Schafl'hausen and Constance .... 20 

1. Hochenschwand 21 

2. From Singen to Etzweilen 22 

3. Hohentwiel. The Island of Reichenau 22 

4. Steamboat journey from Schafl'hausen to Constance . . 22 



viii CONTENTS. 

Route Pa 8 e 

10. From Friedrichshafen (Rorschach) to Constance. Lake 

of Constance ^ 

1. From Constance to the Mainau 26 

11. The Falls of the Rhine 27 

12. From Schaft'hausen to Zurich 29 

13. Zurich and the Uetliberg 29 

1. From the Uetliberg to the Albis-Hoehwacht .... 35 

2. From Zurich to Regensberg 35 

14. From Ziirich to Friedrichshafen and Lindau byRomanshorn 36 

1. From Winterthur to Waldshut 36 

2. From Winterthur to Constance 36 

3. From Winterthur to Riiti 37 

4. From Sulgen to Gossau 37 

If). From Zurich to Lindau by St. Gallen and Rorschach . 37 

1. From Winkeln to Urnasch 38 

2. Excursions from St. Gallen 39 

3. Excursions from Rorschach 39 

4. Excursions from Lindau 41 

10. From Ziirich to Coire. Lakes of Zurich and Wallenstadt 41 

a. Steamboat Journey 41 

1. From Richterswyl to the Gottschallenberg .... 42 

b. Railway on the S. Bank from Zurich toWesen and Glarus 43 
1. From Sieljnen to Glarus through the Waggithal ... 44 

c. From Ziirich via Rapperschwyl to Wesen and Sargans 44 

1. From Riiti to the Bachtel 44 

2. From Wesen to the Speer 46 

3. From Wesen to the Toggenburg over the Amdener Berg 46 

4. From Muhlehorn to Mollis over the Kerenzen-Berg . . 47 

5. The JIurgthal 47 

6. From Wallenstadt to Wildhaus in the Toggenburg over 

the Kaiserruck 48 

7. From Mels through the Weisstannen and Kalfeuser valleys 

to Vattis 48 

8. The Alvier 48 

17. From Zurich by Zug to Lucerne 49 

a. Railway Journey 49 

1. Fclsenegg. Schbnfels. Schonbrunn 49 

b. From Ziirich by Zug to Horgen 50 

1. From Horgen over the Horger Egg to the Sihl-Bridge. 

Zimmerherg 50 

<•,. From Ziirich to Zug by the Albis 51 

18. Lucerne 51 

19. Lake of Lucerne 55 

1. From Bickcnried to Seelisberg 57 

2. The Kurhaus Sonnenberg. Seelisberger Kulm ... 58 

3. Axcnstciii. Axcufels. Stoss. Fronalp 58 

4. Isenthal. Uii-Rothstock 59 

20. The Rlgi 61 

21. From Zug (or Lucerne) to Arth, Schwyz, and Brunnen 70 

a. From Zug to Arth. Lake of Zug 70 

b. From Lucerne to Kiissnacht and Arth 71 

c From Arth to Schwyz and Brunnen .... 70 

1. The Rns.sl.org 70 

2. The .My then ...... 73 



CONTENTS. ix 

Route Page 

22. Pilatus 74 

23. From Lucerne over the Briinig to Brienz (and Meiringen) 77 

1. From Lucerne to Alpnach-Gestad by land 77 

2. The Biirgenstock 77 

3. Footpath from Stansstad to Sachseln 78 

4. The Schwendi-Kaltbad 78 

5. The Melchthal. Passes to Engelberg and to the Engstlen- 

Alp 79 

6. The Wylerhorn 80 

24. From Lucerne to Altorf by Stans and Engelberg. Surenen 80 

1. Stanser Horn. Buochser Horn 81 

2. Excursions from Engelberg. Ascent of the Titlis . . 82 

25. From Lucerne to Bellinzona (and Milan) over the St. 
Gotthard 84 

1. Erstfelder Thai 86 

2. The Bristenstock 87 

3. The Geschenen Valley. By the Alpiglen-Liicke to Realp. 
Passes to the Trift Glacier and Stein Alp. Ascent of the 
Fleckistock 88, 89 

4. The Badus, or Six Madun. Gurschenstock and Gamsstock 90 

5. The Lucendro Lake 90 

b. From the St. Gotthard to Realp over the Orsino Pass . 91 

7. Pizzo Centrale. Prosa. Fibbia. Sorescia 91 

8. From Airolo through the Canaria Valley over the Nera 

Pass and Unteralp to Andermatt 92 

9. From Airolo through the Piora Valley to St. Maria and 
Dissentis 92 

26. From Lucerne to Bern. Entlebuch. Emmenthal . . 95 

1. Schwarzenberg. Bramegg 95 

2. From Entlebuch or Trubschachen to the Napf ... 96 

3. From Schiipfheim to the Brienzer Rothhorn .... 96 

27. Bern 97 

1. The Gurten. Wabern. Zimmerwald 102 

28. The Berne-e Oberland 102 

Plan of Excursion. Conveyances, etc 102 

a. From Bern to Thun '. 103 

1. From Munsingen to the Belpberg 104 

2. Environs of Thun 105 

3. From Thun to Freiburg 105 

b. The Niesen 105 

«•. From Thun to Interlaken. Lake of Thun . . . 107 

1. Sigriswyl 108 

d. Interlaken and its Environs 109 

1. Longer Excursions from Interlaken 113 

e. From Interlaken to Lauterbrunnen. Staubbach . . 114 
1. From Zweiliitschinen to Eisenfluh and Miirren . . . 115 

f. Upper Valley of Lauterbrunnen. Miirren. Fall of the 
Schmadribach 116 

1. Schilthorn .• 117 

2. From Miirren to the Upper Steinberg (direct) . . . 118 

3. From Lauterbrunnen over the Sefinenfurke to the Kien- 

thal, and over the Diindengrat to Kandersteg . . . . 118 

4. From Lauterbrunnen to the Eggischhorn by the Lauinen- 

thor, Roththal Sattel, and Ebnefluh Joch 119 

g. From Lauterbrunnen to Grindelwald. Wengernalp. 
Jungfrau 119 



x CONTENTS. 

Koute Page 

1. A«ent of the Jungfrau . . . . 120 

2. Lauberhorn. Tschuggen • 121 

3. The Guggi Hut .... 121 

4. From Grindelwald to the Zascnberg over the Eismeer 

(Mer de Glace) 123 

5. The Mettenberg 123 

6. The Mannlichen 123 

7. From Grindelwald to the Grimsel Hospice over the 
Strahlegg, the Finsteraarjoch, or the Lauteraarjoch . . 123 

8. Passes from Grindelwald to the Eggischhorn .... 124 
h. The Faulhorn 124 

1. Rothihorn. Schwarzhorn 126 

i. From Grindelwald to Meiringen. Baths of Kosenlaui. 

Falls of the Reichenbach 127 

1. The Wetterhorn 127 

2. The Rosenlaui Glacier 128 

k. From Meiringen to Interlaken. Rothhorn. Lake of 

Brienz 130 

1. From Brienz to Interlaken by the N. Bank of the lake . 131 

1. The Giessbach 131 

1. From the Giessbach to the Faulhorn 132 

2. Footpath from the Giessbach to Interlaken on the S. Bank 

of the lake 132 

29. From Meiringen to Engelberg. Jochpass 133 

1. From the Engstlen Alp to the Titlis 134 

2. From the Engstlen Alp to the Gadmenthal over the Satteli 134 

3. From the Engstlen Alp to the Melchthal 134 

30. From Meiringen to Wasen. Susten Pass .... 135 

1. Triftthal. Excursions and passes from the Trift Glacier 135 

2. From the Steinalp over the Sustenlimmi to the Ge- 
schenen Alp 136 

31. From Meiringen to the Rhone Glacier. Grimsel . . 137 

1. The Finstere Schlauche 137 

2. The Urbach Valley ... 137 

3. The Finster-Aarhorn 139 

4. The Aare Glaciers 139 

5. The Little Sidelhorn 140 

6. The Ewig-Schneehorn 140 

7. From the Grimsel to Viesch over the Oberaarjoch , the 
Studerjoeh, or the Unter-Aar Glacier ... . . 140 

32. From the Rhone Glacier to Andermatt. The Furca . 141 

1. Furcahorn. Galenstock. From the Furca across the 
Rhone Glacier to the Grimsel Hospice direct .... 142 

2. The Tiefengletscher. Tiefensattel and Winterliicke . . 143 

3. From Realp to the Val Bcdrctto by the Cavanna Pass . 143 

33. From the Rhone Glacier to Vispach. Eggischhorn . . 144 

1. The Gerenthal. Pizzo Rotondo 144 

2. From Obcrgestelcn to Airolo by the Uufeiicn Pass . . 144 

3. The Loll'clhorn 145 

4. From Viesch to Andermatten by the Albrun-Pass . . 145 

5. From Viesch to Iselle by the Passo del Boccareccio (Ritter 
Pass) 145 

6. From Viesch to Premia by the Kriegalp or Geisspfad Pass 146 

7. The Eggischhorn 146 

8. Glacier - passes from the Eggischhorn to Grindelwald, 
Lauterbrunnen, and the Grimsel I47 

9. From the Eggischhorn by the Lbtschenlucke or the Beich- 

grat to the Lotschenthal j^Y 



CONTENTS . xi 

Route Page 

34. From L'lrichon to Domo d'Ossola. Giries Pass. Falls of 

the Tosa. Val Formazza 147 

1. From the Falls of the Tosa to Airolo by the S. Giacomo 

Pass 148 

2. Piz Basodine 148 

3. From the Formazza Valley to the Val Maggia over the 
Criner Furca 149 

35. From (Thun) Spiez to Leuk and Susten over the Gemmi 150 

1. From Muhlenen to jEschi and Interlaken 150 

2. From Frutigen to Lenk by Adelboden and the Hahnen- 
moos 151 

3. From Kandersteg to the Oeschinen-Thal 151 

4. From Kandersteg to Lauterbrunnen by the Tschingel 

p asg ^52 

5. Tlie Balmhorn. Altels . . ........ 152 

6. Excursions from Leuk. Torrenthorn. Galmhorn, etc. . 154 

7. From Inden to Sierre 155 

36. From Thun to Sion by the Rawyl 155 

1. The Source of the Simme 156 

2. From Lenk to Gsteig, Saanen, and Leuk 156 

37. From Thun to Saanen by the Simmenthal .... 157 

1. From Latterbach to Matten through the Diemtiger Thai 157 

2. From Reidenbach to Bulle over the Klus, or over the 
Badermoos 158 

3. From Cresus over the Chesalle-Eck to the Lac Noir . 158 

4. From Saanen to Chateau-d'Oex 159 

38. From Saanen to Aigle over the Col de Pillon . . . 159 

1. The Lauenenthal 159 

2. From Saanen to Sion by the Sanetsch 159 

3. Excursions from Les Plans 160 

4. The Oldenhorn . 160 

5. From Ormont-dessus to Villard, or Gryon. by the Pas de 

la Croix '..... 160 

6. Excursions from Le Sepey 161 

39. From Bulle to Chateau d'Oex 161 

1. From Bulle or Albeuve to the Moleson 161 

2. From Montbovon over the Jaman to Montreux or Vevey 162 

3. From Chateau d'Oex to Aigle 163 

40. From Bern to Lausanne (Vevey) 164 

1. From Flamatt to Laupen 164 

2. From Freiburg to Payerne and Yverdon 166 

3. From Romont to Bulle 167 

4. From Chexbres to Vevey 168 

41. From Lausanne to Lyss via Payerne 168 

1. From Morat to Neuchatel 170 

2. From Aarberg to Bern 170 

42. Neuchatel and the Chaumont 170 

43. From Neuchatel to Le Locle by La Chaux-de-Fonds, and 

by St. Inner to Bienne 172 

1. From Neuchatel to Chaux-de-Fonds by the Col des Loges 173 

2. Roche Fendue. Saut du Doubs 174 

3. From Le Locle to Neuchatel by Les Ponts .... 174 

44. From Neuchatel to Pontarlier through the Val de Travers 175 

45. From Neuchatel to Lausanne and Geneva. Lake of 
Neuchatel 177 

1. From Yverdon to the Chasseron 178 

2. Creux du Vent 178 



xii CONTENTS. 

Route Pa S e 
3. From Rolle to Orbe by the Col de Marcheiruz and the 

Lac de Joux ' • *<*' 

46. From Cossonay to Vallorbe. Lac de Joux. Dent de 
Vaulion 181 

1. From Romainmotier to Le Pont by Vaulion .... 181 

47. Geneva 1*2 

48. Environs of Geneva. Fernex. Saleve. The Voirons . 191 

49. From Geneva to Martigny by Lausanne and Villeneuve. 
Lake of Geneva (Northern Bank) 193 

1. Divonne 19° 

2. The Dole 19G 

3. The Signal de Bougy 1% 

4. From Lausanne to the Signal and the Grandes Roches . 199 

5. Hauteville and Blonay 200 

6. Excursions from Montreux 203 

7. From Aigle to the Ormonts 200 

8. From Aigle to Villard. Ascent of the Chamossaire . . 205 

9. From Aigle to Corbevrier 206 

10. The Baths of Lavey .' 207 

11. From Martigny or Sembrancher to the Pierre-a-Voir . . 209 

50. From Geneva to St. Maurice by Bouveret. Lake of 
Geneva (Southern Bank) 209 

1. From Thonon to Samoens. Dranse Valley .... 210 

2. From St. Gingolph to the Blanchard and Port Valais . . 211 

3. Val d'llliez, and ascent of the Dent du Midi. From 
Chamnery to Samoens and Sixt 213 

51. From Geneva by Culoz and Aix-les-Bains to Chambe'ry, 
returning by Annecy 213 

1. Perte du Rhone 214 

2. Lac du Bourget. Haute-Combe 214 

3. From Aix-les-Bains to Annecy 215 

4. From Ugine to Sallanehes or the Baths of St. Gervais . 217 

52. From Geneva to Chamouny 218 

1. From St. Gervais over the Col de la Forclaz to Les 

Houches 220 

53. Chamouny and its Environs 221 

1. From Chamouny to Courmayeur over the Col du Geant, 

Col Dolent, Col d'Argentiere, etc 228 

2. From Chamounv to Sixt by the Col du Brevent and the 

Col d'Anterne . * 228 

3. From Chamouny to Sixt by Argentiere and Mont Buet . 229 

54. From Chamouny to Martigny over the Tete-Noire, or 

to Vernayaz by Triquent and Salvan 229 

1. Cascade du Dailly 232 

55. From Martigny to Chamouny. Col de Balme . . . '232 
5(>. Tour du Montblanc. From Chamouny to Aosta by the 

Col du Bonhomme and the Col de la Seigne . . . 234 

1. Col da Mont Tondu. Col de Trelatete. Col de Berenger 230 

2. From Chapiu to PrtS-St. Didier over the Little St. Bernard 237 

3. Ascent of the Mont de Saxe near Courmayeur. Ciamont 238 

4. From Courmayeur to Martigny by the Ferret Valley and 

the Col de Ferret Q3g 

5. From Pre-St. Didier !u Uuui-g-St. Maurice by the Little 

St. Bernard . . . 039 



CONTENTS. xiii 

Route Page 

57. From Martigny to Aosta. Great St. Bernard . . 240 

1. Gorges du Durnant 241 

2. Excursion in the Valsorey Valley. Col des Maisons 
Blanches, Col de Sonadon, Col de Valsorey .... 242 

3. Ascent of the Mont Velan and the Grand Combin . . 242 

4. From the Hospice of the Great St. Bernard to Martigny 

by the Ferret Valley 245 

5. From St. Remy to Courmayeur by the Col de la Serena 245 

6. Becca di Nona. Mont Emilius 247 

7. From Aosta to Zermatt by the Col de Valpelline . . . 247 

58. The Graian Alps. From Aosta to Cogne, the Val Sava- 
ranche (Ceresole), Notre Dame de Rhemes, and Val Gri- 
sanche 247 

a. From Aosta to Cogne through the Val de Cogue . 248 

1. From Aosta to Cogne over the Col de Garin .... 248 

2. Excursions from Cogne. Pointe de Pousset. Grivola. 
Valnontey 249 

3. From Cogne to Bard over the Fenetre de Cogne . . . 249 

4. From Cogne to Ponte in the Val Oreo over the Col della 
Nouva, or the Col di Reale 249 

b. From Cogue to Valsavaranche over the Col de Lauzon 250 

5. Col de L'Herbetet. Col de Mesonclcs 250 

c. From Valsavaranche to Notre Dame de Rhemes over 

the Col d'Entrelavi 250 

6. Col de Gailletta. Col du Rossct. Col du Sort ... 251 

d. From Notre Dame de Rhemes to Val Grisanchc and 

Liverogne 251 

7. The Ruitor. Col du Mont 251 

e. From Villeneuve over the Col de la Croix de Nivolet 

to Ceresole and Ponte in the Val Locana . . . 252 

8. From Ceresole to Tignes over the Col de Galese . . 252 

59. From Martigny to Aosta over the Col de Fenetre. Val 

de Bagne 253 

1. Col du Cret. Col de Cleuson. Col de Louvie . . . 253 

2. Col de Sonadon. Col des Maisons Blanches .... 254 

3. Cols de Crete Seche, d'Otemma, and de la Reuse d' Arolla 255 

4. Cols de Cheillon, de Brenev, and de la Serpentine . . 255 

60. From Bex to Sion. Col de Che'ville 254 

1. From Bex to Freniere and Les Plans 254 

61. The S. Valleys of the Valais between Sion and Turt- 
man (Val d'Herens , Val d'Anniviers , and Turtman 

Valley) 257 

a. From Sion through the Val d'He'rens to Evolena, and 

over the Col de Torrent into the Val d'Anniviers . 257 

1. Val d'Heremence 258 

2. Pic d'Arzinol. Col de la Meina 259 

3. Excursions from Arolla. Lac Bleu. Mont Colon. L'Eveque. 
Pigne d'Arolla. Dents de Veisivi 259 

4. From Arolla to Prarayen over the Col de Colon . . . 259 

5. From Arolla to Liappev (Col de Riedmatten, Pas de 
Chevres) 260 

6. From Arolla to the Val de Bagne over the Cols de Cher- 
montane, de TEveque, de Cheillon, and du Mont Rouge 260 

7. From Arolla to Zermatt by the Col de Bertol, or the Col 

du Mont Brule 260 



xiv CONTENTS. 

Route Page 

8. Ferpecle. The Alp Bricolla 261 

9. From Ferpecle to Zinal by the Col du Grand Cornier . 261 

10. From Ferpecle to Zermatt by the Col d'Herens . • ■ 261 

11. From Ferpecle to Prarayen by the Col des Bouquetins . 261 

12. Ascent of the Dent Blanche and Grand Cornier . • • 261 

13. Sasseneire. Pas de Lona. Bees de Bosson .... 262 

14. Col de Sore Bois 262 

b. From Sierre through the Val d'Anniviers to Zinal . 262 

1. From Sierre to St. Luc. Illhorn 263 

2. Alp TAllee. Alp Arpitetta. Le Mountet. Roc Noir . . 203 

3. Pointe d'Arpitetta. Besso. Pigne de TAllee. Bouquetin. 
Diablons. Grand Cornier. Rothhorn 203, 264 

4. From Zinal to Evolena by the Col de TAllee and Col 

du Zate 264 

5. From Zinal to Zermatt by the Triftjoch, or the Col Durand 264 

6. Morning Pass. Schallen Joch 264 

c. St. Luc. Bella Tola. By the Pas du Bceuf, or the 
Meiden Pass, into the Turtman Valley, and over the 
Augstbord Pass to the Valley of the Visp .... 264 

1. From Turtman to Gruben 260 

2. From Gruben to Zinal by the Pas de la Forcletta, or the 

Col des Diablons (de Tr'acuitj 266 

6. The Schwarzhorn 266 

4. From Gruben to St. Niklaus by the Jung Pass. Barr Pass, 

Bruneck Joch, Bies Joch 266 

62. From Gampel to Kandersteg. Lotschen Pass . . . 267 

1. From Uied to Lauterbrunnen by the Wetterliicke • . 267 

2. From Ried to Lauterbrunnen by the Peters fir Liitschen- 

thal Grat 267 

3. From Ried to Susten over the Resti-Pass 267 

63. From Martigny to Arona on the Lago Maggiore by the 
Simplon 268 

1. From Riddes to Chable by the Col d'Etablon .... 269 

2. Bellalp. Sparrenhorn. Route over the Beichgrat into the 
Lotschenthal 273 

3. From Gondo to Saas over the Zwischbergen Pass . 275 

4. From the Antrona Valley to Zermeigeren by the Saas Pass 276 

64. From Vogogna to Yispach. Monte Moro 277 

1. Pizzo Bianco 279 

2. From Macugnaga to Zermatt by the Weissthor . . . 279 

3. Stellihorn. From the Mattmarkalp to Zermatt. Weissthor. 
Adler Pass. Allalin Pass 280 

4. Fee. Trift Alp. Alphubeljoch. Gassenried Pass ... 281 

5. From Saas to the Simplon Hospice. Mattwaldhorn . . 282 

65. From Vispach to Zermatt , and over the Col de St. 
Theodule to Aosta 283 

66. Zermatt and its Environs. Riffelberg and Gorner Grat 286 

1. Glacier-excursions from the Riffel. Col de St. Theodule. 
Breithorn. Cima di Ja'/.i. Monte Rosa 289 

2. High glacier passes from the Riffel to Italy .... 290 

3. Excursions from Zermatt. Findelen and Corner Glaciers, 
liothhorn. Schwarzsee. lliirnli. Stafl'el Alp. Mettelhorn 291 

67. From Macugnaga to Zermatt round Monte Rosa . . 292 

68. The Canton of Appenzell. Heiden , Gais , Weissbad, 
Wildkmhli, Hoher Hasten, Sentis 'M.lfi 

1. Tin' Chapel uf St. Antimi. Kaieu. Galiris . . - M1 



CONTENTS. xv 

Route Page 

2. From Gais to Altstatten in the Valley Of the Rhine over 

the Stoss 298 

3. From the Weissbad to the Rhine Valley over the Hohe 
Kasten 299 

4. From the Weissbad to Wildhaus in the Toggenburg . . 300 
5.' From Appenzell to St. Gallen. Frolichsegg. Voglisegg. 

Freudenberg 301 

69. From Rorschach to Coire 302 

1. St. Luziensteig 303 

70. Ragatz and Pfaffers 304 

1. Excursions from Ragatz. Guschenkopf. Wartenstein. 

Piz Alun. Valens, etc 307 

2. From Ragatz to Reichenau by the Kunkels Pass . . . 307 

71. Coire (Chur) 308 

1. Mittenberg. Spontiskopfe. Calanda 310 

72. From Wyl through the Toggenburg to Haag in the 
Valley of the Rhine 310 

1. From Nesslau to Urnasch by the Kratzern Pass . . . 311 

73. From Wesen to the Baths of Stachelberg. Glarus . . 312 

1. The Rautispitz. Obersee. Hochscheven 313 

2. The Schild. Saasberg. Karpfstock " 313, 314 

3. Pantenbriicke. The Upper Sandalp. Tbdi .... 315 

4. From the Baths of Stachelberg to Ilanz by the Kistenpass 310 

74. From the Baths of Stachelberg to Altorf. Klausen . 316 

75. The Maderaner Thai 318 

1. Hiifl Glacier. Diissistock. Oberalpstock, etc. . . 318, 319 

2. From the Maderaner Thai to Stachelberg by the Cla- 
riden Pass 319 

3. Scheerjoch. Ruchen Pass. Brunni Pass. Kreuzli Pass. 319 

76. From Wadenswyl , Richterswyl, or Rapperschwyl to 
Einsiedeln 320 

1. Hoch-Etzel. Schonboden 320 

77. From Einsiedeln to Schwyz and Brnnnen .... 323 

1. From Einsiedeln to Schwvz by Iberg . . . . . . 323 

2. Morgarten 323 

78. From Schwyz to Glarus by the Pragel 324 

1. From Muottathal to Altorf by the Kinzig Pass . . . 325 

2. The Glarnisch 326 

79. From Glarus to Coire through the Sernf-Thal . . . 326 

1. From Elm to Flims over the Segnes Pass 327 

2. From Elm to Ilanz over the Panixer Pass, or the Sether 
Furke 327 

3. From Elm to Weisstannen by the Foo or Ram in Pass . 328 

4. From Elm to Vattis over the Sardona Pass, the Scheibe 

Pass, or the Muttenthaler Grat 328 

5. From Elm to Stachelberg over the Richetli Pass . . 328 

80. From Coire to Andermatt. Oberalp 328 

1. From Versam to Spliigen by the Liichli Pass .... 328 

2. Piz Mundaun 330 

3. Lugnetz Valley. Passes to Hinter - Rhein and the Val 
Blegno 330 

4. Val Puntaiglas 331 

5. The Somvixer Thai or Val Tenji 331 

6. Piz Muraun 332 

7. From Dissentis over the Sandalp Pass to Stachelberg . 333 

8. From Sedrun over the Kreuzli Pass or the Brunni Pass to 
Amsteg 333 



xvi CONTENTS. 

Koute Page 

9. Piz Pazzola . 333 

10. Source of the Vorder-Rhein. Pi/. Nurschallas • • 334 

81. From Dissentis to Bellinzona. Lukmanier .... 3o5 

1. From Perdatsch to the Val Cristallina 335 

2. The Scopi. Piz Rondadura 33 ° 

82. From Landquart to Schuls over the Fluela Pass. Frat- 
tigau 337 

1. Seewis. Valzeina. The Baths of Fideris and Serneus . 338 

2. From Klosters to Lavin and Siis in the Engadine by the 
Vereina Pass, the Vernela Pass, or the Silvretta Pass . 339 

3. Ascent of the Schwarzhorn (Fluela Pass) 340 

83. From Davos to Tiefenkasten 341 

1. Excursions from Davos-Dorfli 341 

2. From Davos to Scanfs in the Engadine by the Scaletta Pass 341 

3. From Davos to Bergiin by the Sertig Pass 341 

4. From Davos ,to Coire by the Strela Pass 342 

84. From Coire to Ponte (and Samnden) in the Engadine 

by the Albula Pass 343 

1. The Piz St. Michel 344 

85. From Coire to Samaden by the Julier 345 

1. The Stsetzer Horn 346 

2. From Lenz to Thusis by the old Schyn Pass .... 346 

3. From Stalla to the Val Bregaglia by the Septimer . . 347 

86. The Upper Engadine from the Maloja to Samaden. Pont- 
resina and its Environs. Piz Languard 34fl 

1. Lake of Cavloccio. Forno Glacier. Fall of the Ordlegna 350 

2. From the Maloja over the Muretto Pass to Chiesa and Sondrio 350 

3. From Sils-Maria to the Fex Glacier 351 

4. From Silvaplana over the Fuorcla da Surlej to Pontresina 352 

5. Mountain excursions from St. Moritz. Piz Nair . . . 353 

6. Muottas Murail. Piz Ot 354 

7. Excursions from Pontresina 355-59 

87. From Samaden to Nauders. Lower Engadine . . . 360 

1. Muot Miisellas. Piz Uertsch. Piz Kesch. Piz Mezzem . 360 

2. From Ponte to Livigno by the Lavirum Pass .... 360 

3. Piz Griatschouls 361 

4. From Scanfs to Livigno by the Casanna Valley . . . 361 

5. From Zernetz to the Munsterthal by the Ofener Pass . 361 

6. Piz Mezdi. Piz Linard . . . .' 362 

7. From Ardetz to Schuls via Fettan 362 

8. Footpath from Ardetz to Vulpera 362 

9. Val Tasna. Futschol Pass. Piz C'otschen 363 

10. Excursions from Tarasp. Scbloss Tarasp. Avrona. 
Schwarz-See 364 

11. Excursions from Schuls. Muntta Kaluns. Piz Oluna. 

Piz Chiampatscli. Piz Lischan ■ 364 

12. From Schuls to St. Maria by the Scarl-Thal .... 364 

88. From Samaden to Tirano by the Bernina, and to Colieo 

by the Valtellina 366 

1. Val del Fain. By the I'asno Fieno to Livigno . . . 366 

2. Footpath from the Bernina Inn to Poschiavo .... 366 

3. Piz Campaccio. Piz Lagalp 367 

4. Val Agone. By the Forcola to Livigno 367 

5. From the Bernina to Bormio by Val Viola .... 367 

6. Pizzo Sassalbo 368 

7. From Tirano to Colieo through the Val Tellina ... 369 

8. Val Malenco 369 



CONTENTS. xvii 

Route Page 

89. From Tirano to Nauders by the Stelvio 369 

1. From Bormio to S. Caterina in the Val Furva. Monte 
Confinale 371 

2. From Bormio to Livigno by the Foscagno Pass . . . 371 

3. From St. Maria (on the Stelvio-route) to St. Maria in the 
Miinsterthal by the Wormser Joch (Umbrail Pass) . . 372 

4. Piz Umbrail 372 

5. The Three Holy Springs 373 

6. The Suldenthal. Ascent of the Ortler 373 

7. From Prad to St. Maria (Miinsterthal) via Tauffers . . 374 

90. From Nauders to Bregenz by Landeck and Feldlriroh. 
Finstermiinz. Arlberg 375 

1. Liiner See. Scesaplana 377 

2. The Montavon. Over the Vermont Pass to Guarda . . 378 

3. From Feldkirch to Buchs 379 

' 4. The Gebhardsberg and Pfander 380 

5. Bregenzer Wald. Schrocken 380 

91. From Coire to Splugen. Via Mala 381 

1. From Thusis to Tiefenkasten by the new Schyn Road . 383 

2. Lake of Liisch 384 

3. Piz Beverin. Piz Curver - . 385 

4. From Andeer to Stalla by the Valetta Pass .... 3S5 

5. From Caniciil to Pianazzo by the Madesimo Pass . . 386 

92. From Splugen to the Lake of Como 387 

93. From Chiavenna to Samaden. Maloja 389 

1. From Castasegna to Soglio 390 

2. The Bondasca Glacier 390 

3. The Albigna Valley. Piz Duan 391 

94. From Splugen to Bellinzona. Bernardino .... 391 

1. Source of the Hinter-Rhein 391 

2. Val Calanca 393 

95. From Bellinzona to Lugano and Como (Milan) . . . 394 

1. Monte Camoghe. Monte Cenere 394 

2. Monte S. Salvatore 39G 

3. Monte Bre. Monte Caprino 397 

4. Monte Generoso 397 

96. From Bellinzona to Locarno (Magadino) 398 

1. From Locarno to Domo d'Ossola by the valleys of Cento- 

valli and Vigezzo , 399 

2. From Locarno to Airolo by the Val Maggia. Val Bavona 399 

97. Lago Maggiore. The Borromean Islands 400 

1. Railway from Arona to Milan 405 

98. From Stresa to Varallo. Monte Motterone. Lake of Orta 405 

1. The Sacro Monte near Orta 406 

2. The Sacro Monte near Varallo 407 

3. From Varallo by Fobello to Ponte Grande. Col di Baranca 408 

4. From Varallo through the Val Sesia to Alagna. Val 
Sermenza 408 

99. From Luino on Lago Maggiore to Menaggio on the 
Lake of Como. Lake of Lugano ....... 408 

1. The Grotto of Osteno 403 

100. The Lake of Como 410 

1. The Lake of Lecco 415 

2. From Lecco to Lecco and Bergamo 410 

3. By land from Como to Bellagio via Erba 410 

Baedekeu, Switzerland. 7th Edition. fc 



xviii MAI'S AND PANORAMAS. 

Route v r *Sg 

101. From Como to Milan -flo 

Index 



421 



Maps and Panoramas. 

1. General Mai- of Switzerland: before the Title-page. 

°. Man of the District between Schaffhausen and Constancy : RE. 9, 

11, 12, 14, 15; between pp. 22, 23. 
3 Map of the Lakk of Constance: RR. 10, 14, 15, 68, 69; between pp. 

24, 25. 

4. Jlap of the Lake of Zurich : RR. 13, 14, 16, 17, 21, 76; between 
rP . 42, 43. 

5. Panorama from the Rigi Ki'ui : between pp. 66, 67. 

6. Map of the Lake of Lucerne: KR. 6, 17-24; between pp. 54, 55. 

7. Map of the Rigi : RR. 19, 20, 21 -, between pp. 62, 63. 

8. Map of the Environs of the St. Gotthakd : RR. 24, 25, 29, 30, 31. 
32, 75, 80, 81 ; between pp. 84, 85. 

9. View of the Alps from Been : between pp. 98, 99. 

10. Map of the Bernese Obekland: RR. 28, 35; between pp. 102, 103. 

11. Panorama from the Faulhorn: between pp. 124, 125. 

12. Map of the Upper Valais : RR. 33, 34, 63, 65 ; between pp. 144, 145. 

13. Panorama from the Eggischhorn : between pp. 146, 147. 

14. Map of the Lower Valley of the Rhone, from the Lake of Geneva 
to the Lotschen-Thal : RR. 35, 36, 38, 39, 49, 50, and 60-63 ; between 
pp. 152, 153. 

15. Map of the Lake of Geneva: RR. 38, 39, 40, 45, 47, 48, 49, 50: 
between pp. 194, 195. 

16. Map of the Valley of Ohamouny : RR. 52-56; between pp. 220, 221. 

17. Panorama from the Flegere : between pp. 224, 225. 

18. Map of the Environs of the Great St. Bernard, from Martigny to 
Aosta: RR. 57, 59, 61a, 63, 65; between pp. 240, 241. 

19. Map of the Environs of Monte Rosa : RR. 61, 63-67 ; between pp. 
286, 287. 

20. Panorama from the Corner Grat : between pp. 288, 289. 

21. Map of the Canton of Apfenzell: RR. 15, 16, 68, 69, 72, 90; between 
pp. 296, 297. 

22. Map of the Environs of Ragatz. the Pkattigau and Montavon: RK. 
69, 70. 90; between pp. 304, 305. 

23. Map of Claris : RR. 73, 74, 78, 79; between pp. 312, 313. 

24. Map of the Voeder-Rheinthal : RR. 80, 81, 85, 91, 94; between pp. 
328, 329. 

25. .Map of the Upper Engadine and Bernina : RR. 85. 86, 88; between 
pp. 350, 351. 

2li. Panorama from the Piz Languard: between pp. 356, 357. 

27. Jlap of the Lower Engadink : RR, 82-85. 87, 89; between pp. 360 361. 

28. Map of the District from the Li kmaniee to the Maloja : RR. 25, 81, 
85. 92-94 ; between pp. 384, 385. 

29. .Map of the Lago Maggiore : Kit. 63, 96-99; between pp. 400, 401. 

30. Jlap of the Lakes of Como and Lugano: RR. 94-96, 99, 100; between 
pp. 410, 411. 

31. Key Map of Switzerland : after the Index. 



Flans of Towns: Hale, Hern, Constance, Geneva, I.nterlaken, Lausanne, 
Lloekne, Milan, Ragatz, Zurich. 



I. Plan of Excursion. 

Season of the Year. Companions. Distribution of Time. 

The traveller will effect a considerable saving of money and time 
by preparing his plan for a touT before leaving home. With the aid 
of the following pages it will be easy to determine precisely the 
number of days an excursion will occupy, the most convenient 
resting places, and in fact how each hour may be disposed of to 
the best advantage, provided always the elements favour the travel- 
ler. The latter contingency is unfortunately not always to be relied 
upon , for in no country is the weather more capricious than in 
Switzerland , and rain is particularly annoying on a tour where 
large towns with their in-door attractions are rare. 

Season. The most favourable time for a tour in Switzerland 
is from the middle of July to the middle of September, and for 
expeditions among the higher Alps the month of August. 

Even in summer snow occasionally falls among the higher 
regions, rendering the mountain-paths impassable ; but this is an 
exceptional occurrence. In ordinary seasons the snow disappears 
from the Rigi and the route through the Bernese Oberland at the 
beginning of June, but not till later from the Furca, the Grimsel, 
and the Gremmi, where it sometimes lies throughout the season. 

Companions. A party of two can be accommodated in a one- 
horse carriage or in the same room at a hotel , whilst a third 
would often be found 'de trop'. The more the number is ex- 
tended, as a general rule, the greater is the inconvenience, as well 
as the certainty that many of the true objects of travel will be 
sacrificed. The single traveller who has attained some pro- 
ficiency in the language of the country will most speediiy become 
acquainted with the people, their characteristics, and their scenery, 
as he is necessarily compelled to seek such society as the occa- 
sion affords. 

Distribution of Time. One Month, as the annexed plan shows, 
will suffice for a glimpse at the most interesting parts of Switzer- 
land. Bale, where the scenery is least interesting, is taken as a 
starting-point, but the traveller may find it more convenient to be- 
gin with Geneva or Neuchatel. 

By railway from B&le (E. 9) in 3 hrs. to Neuhuusen (R. 11), visit the 
Falls of the Rhine, and proceed by railway from Dachsen to Zurich 
in 2 hrs 1 

b* 



xx 1. PLAN OK EXCURSION. 

Days 

Ziirich and the Uelliberg (R. 13) • * 

From Zurich by railway to Zug in l'/« hr. ; by steamboat to Arth in 
50 min. ; by railway to the Rigi-Kulm in 1 hr. 40 min. (RR. 17, 

20, 21) .'..." ,..■ l 

From the Rigi by railway to Virnau in l 1 ( hr. (or on foot to W'aggis 
in 2 hrs.); by steamboat to Lucerne in ' ■• hr., and one day of rest 

at Lucerne (RR. 20, 19, 18) 1 

(Or : By railway from the Rigi-Kulm to the Rigi-Scheideck in 1 hr. ; 
walk down to Gersau in I 1 2 hr. ; by steamboat to Tell's Platte 

3 ,4 hr., walk to Fliielen »( hr.) (1) 

By steamer on the Lake of Lucerne in 2 3 ,4 hrs. to Fliielen, drive in 
'2 hrs. to Amsteg, walk in 5 hrs. to Andermatt by the St. Gotthard 
route, in 6 hrs. to Hospenthal, or 71/2 hrs. to Realp (RR. 19, 25, 32) 1 
By diligence over the Furca to the Glacier of the Rhone, walk over 
the JUaienwand and the Grimsel to the Hospice (R. 32) ; from Ander- 
matt to the Hospice 7 hrs 1 

Walk down the Haslithal (Fall of the Aare at the Handeck) to Meir- 

ingen in 6 hrs. from the Hospice (R. 31) 1 

Walk from Meiringen (Falls of the Reichenbach) through the Ber- 
nese Oberland, by the Scheideck, to [the Faulhom (R. 28, h, i) . . 1 
Descend the Faulhom to] Grindelwald ; from Meiringen to the Scheid- 
eck 5'/2, thence to Grindelwald 272 hrs. (from the Scheideck to the 
Faulhorn 4, descent from the Faulhom to Grindelwald 3 hrs.); 

Glaciers of Grindelwald (R. 28, g) 1 

Walk from Grindelwald over the Wengern Alp in 6'/« hrs. to Lauter- 
brunnen (Staubbach), and drive thence to Interlaken in l'/2 hr. 

(R. 28, f, e) 1 

(Or remain at Lauterbrunnen , and visit Miirren and the Schmadri 

Fall next day, R. 28, f) (1) 

Morning at Interlaken ; by steamer in 1 hr. to the Giessbach 

(R. 28, d, 1) - . . . . 1 

Next morning return to Interlaken by steamer in 1 hr. ; railway in 
10 min. to Ddrligen; thence by steamer in 1 hr. to Thun (R. 28, c), 
drive in 1 hr. to Wimmis (pedestrians leave the steamer at Spiez 
and walk in l'/4 hr. to Wimmis) ; walk or ride in 5 hrs. to the 

summit of the Niesen (R. 2S, b) 1 

Descend from the Niesen to Frutigen in 3>/4 hrs. ; drive thence in 

l 3 /4, or walk in 2y 2 hrs. to Kandersteg (R. 35) 1 

Walk from Kandersteg in 7 hrs. over the Gemmi to the Baths of 

Leuk (R. 35) 1 

Walk to Susien in 2'/z hrs. (R. 35), drive in 2 hrs. to Vispach 

(R, 63), walk to St. Nicolaus in 43/ 4 hrs. (R. 65) 1 

Walk to the Riffel in 8 hrs. (R. 66) 1 

Walk from the Riffel Inn to the Gorner Grat and back 3 hrs. ; in 

the evening to Zermatt 2 hrs. (R. 66) 1 

Return on foot to Vispach in 8 hrs. (R. 65) 1 

By diligence in 3'/2 hrs. to Sierre, thence by railway in l'/i hr. to 

Martigny (R. 63) 1 

Walk to Chatnoinni over the Col de Balme or the Tele Noire in 9 hrs. 

(RR. 54, 50) 1 

Cliamouny (R. 53) 1 

By diligence to Genera in 6' •_• hrs. (R. 52) 1 

Geneva and its Environs (RR. 47, 48) 1 

By steamer on the Lake of Geneva in 3 hrs. to Lausanne, a few hours 
at Lausanne, and in the evening by last steamer in l'/ 2 hr. to 

Villriteiire IR. 49) 1 

Walk to Cliillon, .Wontrrv.r, Harem, Verey (R. 49), 3 hrs.; but by 
halting at the various points of attraction a whole day may be 

spent 1 

By uliligencc and) railway from Verey to Freiburg in 41 .'■> hrs. (R. 40) 1 

liv railway to Bern in 1 hr. (R. 40) ... j 

By railway to Ikile in 4 hrs. IR. 5); /idle (R. 1) . . . . . 1 



I. PLAN OF EXCURSION. xxi 

Should the traveller have a few days more at command, they 

may be pleasantly spent in Eastern Switzerland (Appenzell , Bad 

Pfaffers, Via Mala, Upper Engadine), whence the Italian Lakes 

are conveniently visited. Rorschach (p. 39) and Zurich are good 

starting-points (comp. R. 16). 

Days 

By railway from Rorschach to Heiden , walk over the Kaien to 
Frogen, and over the Gdbris to Gais, in all 6 hrs. (R. 68) ... 1 

Walk from Gais to Weissbad, the Wildkirchli, and the Ebenalp ; re- 
turn to Weissbad, thence to Appenzell, 6 hrs. (R. 68) 1 

Walk from Appenzell to Gais , and over the Stoss to Altstatten in 
the Valley of the Rhine in 5 hrs. (R. 68), by train in lVa hr. to 
Ragatz (R. 69) 1 

Pfaffers and Coire (RR. 70, 71) 1 

By diligence in 3 hrs. to Thusis, walk through the Via Mala as far 
as the third bridge over the Rhine, and return to Thusis in 
3 hrs. (R. 91), walk in 4 hrs. by the Schyn Road to Tiefenkasten 
(R. 91) 1 

By diligence in 6'/3 hrs. over the Julier to Silvaplana (R. 85) , and 
in 40 min. to St. Moritz ; walk in l'/a hr. to Pontresina (R. 86) 1 

Ascend the Piz La?) guard (R. 86) 1 

By diligence in 7 1 '3 hrs. over the Bernina to Tirano, thence by Mes- 
sagerie to Sondrio in 3 hrs. (R. 88) (or by diligence in 8', 2 hrs. 
over the Maloja to Chiavenna and Colico) 1 

Bv Messagerie to Colico in 5 hrs. (R. 88), thence by steamer to t'omo 
"in 3 hrs. (R. 100) (Train to Milan in I1/2 hr.) 1 

Return by the Lake of Como, visit Bellagio (Villa Melzi, Serbelloni, 
and Carlotta), and proceed by Menaggio and Porlezza to Lugano 
(R. 99) 1 

By diligence from Lugano in 2 hrs. to Luino (R. 99), by steamer to 
the Borromean Islands in IV2 hr., and to Arona in 1 hr. [Railway 
to Turin, Genoa (in 6 hrs.), etc., see Baedekers N. Italy] ... 1 

By omnibus in 3 hrs. to Orta on the lake of that name, by rowing- 
boat to Omegna in l'/a hr., drive or walk to Gravellona (R. 98) 
[or walk in 3 hrs. to the Sacro Monte (p. 406), and by the Monte 
Molterone (p. 405) to Stresa (p. 404), or to Baveno (p. 403)], and by 
diligence to Vomo d'Ossola (R. 63) 1 

By diligence over the Simplon to Brieg and Vispach (R. 63) ... 1 



Instead of the Bernina Pass {R. 88) , the traveller may select the 
Spliigen (RR. 91, 92), or the St. Gotthard (R. 25). The St. Gotthard is 
the most beautiful of all the Alpine passes , after which the Spliigen and 
the Simplon possess equal claims , the former being more interesting on 
the N. , the latter on the S. side. The pass of the Great St. Bernard 
(R. 57) is the least interesting, irrespective of its hospice. 

The following Mountain Tour is recommended to good walkers as one 
of the most imposing in Switzerland: From Chamouny by the Col du 
T'onhomme, the Col de la Seigne, Courmayeur, the Col de Ferret (R. 56), 
the hospice of the Great St. Bernard, Ao.«ta (R. 57), Chatillon, the Col de 
St. The'odule, Zermatt (RR. 65, 66), Saas, Monte Moro, Macugnaga (R. 64), 
Varallo , Orta, and Monte Motterone to Lago Maggiore (R. 97). The ex- 
cursion will occupy 10-11 days of 9-10 hrs. each; guides hardly necessary 
except for the Col de St. The'odule and the Monte Moro passes. 



The most celebrated Points of View, most of them easy of 
access and much frequented, are: — 

1. In the Jura (the Alps in the distance, the lower mountains of 
Switzerland to the N.E. in the foreground, and more to the E. the lakes 
of Biennc, Neuchatel, and Geneva) : Hotel Schweizerhof (pp. 21, 27) near the 



xxii IT. TRAVELLING EXPENSES. MONEY. 

Falls of the Rhine; the Wrisxeiitlein (p. 13) near Soleure ; the Frohburg 
(p. 10) near Olten ; the Chaximont (p. 172) and the Col des Loges (p. 1 to) 
in the canton of Neuchatel ; the Signal de Bougy (p. 196) and the DOle 
(p. 196) in the Canton de Vaud. 

2. Nearer the Alps, or among the Lower Alps: 

(a). On the N. side of the Alps: the Kaien (p. 297), Holte Hasten 
(p. 299) , and Sentis (p. 300) in the canton of Appenzell ; the Uetliberg 
(p. 34) and Bachtel (p. 44) near Zurich ; the Speer (p. 46) near Wesen ; 
the Rigi (p. 61), Pilatus (p. 74), Mythen (p. 73), and the Frohnalp (p. 59) 
near the Lake of Lucerne ; the Niesen (p. 105) near the Lake of Thun ; 
the Moleson [p. 161) and Jainan (p. 162) in the canton of Freiburg; the 
Hali'pe (p. 1112) in Savoy, near Geneva. 

(h) On the S. side of the Alps: Monte Generoso (p. 397) and Monte S. 
Salratore (p. 396) near the Lake of Lugano ; Monte Molterone (p. 405) 
between the lakes Maggiore and Orta ; the Becca di Nona (p. 247) near 
Aosta; the Cramont (p. 238) near Courmayeur. 

3. Among the High Alps : the Pa Languard (p. 356) and Piz 01 
(p. 354), Piz Lischan (p. 364), Schwarzhorn (p. 340), Statzerhorn (p. 346), 
and Piz Mundaun (p. 330) in the canton of the Grisons ; the Schynige 
Platte (p. 113), the Faulhorn (p. 124), the Mdnnlichen (p. 123), Miirren 
(p. 117), and the Schilthorn (p. 117) in the Bernese Oherland ; the Pizzo 
Vent rale (p. 91) on the St. Gotthard ; the Sidelhorn (p. 140), the Eggisch- 
liorn (p. 146), the Sparrenhorn (p. 273), the Torrenthorn (p. 154), the Balm- 
horn (p. 152), the Gorner Grat [238), and the Bella Tola (p. 265) in the 
Valais ; the Col de Balme (p. 233), the Flegere (p. 225), and the Brevent 
(p. 225) near Chamouny ; the Pis Umbrail (p. 372) on the Stelvio route. 



II. Travelling Expenses. Money. 

Expenses. The expense of a tour in Switzerland depends en- 
tirely upon the resources, habits, and tastes of the traveller. The 
pedestrian's daily expenditure, exclusive of guides, may be estimat- 
ed at 12-15s., if he frequents the best hotels; but a great saving 
is effected by selecting inns of more moderate pretension, and 
avoiding the expensive and tedious tables d'hote. The traveller who 
hires private conveyances, frequents the best hotels, and in moun- 
tainous districts engages the services of horses and guides, must be 
prepared to expend 30s. a day at least. 

Honey. The Swiss monetary system was assimilated to that of 
France in 1851. Coins of 5, 2, 1, and i/ 2 fr. in silver; 20, 10, 
and 5 centimes (or 'Rappen') in plated copper; 2 and 1 c. in 
copper. One franc = 100 c. = (in German money) 80 Pfennigs = 
40 Austrian kreuzers = 93/ 4 d. French gold is the most convenient 
coin , especially for N. Italy. German twenty-mark pieces are ex- 
changed in all the larger towns for 24 fr. 60-70 c. ; Prussian dollars 
realise 3 fr. 65-70 c, and German banknotes are exchanged at the 
same rate as gold. English sovereigns (25 fr.) and banknotes are 
received almost everywhere at the full value. The circular notes 
of l(l(., issued by many of the English banks, are recommended as 
a safe and convenient form for transporting large sums. 



III. Hotels and Pensions. 

Hotels. One of the great specialties of Switzerland consists of 
its hotels. The large modern establishments at Bern, Geneva, Ve- 
vey, Zurich, Lucerne, Interlaken, etc. are models of organisation ; 
the smaller inns are often equally well conducted, and indeed a 
really bad hotel is rarely met with in the French and German dis- 
tricts of Switzerland. 

The ordinary charges in the first-class hotels are : bed-room 
2 fr. and upwards, table d'hote without wine at 1 o'clock 3-4 fr.. 
at 4 o'clock or later 4-5 fr. ; breakfast (tea or coffee, bread, butter, 
and honey) l l / 2 fr- ln tne public room, 2 fr. in the traveller's 
apartment; candle 1 fr., service 1 fr. ; supper generally a la carte. 

At the second-class inns the average charges are : bed-room from 
l 1 /^ fr., breakfast 1 1/ 4 fT. , table d'hote 2 !/. 2 -3 fr. , service discre- 
tionary, and no charge for 'bougies'. At the large hotels the best 
accommodation is generally reserved for families, while the solitary 
traveller is consigned to the inferior rooms at equally high charges. 

It should be borne in mind that the estimation in which hotels 
are held varies very much with the temperament of the visitors 
themselves. Some are more exacting than others , give orders 
totally at variance with the customs of the country, and express 
great dissatisfaction if their wishes are not immediately complied 
with ; others travel with a superabundance of luggage, which is 
often apt to embitter their enjoyment; and there is also a 
numerous class whose ignorance of foreign languages causes them 
frequent embarrassment and discomfort. 

Wine is often a source of much vexation. The ordinary table wines 
are sometimes so bad that the traveller is compelled to drink those of a 
more expensive class, which is indeed the very aim and object of the 
landlord. The wisest course is to select a wine which is the growth of 
the country ; in N. and E. Switzerland the produce of Schaffhausen or 
Wintertkur is recommended, in the Grisons Valtellina (p. 303*, better 
qualities of which are Sassella, Inferno, Sforzato, Co" Bianca, etc.), in the 
Valais the wine of the canton, in the W. of Switzerland Laedte (p. 180), 
Lavaux (p. 199), Yvorne (p. 205), and Neuchdlel (p. 170). 

If a prolonged stay is made at a hotel, the bill should be demanded 
every three or four days, in order that errors, whether accidental or de- 
signed, may more easily be detected. When an early departure is contem- 
plated, the bill should be obtained over-night. It is a favourite practice 
to withhold the bill till the last moment, when the hurry and confusion 
of starting render overcharges less liable to discovery. 

Pensions. In the dull season (October to June) many hotels 
are converted into 'Pensions' or boarding-houses, in which guests 
are received by the week on terms ranging from 4 to 10 fr. per 
diem. This charge comprises bedroom, breakfast, table d'hote 
without wine, and supper (tea, bread and butter, and cold meat), 
besides which a charge of about 5 fr. per month is made for 
attendance. Pensions for the reception of visitors in summer also 
abound in the neighbourhood of Lucerne, Geneva, Interlaken, and 
many other parts of Switzerland. 



*xiv IV. PENSIONS. 

lit the favourite .Swiss Summer Resorts, with pensions ■ «™ c "' ,ne 
must attractive mav here he enumerated: — 

In NiiKTiiEKN .Switzerland: The Wehsenstein (1213'. l>. 13) near Ko- 
leure; Langenbruck (2356', p. 10) and Frenkendorf (1119', p. 9) near Lies- 
tal; the Frohburg (2772', p. 20) near Olten; the fhaumont (3815', p. 172) 
near Neuchatel; Zurich (1351', p. 29) and the I'etliberg (2864', p. 34); 
Horgen (p. 42), and other places on the Lake of Zurich (1341'): Schonfels 
and Felsenegg (3025', p. 49) near Zug ; Wesen (1394', p. 46) ; Stachelberg (2178', 
p. 314); Vorawe» (2716') and BicMsan (3510') in the Klonthal (p. 325); Hinter- 
Waggit)ml(38W, p. 44); the Heinrichsbad (2300', p. 38), nearHerisau; Wa!2e«- 
/«<«*«« (p. 40); Heiden (2645', p. 297), (Jars (3064', p. 298), and Weissbad 
12680', p. 299) in Appenzell; Wildlimis (3622', p. 312) in the Toggenlrarg. 

On the Lake of Lucerne (1434'): Lucerne (p. 51); Meggen (p. 71); Her- 
tensiein (p. 56); Waggis (p. 55); Beckenried (p. 57); TV^^cr?/ (p. 56); Gersau 
(p. 57); Brunnen (p. 58); Axenstein and Axenfels (2156', p. 58); Seelisberg 
(2772', p. 57): Biirgenstock (2854', p. 77); .Sfoss (4242', p. 59); Rigi-Xlosterli 
(4262', p. 65), Kaltbad (4728'), .Firs* (4747'), ,«<yfeJ (5210'), and Sclieideck (5407'). 
In Untekwalben : Engelberg (3341', p. 82). In Uri: The Maderaner 
Thai (4790', p. 318); Andermatt (3738', p. 89). 

In the Bernese Obf.ri.and: Bern (1765', p. 97); Thun (1844', p. 104): 
Oberho/en (p. 107), Gonten (p. 108), and Spiez (p. 108) on the Lake of Thun 
(1837 1 ); Inlerlaken (1863', p. 109); Beatenberg (3767'. p. 112); the Giessbach 
(1857', p. 131); Miirren (5348', p. 117): Grindelwald (3468', p. 121); Rosenlaui 
(4363', p. 128); Meiringen (1968', p. 129); Engstlenalp (6033', p. 133). 

On the Lake of Geneva, in the Valley of the Kiione, etc.: Geneva 
(1243', p. 182); Lausanne (p. 197): Verey (p. 199): Montreux (p. 202); ^ijric 
(1375', p. 205); Bex (1427', p. 206) ; the Ormonts (3704', p. 160) ; Chateau d'Oex 
(3498', p. 163); Bellalp (6732', p. 272); Eggischhorn (7150', p. 146); Zermatt 
(5315', p. 287) and the Riffelberg (8429', n. 287); St. Luc (5496', p. 265); 
Zinal (5505', p. 263); Evolena (4521', p. 258); Chamouny (3445', p. 221). 

In ttje Orisons: Samaden (5600', p. 354); Pontresina (5915', p. 355); 
St. Moritz (6089', p. 352); Sils-Maria (5895', p. 351); Schuls (3970', p. 3631: 
Davos (5105', p. 341); Klosters (3954'. p. 339); Seeww (2986', p. 337); Wald- 
liduser (3615'. p. 329), near Flims; Dissentis (3773', p. 332). 

On the Sulth Side ok the Alps : Lugano (932', p. 325) ; Bellagio (p. 413), 
Cadenabbia, J/enaggio, etc., on the Lake of Conio (699'); Pallanut (p. 402) 
and Stresa (p. 404), on the La go Maggiore (646'); Monte Generoso (5561', 
p. 397), near the Lake of Lugano. 

IV. Passports. 

In Switzerland and Italy, as well as in Holland, Belgium, Ger- 
many, France, and Austria, passports are now unnecessary, but as 
these documents are issued by the English Foreign Office on in- 
expensive terms , and are sometimes of service in proving the 
traveller's identity, obtaining delivery of registered letters, etc., 
it is unwise not to be provided with one. The principal pass- 
port-agents in London are: Lee and Carter, 440 West Strand; 
Dorrel and Son , 15 Charing Cross: K. Stanford, (j Charing Cross; 
W. J. Adams, 59 Fleet Street. In France the obnoxious system 
was revived in 1871, but again abolished in 1873. 

V. Walking Excursions. 

\\ alking is the most independent and in some respects the 
pleasantest mode of travelling , and in Switzerland it is to pe- 
destrians alone that some of the finest points arc accessible. 



V. WALKING EXCURSIONS. xxv 

Disposition of Time. The first golden rule for the pedestrian 
is to start on his way betimes in the morning. If strength per- 
mits, and a suitable halting-place is to be met with, a two hours' 
walk may be accomplished before breakfast. At noon a moderate 
luncheon is preferable to the regular table d'hote dinner. Re- 
pose should be taken during the hottest hours, and the journey 
then continued till 5 or 6 p. m. , when a substantial meal 
(evening table d'hote at the principal hotels) may be partaken 
of. The traveller's own feelings will best dictate the hour for 
retiring to bed. 

Luggage. The greatest drawback to the enjoyment of tra- 
velling is a superabundance of baggage. To be provided with an 
actual sufficiency and no more , may be considered the second 
golden rule for the traveller. It is impossible to over-estimate 
the comfort of being independent of that industrious fraternity 
who make a prey of the overburdened traveller. Who has not ex- 
perienced the exultation which attends the shouldering of the knap- 
sack or wielding of the carpet-bag, on quitting a steamboat or rail- 
way station ? Who in his turn has not felt the misery of that moment 
when, surrounded by his 'impedimenta', the luckless tourist is 
almost distracted by the rival claims of porters, touters, and com- 
missionnaires? A light 'gibeciere' or game-bag, such as may be 
procured in every town , amply suffices to contain all that is 
necessary for a fortnight's excursion. A change of flannel skirts 
and worsted stockings , a few pocket-handkerchiefs , a pair of 
slippers , and the necessary 'objets de toilette' may be carried 
with hardly a perceptible increase of fatigue. A piece of green 
crape or coloured spectacles to protect the eyes from the glare of 
the snow, and a leather drinking-cup will also be found useful. 
The traveller should of course have a more extensive reserve of 
clothing, especially if he proposes to visit towns of importance, but 
even these should be contained in a valise, which he can easily 
wield when necessary, and which he may forward from town to town 
by post. 

Rules. The enthusiastic traveller should curb his ardour at 
the outset of his excursion, and begin by moderate performances, 
which should rarely exceed ten hours a day. Animal spirits are 
too often in excess of powers of endurance, and if the strength be 
overtaxed on a single occasion the traveller will sometimes be in- 
capacitated altogether for several days. Discrimination is often 
requisite to determine what degree of fatigue can be borne with 
impunity, and when walking should be abandoned for the ease of 
a carriage ; but all these experiences will be acquired without the 
aid of a guide-book. Suffice it to say, when a mountain has to be 
breasted, the prudent pedestrian will pursue the 'even tenor of his 
way' with regular and steady steps ('chi va piano va sano ; chi va 
sano va lontano'); the novice alone indulges in 'spurts'. If the 



xxvi VI. MAPS. 

traveller will have a third golden maxim for his guidance it may- 
be, 'When fatigue begins, enjoyment ceases'. 

Excursions amongst the higher Alps should not be undertaken 
before July , nor at any period after a long continuance of rain 
or snow. Glaciers should , if possible , be traversed before 10 
a. m., after which hour the rays of the sun soften the crust of 
ice formed during the night over the Assures and crevasses. It 
is hardly necessary to state that experienced guides are ab- 
solutely indispensable for such excursions. 

The anticipations of a tour in Switzerland , which is usually 
painted 'couleur de rose', not unfrequently receive a rude shock 
from actual experience. The first night in a Chalet dispels 
many illusions. Whatever poetry there may be theoretically in 
a bed of hay , the usual concomitants of the cold night-air 
piercing abundant apertures , the ringing of the cow-bells , the 
sonorous grunting of the swine , and the undiscarded garments, 
hardly contribute to that refreshing slumber of which the wearied 
traveller stands in need. 

Over all the movements of the pedestrian the Weather holds 
despotic sway. Those who claim acquaintance with the elements 
and their signs will tell him of numberless indications by which 
either foul or favourable weather may be predicted, and their 
advice will often prove valuable. The barometer , too , should 
be consulted when an opportunity offers. 

Health. For wounds and bruises, which few altogether escape 
in a protracted excursion , tincture of arnica is a good remedy, 
and moreover has a bracing and invigorating effect if rubbed on 
the limbs after much fatigue. Saturnine ointment is beneficial 
in cases oi inflammation of the skin, an inconvenience frequently 
caused by exposure to the glare of the sun on the snow. Cold 
cream , and , for the lips especially , collodion or glycerine, are 
also recommended. 

For diarrheal 15 drops of a mixture of equal parts of tinc- 
ture of opium and aromatic tincture may be safely taken every 
two hours until relief is afforded. The homoeopathic tincture 
of camphor is also a good remedy. 

VI. Maps. 

1. Maps of Switzerland in One Sheet : — 

*Zieylers ncue Karte der Schweiz (1 : 380,000), with explan- 
ations and index. Price 12 fr. 

Zieyler* Hypsometr. Karte (1 : 380,000"), 4 sheets 20 fr 

LeulhM's Karte (1 : 400,000), 10 fr. 

Keller's Karte (1 : 450,000), (i fr. 

*LeuunyerS Karte (1:400,000), 10 fr. 

(ieneralkurle der Srhweh (1 : 2f)0,000), published liy the gov- 
ernment topographic office, reduced from Dufour's Ma)), 4 sheets 



vl. MAPS. xxvii 

*The Alpine Club Map of Switzerland , published by R. C. Ni- 
chols (1 : 250,000), 4 sheets 42s. 

2. Topographic Maps on a Larger Scale : — 
*Topographic Map of Switzerland, from surveys made by order 
of the Federal authorities (under the superintendence of General 
Dufour}; scale 1:100,000; 25 sheets, each 1 to 2l/ 2 fr. (not 
mounted). Heights given in French metres. The following 
sketch exhibits the area embraced by each. 



Title-sheet 



Names of Towns 

-v 

Lrndcni 




Altitudes 



An admirable work on a still larger scale is the *Topogra- 
phische Atlas der Schweiz, on the scale of the original drawings 
(flat districts 1 : 25,000, mountains 1 : 50,000), published by the 
Federal Staff Office. The sheets now completed comprise the 
Bernese Jura District, the environs of Bern and Interlaken, the 
Bernese Oberland, the St. Gotthard, and the Canton of the Orisons. 

A number of Cantonal Maps on the scale of the original 
drawings have also been published by the different cantons ; thus, 
St. Gallen and Appenzell in 16 sheets, Geneva in 4, Lucerne in 
10, and Zurich in 32, all on the scale of 1 : 25,000; then Aargau 
in 4 sheets, Freiburg in 4, Geneva, Glarus, Grisons, Ticino, Uri, 
Unterwalden, Vaud (12 sheets), and Valais on the scale of 1 : 50,000. 

The maps published by the Swiss Alpine Club (1:50,000) 
are specially adapted for the use of travellers : St. Gotthard in 
4 sheets, the S. valleys of the Valais in 8 sheets, the Silvretta, 
Todi group, Trift region, Lukmanier, and Binnenthal. For 
Chamouny, Reilly's Map of Mont Blanc, and the Massif du Mnnt- 
blanc (1 : 40,000 ). by Mieulel. 



VII. Guides. 

On well-trixlilt'ii mutes like those of the Higi. l'ilatus, Wen- 
gem Alp, Faulhorn. Scheideck, Grimsel, Gemini, etc., the services 
of a guide may well be dispensed with, and if the traveller 
wishes to disencumber himself of his knapsack, the first urchin 
he meets will gladly transfer it to his shoulders for a trifling 
gratuity ; but for the more difficult routes, guides are indispen- 
sable. They will be found, as a class, to be intelligent and re- 
spectable men, well versed in their duties, and acquainted with 
the people and resources of the country. 

The great stations for guides are Interlaken, Lauterbrunnen, 
Grindelwald, Meiringen, Martigny, Chamouny, Courmayeur, Zer- 
matt , and Pontresina , while for the principal passes guides are 
always to be found at the neighbouring villages. The usual pay 
of a guide is 6-8 fr. for a day of 8 hrs. ; he is bound to carry 
15-20 pounds of baggage, and to hold himself at the entire dis- 
position of his employer, whose temporary servant he is. They 
generally demand 6 fr. a day for returning home ; but, as they have 
nothing to carry, better terms may occasionally be made with them, 
and they are bound to return by the shortest practicable route. 

Although a guide adds considerably to the traveller's expenses, 
the outlay will seldom be regretted. A good guide points out a 
multitude of objects which the best maps fail to indicate ; he fur- 
nishes useful and interesting information on manners and habits, 
on battle-fields and historical incidents, on military routes and po- 
sitions ; and when the traveller reaches his hotel, wearied with the 
fatigues of the day, his guide often renders him valuable service. 

Divided among a party, the expense of a guide is of course 
greatly diminished ; but as he is not bound to carry more than 
20 pounds of baggage , it is often more useful to hire a horse 
or mule , the attendant of which will serve as a guide on the 
ordinary routes. 

Adult porters are entitled to 75 cent, or 1 fr. an hour, when 
not engaged by the day, return included. It is advisable to make 
a distinct bargain previously to engaging their services, a sum 
being agreed upon which shall comprise food , return, and the 
inevitable 'pourboire' , or extra gratuity. A certain amount of 
good fellowship and confidence should subsist between the traveller 
and the individual who is perhaps to be his sole companion for 
several days. The judicious traveller will know when to make 
with advantage the offer of a cigar or the spirit- flask , such 
attentions on his part being seldom thrown away. 

Travellers desirous of engaging a thoroughly trustworthy guide 
should be careful to select one of the certificated , who have 
passed a certain examination, and arc furnished with legal certi- 
ficates of character and qualifications. 



VIII. Carriages and Horses. 

Good vehicles are to be found in every part of Switzerland, 
but no bargain should entered into until the carriage has been 
examined. If the journey is to be of considerable length , it is 
desirable to have a Written Agreement drawn up, which the voi- 
turier usually concludes by depositing a sum with his employer 
as earnest-money, afterwards to be added to the account. The 
traveller has a right to select the hotels where the night is to be 
passed, the driver being entitled to determine where rest during 
the day shall be taken. Private posting, or the system of changing 
horses, is forbidden by law. 

The ordinary charge for a carriage with one horse is 15-20 fr., 
with two horses 25-30 fr. per diem , and the driver expects 
1 fr. per horse as a gratuity. In the height of summer slightly 
increased terms are demanded. Like the guides, the voiturier 
demands the return-fare to the place where he was engaged, and 
the traveller should therefore endeavour so to arrange his journey 
that he may discharge his carriage as near the home of the 
driver as possible. 

Return-conveyances may sometimes be obtained for 10 to 
15 fr. per day , but the use of them is in some places pro- 
hibited. 

The average day's journey is 30-40 miles, a halt being made 
of 2-3 hours about noon ; and for the return-journey about 36 M. 

In mountainous districts , inaccessible to heavy carriages, 
'Bergwagli' or 'chars-a-bancs' , for two persons only, may be 
hired for 12-15 fr. per day, fees included. 

A Horse or Mule costs 10-12 fr. per day, and the attendant 
expects a trifling additional gratuity (1-2 fr.). If he cannot re- 
turn with his horse on the same day to the place from which he 
started, the following day must be paid for. Good walkers will 
of course prefer to dispense with the aid of a horse. A prolonged 
ascent on horseback is fatiguing, the descent disagreeable. Even 
ladies may walk without difficulty to the most frequented sum- 
mits , but if unequal to the task they should engage 'chaises-a- 
porteurs'. 

IX. Diligences, Post-Office, Telegraph. 

Diligences. Considering the mountainous nature of the 
country, the postal communications in Switzerland are ad- 
mirably organised, although slow. The public conveyances for 
travellers are under the control of government ; they are gener- 
ally well fitted up and provided with respectable drivers and 
conductors, and the fares are moderate. They consist of the 
coupe , or first-class compartment in front , with 2-3 seats , the 



xxx IX. DILIGENCES, etc. 

interieur, or second class compartment at the back, with 4-6 
seats, which affords little or no view, and the banquette (used 
in summer only) for 2 passengers on the outside. Some vehicles 
have one outside seat only, which is reserved for the conducteur, 
or guard , but he is generally willing to cede it for a fee of 
1 fr. per stage. On unimportant routes the coupe may be 
secured 3 days, on the great Alpine routes 30 days beforehand. 
This may be done by letter , enclosing the fare , stating the 
traveller's name, and specifying the day and hour of departure. 
In summer the coupe seats are often thus engaged. When the 
diligence is full, 'Beiwagen', or supplementary carriages are pro- 
vided. These are often light , open vehicles , preferable to the 
lumbering 'Postwagen'. A seat in one of them may generally 
be procured by arrangement with the conductor. As a rule 
passengers are consigned to the interieur or to a supplementary 
carriage in the order in which they are booked. If therefore 
the traveller has failed to secure a coupe or banquette seat 
by early application , he will probably succeed in avoiding the 
objectionable interieur by delaying to take his ticket till the 
diligence is about to start. 

The fare for a seat in the coupe or on the banquette is on 
ordinary routes 17 c. per kilometre (about 27 c. per Engl. M.), 
on Alpine passes 24 c. per kilom. (about 38 o. per Engl. M.); 
fare in the interieur 14 c. and 21 c. per kilom. (or 22 c. and 
33 c. per M.) respectively. Return-tickets, available for three 
days, are issued at a reduction of 10 per cent ; season-tickets for 
three months at a reduction of 20 per cent. Children of 2-7 
years of age pay half-fare. Each passenger is allowed 40 lbs. 
of luggage free ; overweight is charged for at the ordinary 
postal tariff. Small articles may be taken into the carriage, but 
heavy luggage should be booked one hour before starting. The 
average speed of these sedate mail-coaches of Switzerland, in- 
cluding stoppages, is about 6 M. per hour on level ground, and 
4 M. per hour on mountainous routes. 

It may be mentioned here that roads in Switzerland are gener- 
ally measured by Kilometres ; one kilometre = 1093.6331 Engl, yds., 
or about % Engl. M. The 'Stunde', or Swiss league, which is about 
3 Engl. M., is also sometimes used. Distances are given in the 
Handbook in English miles, except in mountain expeditions, where 
hours are the usual and more convenient standard of distance. 

Extra-Post. This is the term applied to the Swiss system of 
posting, which is managed by government, private posting being 
prohibited. The charge for each horse is i/ 2 fr- per kilometre 
(SO c. per M."); that for a carriage with 2-5 seats 20 c. per kilom. 
( li'i c per M.), for one with 6 seats 25 c. per kilom. (40 c. per 
M. ), for one with 7 or more seats 30 c per kilom. (48 c. per MA 
Besides these charges, in which the driver's fee is included an 



a. KAIL WAYS. xxxi 

additional payment of 2-1 i'r. must be made according to the size of 
the carriage. If the same vehicle is required for a whole journey 
consisting of several stages, double carriage-money is exacted. A 
conveyance of this kind may be ordered at the principal post- 
offices on the mountain-routes, on one hour's notice. The fare 
must be paid in advance. 

Letters (prepaid) to any part of Switzerland (15 grammes 
in weight, about ] /2 oz 10 c -> if within a radius of 6 M. 5 c; 
to other parts of Europe included in the postal union, and to the 
United States of America, 25 c. (since 1875). 

Post Office Orders, issued within the limits of Switzerland 
only , must not exceed 500 fr. for the larger , 200 fr. for the 
smaller towns. Charge for an order not exceeding 100 fr. 20 c, 
for each additional 100 fr. 10 c. more. With regard to money- 
orders to foreign countries, a convenience of which the traveller 
will probably seldom avail himself, information may be obtained 
at all the principal offices. 

Telegraphic Communication in Switzerland is well organised, 
and the aggregate length of the wires is at present greater than 
in any other country in proportion to the population. There are 
now 900 offices, those in the large towns being open from 6 or 
7 a.m. till 11 or 10 p.m. according to the season. The tariff for 
telegrams within the limits of Switzerland is J /2 fr- f° r 20 words, 
and 10 c. more for every additional 10 words. The rates for 
foreign telegrams may be ascertained at the offices. 

The telegraphic regulations provide that messages may be 
delivered at any post-office, from which, if not itself a telegraph 
office , they shall be transmitted without delay to the nearest. 
In such cases the fee for the telegram is paid by affixing a 
stamp of the requisite value (Y2 fr- or upwards, according to the 
number of words). 

X. Railways. 

The Carriages in German Switzerland (like those of Wiirtem- 
berg, Austria, and Lombardy) are constructed on the American 
principle, generally accommodating 72 passengers, and furnished 
at each end with iron steps of easy access, protected by a roof. 
Through each carriage, and indeed through the whole train, runs 
a passage, on each side of which the seats are disposed. This 
arrangement enables the traveller to change his position at plea- 
sure, unless the carriage be unusually crowded, and facilitates a 
survey of the scenery. 

The carriages in French Switzerland are generally of the 
ordinary construction, and inferior in comfort to those of the 
other lines. In this part of the country passengers' tickets are 
checked as they leave the waiting-room before starting, and given 
up at the 'Sortie' on their arrival. 



xxxii XI. HISTORY. 

Luggage. All heavy luggage must be booked and paid for 
after the traveller has obtained his own ticket, but small port- 
manteaus and travelling-bags may generally be taken into the 
carriage without challenge. Travellers with through tickets from 
the German to the Swiss railways, or vice versa, should assure 
themselves of the safety of their luggage at the frontier (Bale, 
Geneva, Neuchatel, Friedrichshafen, Lindau, Rorschach, Romans- 
horn, etc.). 

Return-tickets are issued on most of the Swiss lines at re- 
duced rates, being sometimes available for several days (Sunday- 
tickets). Excursion-tickets at very moderate rates are also issued 
by some of the companies for certain routes or circular tours, in- 
formation as to which will be found in the time-tables ; but they 
are apt to hamper the traveller's movements and to deprive him 
of the independence essential to enjoyment. 

XI. History. 

The limits of this work necessarily preclude more than a brief histor- 
ical sketch of the interesting country and people the traveller is now visit- 
ing — a country of which the beautiful and romantic scenery can hardly 
be surpassed in any quarter of the globe, and a people celebrated above all 
others for the spirit of freedom and independence by which they have 
ever been actuated. It is necessary for a moment to carry the reader 
back to the period of the subjugation of Helvetia (the ancient Switzerland) 
by the Roman legions. Under the Roman sway Helvetia enjoyed a flourish- 
ing trade , which covered the land with cities and villages. A trace of 
that period still exists in the Romanic language, which is still spoken in 
some parts of Switzerland. 

Switzerland is believed to have been first peopled by the R/iaeti, who 
were driven from the plains to the mountains by the Helvetii, a race of 
Celtic origin. The latter were conquered by the Romans, B. C. 58, and the 
Rhseti were subdued in B. C. 15. The Romans constructed good military 
roads over the Great St. Bernard (p. 243) to Bale , and over the Julier 
Cp. 348), Septimer (p. 347), and Spliigen (p. 387) to Bregenz (p. 380), and 
thence to Bale. The chief settlements were Aventicum (Avenches, p. 169) in 
the Canton of Vaud, Vindonissa ( Windisch, p. 18) at the confluence of the 
Aare, Reuss, and Limmat , Augusta Rauracorum (Angst, p. 16) near Bale, 
and Curia Rhaetorum (Coire, p. 308) in the Grisons. Eastern Switzerland 
as far as Pfyn (ad fines) in Thurgau, and Pfyn (p. 271) in the Upper Valais, 
belonged to the province of Rhsetia, while Western Switzerland formed 
part of Gaul. The name Helvetii had become extinct even before the 
time of Constantine. 

About the year A. D. 400 a great irruption of barbarians swept through 
the peaceful valleys of the Alps, and Huns, Burgundians, Alemanni, and 
Ostrogoths in succession settled in different parts of the country. The 
Alemanni took possession of the whole of X. Switzerland, where German 
is now spoken, the Burgundians of the W. part, where French is spoken, 
and the Ostrogoths of S. Switzerland, where Italian and Romansch are 
now spoken. These different races were gradually subdued by the Franks, 
who, however, did not take possession of the country themselves but 
governed it by their officers. During this period Christianity was intro- 
duced, the monasteries of Dissentis (p. 332), St. Oallen (p. 38) Einsiedeln 
(p. 321), and Heromiinster were founded, and dukes and counts were 
appointed as vieegerents of the Francnnian kings. 

After the dissolution of the great Franconian empire, the eastern half 
of Switzerland, the boundary of which extended from Kgljgau over the 



XI. HISTORY. xxxiii 

Albis to Lucerne and the Grimsel, was united with the duchy of Aleman- 
nia, or Swabia, and the western part with the kingdom of Burgundy (912). 
After the downfall of the latter (1032) the German Emperors took posses- 
sion of the country, and governed it by their vicegerents the dukes of 
Zaehringen (p. 93), who were perpetually at enmity with the Burgundian 
nobles and therefore favoured the inhabitants of the towns, and were 
themselves the founders of several new towns, such as Freiburg, Bern, 
and Burgdorf. 

As the power of the emperors declined, and the nobles, spiritual and 
temporal, became more ambitious of independence, and more eager to fill 
their coffers at the expense of their neighbours, the Swiss towns and the 
few country-people who had succeeded in preserving their freedom from 
serfdom were compelled to consult their safety by entering into treaties 
with the feudal lords of the soil. Thus the inhabitants of Zurich placed 
themselves under the protection of the then unimportant Counts of Haps- 
burg, with whom the 'Three Cantons' of Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden 
were also allied. In 1231 and 1240 letters of independence were granted 
by Emperor Frederick II. to Uri and Schwyz, and after Count Rudolph of 
Hapsburg had become emperor he confirmed the privileges of the former 
in 1274, while Schwyz and Unterwalden still continued subject to the 
Hapsburg supremacy. 

After the emperor's death in 1291 the Forest Cantons formed their 
first league for mutual safety and the protection of their liberty against 
the growing power of the House of Hapsburg. Rudolph's son Albert in 
particular endeavoured to rear the limited rights he enjoyed in these dis- 
tricts into absolute sovereignty, and to incorporate them with his empire. 

The ancient cantons therefore embraced the cause of the rival monarch 
Adolph of Nassau, who confirmed their privileges. Victory, however, 
favoured Albert, who again deprived the cantons of their privileges, but 
does not appear to have treated them with much severity. To this period 
belongs the romantic but unfounded tradition of William Tell, t 

After the assassination of Albert by John of Swabia in 1308, Emperor 
Henry VII., who was also an opponent of the Hapsburgers, conferred a 
charter of independence on the Forest Cantons. The House of Hapsburg 
regarded this as an infringement of their rights, and sent a powerful 
army against these cantons, which after the death of Henry had declared 
their adherence to Lewis the Bavarian, the opponent of Frederick the 
Handsome. This army was destroyed at the Morgarten (p. 323) in 1315. 
Subsequent attempts to subject the country to the supremacy of the 
House of Hapsburg were frustrated by the victories of the Swiss at Sem- 
pach (p. 16) in 1386, at Ndfels (p. 312) in 1388, and at the Stoss (p. 298) 
in 1405. 

In the Burgundian parts of the country too the nobility were jealous 
of the increasing importance of the towns, and accordingly endeavoured 
to conquer Bern, but were defeated by the citizens at Laupen (p. 164) 
in 1339. 

In 1354 a confederacy was formed by eight independent districts and 
towns, which soon became powerful enough to assume the offensive, and 
at length actually wrested the hereditary domain of Hapsburg from the 
dukes of Austria, who tried in vain to recover it. 



f The legend of the national hero of Switzerland, as well as the story 
of the expulsion of the Austrian bailiffs in 1308, is destitute of historical 
foundation. No trace of such a person is to be found in the work of John 
of Winterthur (Vitoduranus , 1349) or that of Conrad Justinger of Bern 
(1420), the earliest Swiss historians. Mention is made of him for the first 
time in the Sarner Chronik of 1470, and the myth was subsequently em- 
bellished by ^Egidius Tschudi of Glarus (d. 1542), and still more by Jn- 
hann v. Miiller (d. 1809), while Schiller's famous play has finally secured 
to the hero a world-wide celebrity. Similar traditions are met with among 
various northern nations, such as the Danes and Icelanders. 

Baedekf.r, Switzerland. 7th Edition. R 



xxxiv XI. HISTORY. 

Even Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundv, the mightiest prince «>J" his 
time, was defeated by the Swiss at the three battles of Grandson (147b, 
p. 179), Moral (1476, p. 169), and Xancy, while at an earlier period a large 
body of irregular French and other troops, which had been made over to 
Austria by the King of France, sustained a severe check from the con- 
federates at <S7. Jacob on the Birs (1444, p. 6). 

In the Swabian war (1199) the bravery and unity of the Swiss achieved 
another triumph in the victory of Dornoch (p. 7). At that period their 
independence of the emperor was formally recognised, but they continued 
nominally attached to the empire down to 1648. 

The last-named victory formed a fitting termination to a successful 
career of two centuries, the most glorious in the history of Switzerland. 
At the beginning of the 16th century a period of decline set in. The 
enormous booty captured in the Burgundian war had begotten a taste for 
wealth and luxury, the demoralising practice of serving as mercenary 
troops in foreign lands began to prevail, and a foundation was laid for 
the reproachful proverb, 'Pas d'argent, pas de Suisses '. ' 

The cause of the Reformation under the auspices of Zwingli was 
zealously embraced by a large proportion of the population of Switzerland 
about the beginning of the 16th century ; but the bitter jealousies thus 
sown between the Roman Catholic and the Reformed Cantons were 
attended with most disastrous consequences, and in the civil wars which 
ensued bloody battles were fought at Kappel (p. 51) in 1531, at Villmergen 
in 1656, and during the Toggenburg war (p. 310) in 1712. 

Traces of unflinching bravery and of a noble spirit of self-sacrifice in 
the cause of conscience are observable in individual instances even at the 
close of the 18th century, as exampled by the affairs of Rotlienlhvrm 
(p. 323) and Slans (p. 81), but the national vigour was gone. The resist- 
ance of individuals to the invasion of the French republicans proved fruit- 
less, and the Helvetian Republic was founded on the ruins of the ancient 
liberties of the nation. In 1803 Napoleon restored the cantonal system, 
and in accordance with resolutions passed by the Congress of Vienna in 
1815 the constitution was remodelled. The changes introduced in conse- 
quence of the revolution of July, 1830, were unhappily the forerunners of 
the civil war of the Sonderbund, or Separate League, in November, 1847; 
but this was of short duration, and on 12th September, 1848, a new 
federal constitution was inaugurated. Since that period the public tran- 
quillity has been undisturbed, and the prosperity and harmony which now 
prevail throughout the country are not unworthy of the glorious traditions 
of the past. 

XII. Constitution and Statistics. 

The Federal Constitution of 12th Sept. 1848 has been considerably 
modified by the new Constitution introduced on 29th Slay, 1874, which 
contains among others the following provisions : — The object of the Con- 
federacy is to maintain its independence of foreign states, and to administer 
justice and promote the interests of the community at home. The can- 
tons arc sovereign, in so far as their sovereignty' is not limited by the 
Constitution. All natives of Switzerland are equal in the eye of the law. 
The Confederacy alone has power to declare war, to conclude peace, to 
enter into treaties, and to conduct diplom; tic intercourse with foreign 
countries. Without the consent of the Confederacy no canton is allowed 
to maintain more than 300 regular troops. Every Swiss is liable to the 
military conscription. The fiscal, postal, and monetary systems are ma- 
naged by the Confederacy. The expenditure of the Confederacy is defrayed: 
(a) by the interest of the Federal war-fund ; (b) by the customs-dues levied 
at the frontiers; (c) by the revenue derived from the postal system- (d) by 
the proceeds of the gunpowder commission; (e| by the taxes levied by 
resolution of the Federal Assembly. Every Swiss is at liberty to settle 
where he pleases. Foreigners cannot be naturalised without resigning 
their original nationality. All religious sects arc tolerated. The freedom 



XII. CONSTITUTION AND STATISTICS. xxxv 

of the press is established. Foreigners whose presence is considered pre- 
judicial to the interests of the Confederacy may be ejected. The order of 
the Jesuits is excluded from every part of Switzerland. 

The following articles concern the 'Federal Authorities' : GO. The 
supreme power is vested in the Federal Assembly , consisting of the 
National Council and the Council of the States. 61. The National 
Council is composed of deputies, one for every 20,000 of the entire pop- 
ulation , or one at least from each canton. (Since 1870 the number has 
been 135.) 63. Every Swiss who has attained the age of 20 years is 
entitled to a vote. 64. Any Swiss layman entitled to vote may be elected. 
66. The National Council is elected for 5 years. 69. The Council op the 
Estates consists of 44 deputies from the cantons , 2 from each canton. 
83. The Federal Council , the highest executive and administrative au- 
thority, consists of 7 members. 84. The members are elected by the Federal 
Assembly for 3 years. 91. The several members of the Federal Council 
superintend the administration of the different departments (military, in- 
terior, finance, commerce, etc.). 94. The Federal Tribunal (consisting 
of 9 members) decides all legal questions arising between the cantons 
among themselves , or between the cantons or individuals and the Con- 
federacy. 104. The court of assizes , witli a jury , decides cases of breach 
of discipline on the part of officials, high treason and insubordination, po- 
litical offerees, etc. 



Area and Population, 
according to the decennial census of 1st Dec, 1870. 



Cantons. 


Sq. 


Religion. 




Pop. 


Leagues 










Totals. 


of sq. 




Rom.Cath. 


Prot. 


Jews. 


Sect. 




league 


1. Zurich . . 


74,8 


17,942 


263,730 


504 


2,610 


284,786 


3,797 


2. Bern . . . 


294 


66,022 


436,291 


1403 


2,739 


506,455 


1,723 


3. Lucerne . . 


54 


128,338 


3,823 


98 


79 


132,338 


1,450 


4. Uri . . . 


47 


16,018 


80 


8 


1 


16,107 


343 


5. Scnwyz . . 


40 


47,047 


647 


7 


4 


47,705 


1,192 


6. Unlerwald . 


33, 5 


25,687 


424 


5 


— 


26,116 


77S 


7. Qlarus . . 


29,8 


6,888 


28,239 


17 


7 


35,151 


1,179 


8. Zug . . . 


10,2 


878 


20,082 


16 


17 


20,993 


2,058 


9. Freiburg 


71,, 


93,951 


16,819 


47 


15 


110,832 


1,551 


10. Soleure . . 


34,5 


62,072 


12,448 


92 


101 


74,713 


2,166 


11. BAle-ville . 


1,5 


12,301 


34,455 


516 


488 


47,760 


27,500 


Bdle-camp. . 


18,5 


10,245 


43,523 


131 


228 


54,127 


2,926 


12. Schaffhausen 


12,9 


3,051 


34,466 


24 


180 


37,721 


2,924 


13. Appenzell . 
















(Rhodes ex t.) 


10,7 


2,358 


46,175 


22 


171 


48,726 


4,554 


(Rhodes int.) 


7,» 


11,720 


188 


— 


1 


11,909 


1,631 


14. St. Gallen . 


87,7 


116,130 


74,503 


192 


190 


191,015 


2,178 


15. Orisons . . 


304,, 


39,889 


51,841 


17 


35 


91,782 


302 


16. Aargau , . 


60, 4 


89,180 


107.703 


1541 


449 


198,873 


3,292 


17. Thurgau 


42.8 


23,444 


69,241 


84 


531 


93,300 


2,180 


18. Tichio . . 


121,6 


119,350 


194 


36 


40 


119,620 


983 


19. Vavcl . . 


138,7 


17,785 


211,493 


610 


1,812 


231,700 


1,670 


20. Valais . . 


226, 5 


95,963 


900 


4 


20 


96,887 


436 


21. Neuchdtel . 


34,7 


11,345 


84,334 


674 


931 


97,284 


2,804 


22. Geneva . . 


12, 2 


47,857 


43,606 


961 


771 


93,195 


7,639 


Total . . . 


1769,3 


1,084,665 


1,566,001 


7009 


11,420 


2,669,095 


1,508 


Census of 1860 




1,023,430 


1,476,982 


4216 


5,866 


2,507,170 


1,432 



Increase . . || — 61,235| 89,019 1 2793 ! 5,554 161,925 76 

Switzerland therefore contains a population of 165 per Eng. sq. M. 
(Alpine Switzerland 52, the remainder about 244). Geneva is the most 
populous canton (847 per sq. M.) , the Grisons the least (33 per sq. SI.). 



xxxvi XII. CONSTITUTION AND STATISTICS. 

Of every 11HHI souls 585 arc Prof. . 411 Bom. Cath. , 2 Sectarian , 2 Jews ; 
702 of these speak German, 226 French, 55 Italian, and 17 Rnmanscn. <>t 
the 556,000 households of Switzerland 465,000 possess landed property ; ol 
the entire population of 2,669,095 about 500,000 only have no landed pos- 
session. In Switzerland 1 person out of 20 lives by alms, in England 1 out 
of 8, in France and Holland 1 out of 9. Of 100 sq. leagues of land 20 are 
pasture, 17 forest, 11 arable, 20 meadow, 1 vineyards, and 31 uncultivated 
or occupied by water, roads, dwellings, etc. 

Education. The German part of Switzerland possesses three Univer- 
sities, those of Bdle, Bern, and Zurich, with 115 professors, 30 private tutors, 
and 900 students. French Switzerland possesses three Academies, those of 
Geneva , Lausanne, and Neuchatel, with faculties of theology , philosophy, 
and jurisprudence, 45 professors, and 370 students. About 70 of the latter 
at Geneva are foreigners , chiefly French Protestants. The Federal Poly- 
technic at Zurich, founded in 1855, also deserves mention; it possesses a 
philosophical faculty and 46 teachers, some of them professors at the uni- 
versity, and is much frequented by foreign as well as native students. 

The Army consists of the Bvndes-Auszug (Elite Federale) and the Re- 
serve, composed of the able-bodied male population between the ages of 
20 and 34 ; and the Landwehr, composed of men, not included in the above 
classes, up to their 44th year. To the two first classes belong 105,602 in- 
fantry soldiers, 9610 riflemen, 2941 cavalry, 13,805 artillery, 12 park-com- 
panies with 2035 men , 2292 sappers and miners , etc. , forming a total of 
133,949. The number of the Landwehr is computed at 67,000. — The 
' Institute of Cadets' 1 provides an admirable preparatory training for military 
service in Switzerland. This is an arrangement by which the pupils 
('cadets') of all the principal schools receive instruction in military tactics, 
being provided by government with muskets and cannons (2 and 4-pounders) 
for the purpose. On these occasions they wear a uniform; and their 
annual reviews , when the cadets of several cantons frequently assemble, 
are a source of boundless delight to the embryo warriors. 

XIII. Geology of the Alps, f 

The term 'Alps' is applied to the vast mountain ranges which extend 
from Nice on the Mediterranean Sea towards the N.E. through southern 
France, Switzerland, the Tyrol, and Styria, to the Leitha on the Hunga- 
rian frontier. Of these the highest are the Central Alps, situated in Savoy 
and Switzerland. They are subdivided into the Pennine Alps (p. 245), ex- 
tending from the Col du Bonhomme (p. 236) to Monte Rosa (p. 290), and 
including Mont Blanc (p. 227) ; the Lepontine, or Swiss Alps, extending from 
the St. Gotthurd (p. 80) to the Vogelberg (p. 382); and the Rhaelian Alps, 
extending from the sources of the llinter-Rhein (p. 391) over the Bernina 
(p. 355) to the Ortler in the Tyrol (p. 373). The central point of these 
ranges is the Furca and St. Gotthard group, from which the Alps of the 
Valais and Orisons branch in a southerly, and the Bernese and Rhenish Alps 
in a northerly direction. 

According to their elevation, the Alps are usually divided into the 
Hiyh Alps, or those above the snow-line (8000' on the N. , and 8800' on 
the S. side) ; the Middle Alps , or those between the region of perpetual 
snow and the zone of the growth of trees (4500') : and the Lower Alps, or 
those between 4500' and 2000' above the level of the sea. 

Switzerland consists of three distinct districts, which differ essentially 
in their geological formation. A line drawn from Schatfhansen through 
Aarau and Xeuchalel to the base of the D6le , N. of Geneva separates 
two of these districts from each other, viz. the Jira Ranch from' the Swiss 
Hill Country. The latter extends to the base of the Alps which con- 
stitute the third and most important of these districts. ' 



t The most recent geological researches in Switzerland and special maps 
of the Alps and Jura are to be found in the 'Beitrdye zur geoloa Karte 
der Schweiz' (published by Dalp of Bern at the expense of government) 



XIIL GEOLOGY OF THE ALPS. xxx\ii 

The formation of the Jura Range consists mainly of strata remarkable 
for their richness in organic remains , and known as the 'Jura formation' 
in other parts of central Europe also. The subdivisions of this for- 
mation, its stratification , and the remains, principally of shell-fish, which 
characterise the different strata , are well known. The position of the 
strata resembles the surface of a troubled sea, or numerous layers of cloth, 
placed one upon another and subjected to lateral pressure. On the bor- 
ders of the Slack Forest, and in the greater of these layers , which 
extend southwards beyond Bale , the lower strata of the Triassic System, 
the Kevper Marls, Muschelkalk, and Bunlsandstein , are the most pro- 
minent, and all organic remains which they contain differ from those of 
the Jura group. From the lake of Bienne, in a south - westerly direction, 
more recent strata occur, belonging to the cretaceous system, and known 
as Neocornian Deposits. 

At the base of the Jura these strata are covered by a far more recent 
formation, which comprise the entire district of the Swiss Hill Country, 
bounded in its turn by the lower Alps , of which the Bigi is the most 
celebrated from the magnificence of its view. This formation belongs to 
the section of the Tertiary System known as Meiocene , the vast beds 
of conglomerate contained in which are called Nagelflue (p. 72). It is, 
geologically speaking, a very recent formation, and proves what vast trans- 
formations the earth's surface has undergone at a comparatively recent 
date. The larger towns of Switzerland are situated in this district, viz. St. 
C 'alien , Zurich, Lucerne, Soleure , Bern, Freiburg, Lausanne, unci Geneva, 
as well as the two large basins of the lakes of Geneva and Constance. 

The strata of the Meiocene contain in two sections remains of fresh- 
water animals and plants (found in abundance at the quarries of Oelmingen, 
p. 23), and in an intermediate section remains of marine animals. The 
Nagelflue consists chiefly of boulders and rounded stones belonging to 
formations entirely foreign to the Alps of the present day. In order to 
account for this, it is conjectured that at the period of the formation of 
this rock a chain of lower hills , consisting of various kinds of granite, 
porphyry , quarzite , etc. , formed the spurs of the higher Alps. The 
Nagelflue mountains are formed by the deposits of those ancient streams 
which doubtless descended from the region of the Alps ; and their occur- 
rence in different districts indicates the various directions in which these 
rivers must have flowed. 

The position of the strata deviates little from their original , nearly 
horizontal direction, and takes the form of a basin between the Alps and 
the Jura range , the shores of the primaeval Meiocene sea. At a distance, 
however, of about 7 M. from the base of the Alps , the inclination of the 
strata changes, and from this point onwards, turned towards the S.E. in the 
direction of the Alps, becomes more and more abrupt. From Rorschach as far 
as the Lake of Thun two undulating folds of the strata , protruding over 
each other chiefly from S. to N. , are traceable in this sub-alpine Meiocene 
formation. This position can only have been occasioned by some vast 
convulsions in the solid crust of the earth after the first deposit and con- 
solidation of the strata , and may be regarded as a prelude to the compli- 
cated rock-formation of the Alps themselves. Almost the entire hilly 
country, and even the lower slopes of the Jura are covered with in- 
numerable Erratic Blocks and glacier detritus. The nature of the rock and 
the origin of the blocks, as well as their disposition in moraines, render 
it probable that during the Ice -Period the glaciers of the Rhone, Aar, 
Reuss, Limmat, and Rhine covered the whole district (comp. p. xliv). To 
these formations, moreover, the soil is indebted for its remarkable fertility. 

The N. boundary of the Swiss Alps extends from the left bank of the 
Rhine, a little below the influx of the III (p. 379) , in a zigzag line S.W., 
to Vevey on the Lake of Geneva. The S. extremity of this mighty range 
is near the Lake of Lugano, while the E. part extends into Piedmont and 
the Austrian states. 

On the Northern Side of the Alps a belt , varying in diameter , com- 
posed of fossiliferous formations, is distinguishable from the principal 
rocks. These formations were formerly known by the general term of 



xxxviii XIII. GEOLOGY OF THE ALPS. 

Alpenkalkstein (Alpine Limestone), but have more recently been ascertained 
to consist of three distinct groups, belonging to the Eocene, the Chalk For- 
mation, and the Jura Formation. Towards the E. frontier of Switzerland, 
in the cantons of St. Gallen and Glarus, part of this belt, of a still more 
remote date, are considered to belong to the Triassic System. 

The rocks of these formations on the outskirts of the Alps bear so little 
resemblance to others of the same formations on the N. and W. side of this 
great range in Germany and France , that is has been a matter of the ut- 
most difficulty to arrive at a satisfactory conclusion on the subject. The 
limestones, which occur in the former in enormous masses, are of a dark- 
grey, or nearly black colour, of close texture , slightly crystalline, veined 
with a network of calcareous spar , and closely resembling the limestones 
which usually occur in older formations. The difficulties of classification 
which thus arose were not solved until attention was drawn to the organic 
remains found in this northern belt of the Alps. These form the sole 
clue to the intricacies of the Alpine formations , and afford a surer and 
more trustworthy criterion, in proportion as the organic remains in the 
adjacent districts are more minutely examined. 

Thus the same organic remains have been found here as those which 
occur in the Eocene Strata near Paris, and it has been satisfactorily proved 
that these recent formations show the same irregularities which have 
taken place in the Alpine chain. A similar relation has been observed 
between the chalk formations and the Jura Group on the northern boundary 
of the Alps. A variation in the character of the organic remains tends to 
prove that the Jura strata must have been deposited in the depths of the 
ocean, while those to the N. of the Swiss hill-country were probably formed 
on the beach or shallower parts of the sea. 

The relations between these three formations, the Eocene, the Chalk, 
and the Jura groups , which are always found in juxtaposition, are of 
an extremely complicated nature. The strata are upheaved in the most 
contorted forms , and present the appearance of having been folded to- 
gether, so that among the higher and more inaccessible mountains it has 
been a task of the utmost difficulty to ascertain their extent. Difficult as 
it may be to account for some of these phenomena, it has, at least , been 
clearly proved by the indefatigable researches of eminent Swiss geologists, 
that these strata must have been upheaved from the depths of the ocean 
in which they were deposited, pressed together, and forced aside (i. e. to 
the N.) by the principal formations of the Alpine chain. This accounts 
for the fact that the lowest strata are frequently found on the surface. 

The Central Alpine Zone consists of rocks of entirely different 
character. The principal masses are generally composed of Gneiss, which 
towards the centre changes to Granite and Protogine. Adjacent to the 
gneiss occurs the mica - schist and talcose schist , and in the gneiss itself 
may be distinguished the mica-gneiss and the talcose. Although these are 
precisely the same rocks which everywhere constitute the earth's crust, 
geologists have not yet succeeded in reducing the phenomena of the struc- 
ture of the Alps to fixed laws. This, however, can hardly excite surprise,, 
when the same difficulty has been experienced in the case of far less 
complicated formations. 

Studer, the eminent Swiss geologist, himself admits that even the best- 
known central masses of gneiss , those of Mont Blanc , the Finsteraarhorn, 
and the St. Gotthard, have been so imperfectly explored that their limits 
cannot be laid down with any certainty. 

Intermingled with the central masses of gneiss, Schists also occur 
to a great extent, sometimes in the form of Hornblende and Hornblende 
Schist approaching the already mentioned crystalline schists of the central 
masses, sometimes as green-schist, resembling serpentine, and easily recogni- 
sable as a sedimentary formation. These also contain Anthracite and nu- 
merous impressions of plants, and may undoubtedly be considered to belong 
to the f«ul Formation, a fact of great importance in the study of Alpine 

Older sedimentary deposits are not clearly traceable in t] lL . Swiss Ainu 
but are found in the eastern continuation of the Alpine chain. Some of 



XIII. GEOLOGY OF THE ALPS. xxxix 

the strata usually situated between the coal-formation and the Jura-group 
occur in the Swiss Alpa , such as sandstones , conglomerates ( Verrucano, 
1 Rauchwacke^ , Dolomite, Gypsum, etc.); but they are so disconnected, that, 
although well known in the E. prolongation of the mountains, and in the 
adjacent S. zone , and classed under the Triassic System, no satisfactory 
account of them can be given. 

In the heart of Switzerland, and on the extreme northern margin of the 
central zone, rises the central mass of the Finsteraarhorn, extending from 
the Lbtschenthal to the Tbdi. In the centre of this range, where it is inter- 
sected by the routes of the Grimsel and the St. Gotthard, the Granite attains 
its most important development , and at the same time the Anticlinal 
Axis, or contorted (' fan-shaped') structure of the gneiss is most strongly 
marked. Here too, on the N. side, the most striking irregularity is observed 
in the contact of the gneiss and its associated quartz-rock with the ad- 
joining Jura-limestone. In the diagonal line from Lauterbrvnnen and 
Grindelwald to Viesch the fan-shape is fully developed ; on the N. side the 
strata decline towards the S., in the Viescherhbrner they are vertical , while 
on the route from the Eggischhorn (p. 146) to Viesch they assume a N. di- 
rection ; the same is the case in a section of the Grimsel (p. 140). At the 
extremities of the gneiss, on the other hand, a uniform and abrupt descent 
towards the S. has been observed. 

The contact of the crystalline and sedimentary formations is most 
strikingly seen on the N. margin of this group , in the profound valleys 
and fissures riven through the entire mass by mighty convulsions. The 
Gasternlhal (p. 268) is a locality adapted for a nearer examination of these 
phenomena. The limestone and slate-strata of the precipices of the Altels 
and Doldenhom (p. 152) are extremely contorted in their position ; the base 
is granite. 

The summit of the Jungfrau (p. 120) consists of gneiss-granite , into 
which two masses of Jura-limestone have inserted themselves horizontally, 
their extremities being , as it were , folded back. This pseudo-interstrati- 
fication must have taken place while the disrupting granite was in a liquid 
state. The Eiger and Mbnch (p. 121), the Mettenberg (p. 123), the Wetterhom 
(p. 127) , and particularly the upper part of the Urbachthal (p. 137) and 
the narrow ridge between the Tossenhorn and Gstellihorn display the same 
phenomena. Even the extremities of these inserted masses of limestone 
contain organic remains of the Jura-formation. This affords a clue to the 
structure of the Alps , but if it be considered as evidence that the epoch 
of these convulsions is more recent than the Jura chalk and Eocene periods, 
the soundness of the proposition may be questioned. 

The St. Gotthard almost adjoins this central mass of the Finsteraarhorn. 
Of a layer of slate and limestone which once intervened between them, 
isolated fragments or 'nests 1 of marble are now the only remnants. At the 
level of the St. Gotthard Lakes, granite occurs in the heart of this mass, 
at the Gemsboden gneiss, above Hospenthal mica-slate. At Andermatt the 
inclination is towards the S., at Airolo towards the N. , the fanlike struc- 
ture being here distinctly exhibited, and extending towards the E. as far 
as the granite can be traced. 

On the Lukmanier (p. 336) these phenomena are repeated; the S. 
part of the fan widens as it extends towards the E. The surface, the situa- 
tion of the watershed, and the summit bear no relation to the axis of the 
fan ; the present configuration of the mountain-chains and valleys cannot 
therefore have been occasioned by the upheaval of the granite. 

The St. Gotthard possesses beautiful minerals in abundance. Those 
in the external central masses display great uniformity , the same species 
occurring at Oisans , on Mont Blanc , on the Finsteraarhorn , and on the 
St. Gotthard : such are the micaceous iron-ore , titanite , sphene , fluor-spar, 
apatite, axinite, tourmaline, and the whole of the zeolites. 

On the S. frontier of the Valais, from the Great St. Bernard over the 
lofty summits of the Dent Blanche, and the Matterhorn, as far as the Weiss- 
horn and Simplon, extends a range of crystalline felsparrock, which may 
be regarded not merely as a central mass entitled to rank with others, but 
rather as the true Central Chain of the Swiss and Italian High-Alps. Mont 



xl XIII. GEOLOGY OF THE ALPS. 

Blanc and Monte Rosa, the highest of the Alps, though not within this 
mass , are immediately adjacent. It forms a transition from the fan- 
shaped mountains , situated nearer the external (N.) zone of the Alps, to 
the more horizontally disposed gneiss which forms the inner crust of the 
Alps. The fan shape is indistinct ; the symmetrical arrangement of the 
different rocks is wanting ; interstratifications of marble and limestone are 
more frequent ; and serpentine and gabbro, and in the S. part syenite 
occur. This Central Mass is moreover chiefly remarkable for its intimate 
connection with the associated slates , the strata being in some places 
strangely intermingled, while in others they gradually blend. Gneiss and 
grey slate often occur as an inseparable mass, and give rise to one of the 
most difficult problems in geology. The basis, a kind of protogine, is termed 
Arl-esine , and seldom protrudes through the snows and glaciers of the 
highest mountains. On the Matterhorn (p. 288) and in its vicinity the level 
of the Green Slate, which forms the summit of this gigantic [mountain , is 
observed to vary as much as 3000', the basis being gneiss and mica slate, 
which are connected with each other without interruption, as Giordano has 
shown. Erosion followed by slips can therefore alone account for the form 
of this isolated, toothlike peak, which is probably but a scanty remnant of 
a once extensive chain. 

Towards the S.W. the masses of Mont Blanc and the Aiguilles Rouges 
stand in the same relation to these central masses as those of the St. Gott- 
hard and Finsteraarhorn to the N.E. In these again the fan-structure and 
the granitic basis are fully developed. But of these masses it is only the 
N.E. or N. extremities which belong to Switzerland, those namely which 
extend into the S.W. part of the canton of Valais as far as Martigny. 

In the Alps of Ticino gneiss and mica-schist predominate. The peculiar 
character of the central mass almost disappears. The ill-defined chlorite, 
talcose, and mica-schists no longer intermingle with the rocks of the basis, 
but occupy a distinct position on the outer crust. Gneiss predominates in 
the valleys and lower slopes, mica-schist in the higher mountain regions, 
forming, for example, the crest and summits of the Campolungo Pass as 
far as the Pizzo Forno. The structure is here very complicated, the dis- 
ruption of the rock being horizontal , and the lamination of the mica- 
schist nearly vertical, while the formation of the basis is much contorted 
and fractured. 

In the upper Val Maggia appears a meridional direction of the moun- 
tain strata completely at variance with their general direction in those 
parts of the Alps already considered, and with the main direction of the 
whole range. This variation is not confined to the little-known mountains 
of Ticino, but may be traced as far as the Upper Engadine, and pre- 
vails throughout the whole chain from the upper Val Maggia to the 
Maloja, 54 M. in length, and from Chiavenna to Vals , about 32 M. in 
breadth. This direction and the inclination of the strata towards the E. 
appear to bear out the conjecture that Piedmont was encircled with a com- 
plete amphitheatre of mountains before the comparatively recent changes 
in the earth's crust occasioned the present configuration of the Alps. 

The gneiss which particularly characterises Ticino first occurs in the 
W. in the basis of Monte Rosa and the precipices and cliffs of the valley 
of Macugnaga (p. 278), the grandest basin in the Alps. In the higher regions 
it blends with the mica-schist, of which the four principal peaks of Monte 
Rosa appear to be exclusively composed. The main-group rests on a 
meridional chain, a huge wall of rock which extends from Stalden (p. 283) 
above Vispach to h-rea at the S. base of the range, a distance of 50 M., 
and throughout half this extent is not less than 10,000' in height. This 
forms a barrier between the Pennine and Lepontine Alps. 

In a similar manner the Adula Range, to the E. of the Alps of 
Ticino, although lower, forms the boundary between the Lepontine and 
Rhaetian Alps. This broad mass is bleak and desolate, without strongly 
delincd summits, and is covered with snow and glaciers which rarelv de- 
scend from the heights, the declivities being too precipitous, and not fur- 
rowed by valleys. This is the cradle of the Rhine (p. 391). The meri- 
dional valleys are longer and deeper. 



XIII. GEOLOGY OF THE ALPS. xli 

Throughout this group, the strata decline towards the N.E. and E., 
and gneiss constitutes the basis in the Val Blegno. Indications of a barrier 
between the Adula Range and the Alps of Ticino are observed in the 
isolated limestone and marble masses contained in the gneiss near Rosso 
and Landarenca in the Val Calanca, which form the connecting links 
between the black slates of S. Bernardino and those of the Val Blegno. 

The gneiss mass which extends along the Splilgen Route from Schams 
to the Roffna (p. 387) and Ferrera (p. 385) attains its most complete 
development in the snowy and glacier -clad summits of the Suretta 
Alps. The peculiarities of this central mass are particularly remarkable 
in the neighbourhood of the Spliigen Pass. The Roffna consists of por- 
phyric or granitic gneiss. On the Spliigen Pass, as well as along the entire 
line of the crystalline schists, gneiss, mica schist, and calcareous black 
and green schists, occur intervening rocks, the chief of which are 'rauch- 
wacke ', perforated with the so-called ' chamois caverns \ and marble and 
slate, which in some cases adjoin the mica-schist and gneiss, in others 
the clay-slate. The same is the case on the Via Mala (p. 384), between 
the slate of which and that of Curver a series of dolomite, gneiss, and lime- 
stone intervenes, apparently forming a continuation of the talcose, calcare- 
ous, and felspar masses of the Sezza and Albine Alps. 

The crystalline slates which extend from this point to the S. adjacent 
zone, scarcely admit of general classification. They are partly associated 
with masses of granite and syenite, and partly waver between chlorite 
schist, hornblende, mica schist, and gneiss, without assuming a definite 
character. The position of the strata and lamination cannot be reduced 
to primary laws. 

The lofty range of the Bernina, on the frontier of the Grisons and 
Valtellina, rises as a central mass in the space between the Val Camonica 
and the Upper Engadine. Its gneiss is intersected at Cavaglia (p. 367) and 
Pisciadella by the two Bernina routes, and is almost entirely encircled by 
granite, hornblende, and serpentine, which is the case in none of the other 
central masses. The structure of the Bernina exhibits no tendency to the 
fan-shape, the rocks being exclusively schistous, and differing from the 
granitic gneiss and protogine granites of the N. and W. central masses. 
The dip of the strata is always to the N. and N.E. The granite of Brusio 
(p. 368) appears in the huge slate formation declining to the N. as a con- 
siderable intervening layer only, as on both sides the inclination of the 
gneiss and mica slate is the same. 

The central mass of the Silvretta, between the Engadine and Vorarl- 
bcrg, exhibits, in common with the more western central masses on the 
margin of the central zone, the fan-shaped structure, the superposition of 
the crystalline slates over the Jura and more recent strata, and the occur- 
rence of granitic gneiss in the axis of the fan. Another characteristic of 
this mass is the vast extent of the hornblende schists which partially 
supersede the gneiss, and the meridional direction of the associated rocks, 
so that the axis of the mass corresponds neither with the direction of the 
lamination nor the watershed. The granite, which from the W. extremity 
forms the axis of the range, extends over the eminences of the Silvretta, 
Vermunt, and Jamthal snow-mountains to the source of the Landauarl 
(p. 339), and the III (p. 378). 

An attempt has thus been made to trace the central masses from the 
centre as far as the E. and W. limits of Switzerland. 

Alpine Farming. In spring, as soon as the snow melts on the N. side 
of the Alps, and the first herbage makes its appearance, the cattle are 
released from their winter confinement, and driven to the lower pastures ; 
about the middle of June higher regions are ascended, and at the begin- 
ning of July a number of the herds reach the highest pastures. At the 
beginning of September they descend to the lower districts, and about 
the 10th of October return to the valleys and their winter-quarters. In 
summer the best cows yield 10-16 quarts of milk daily, from which, 
during the pasture season of four months, about 2 cwt. of cheese is pre- 
pared, realising on an average l ji fr. per pound. The best cheese is pro- 
duced on pastures about 3000' above the level of the sea, the most 



xlii XIV. GLACIERS. 

favoured districts being the valleys of the Emme (p. 96),. the Simme 
(p. 157), and the Sarine (p. 158). The herdsman (Senne) with his boys 
has abundant occupation in assembling his 80 or 90 cows twice a. day to 
he milked, in making the cheese, and cleaning the vessels employed in 
the process. The stables or huts (Fr. Chalet, o e r. Sennhutle) in which 
the cattle and herdsmen are housed for the night, and where the cheese 
is manufactured, are rudely constructed of pine-logs, and not always im- 
pervious to wind and rain ; the flat roofs consist of broad, oblong, or 
square pieces of wood, or 'shingles', kept in their places by heavy stones. 
The chalets of the better class are generally divided into three compart- 
ments, the largest containing the lire-place and milk cauldron, another 
being the dairy, or cheese-manufactory, and the third a sleeping-room. 
The sole furniture consists of a wooden bench and table. Although the 
neighbourhood of these huts is generally dirty and uninviting, they will 
often be hailed with satisfaction by the hungry wayfarer, as they generally 
afford excellent milk, fresh butter, cheese, and bread. In the more 
frequented districts coffee, wine, honey, eggs, and even a tolerable bed of 
hay may also be obtained at the chalets. Many of the huts are recep- 
tacles for hay only. 

For the Manufacture of Cheese, the freshest milk, or that from which 
the cream has already been removed, is employed according to the quality 
of the cheese to be made. The cheese having been separated from the 
whey by means of rennet, and pressed, is placed in the magazine, where 
it is turned daily, and moistened with cloths saturated with salt-water. 
If the whey is not used for sanitary purposes, an inferior quality of 
cheese called 'Zieger 1 is again prepared from it, and the refuse serves to 
fatten the pigs which are frequently kept for this purpose on the mountains. 

The term "-Alp \ which recurs so frequently In the Handbook, signifies 
a mountain-pasture. ' Matten ' are the richer and less elevated meadows. 
'Graf or ' Arete'' denotes a precipitous and serrated mountain-ridge. 

XIV. Glaciers. 

The somewhat granular snow (neige orenuc) which falls in the highest 
Alpine regions, above the snow line (8000'), accumulates in the valleys and 
clefts of the rocks, and after being partially melted during the day, espe- 
cially in the lower districts, is converted during the night into a solid 
frozen mass. Thus, layer by layer, is formed the Glacier, the most strik- 
ing feature of the Alpine world, a stupendous mass of the purest azure ice. 
Xii scene in Switzerland is so strikingly and strangely beautiful as when, 
in some fertile and wooded valley, the glittering pinnacles of a glacier are 
suddenly presented to our gaze in the immediate proximity of corn-fields, 
fruit-trees, smiling meadows, and human habitations. 

The more extensive or Primary glaciers arc long arms of solid ice, 
resembling frozen cataracts, which occupy entire valleys, frequently with 
■a very slight fall, and are estimated to attain a thickness of 1500'. The 
smaller or Secondarii glaciers are of more limited extent, lying on the moun- 
tain-slopes with a considerable fall, and being of less massive consistency. 

At a height exceeding 10,000' above the sea-level, the influence of the 
sun is too slight to melt the surface of the snow sufficiently for its con- 
version into ice. This snowy, unconsolidated upper portion of the glacier 
is termed Fim (Fr. Acre), which lower down, where the suns rays 
become more powerful, gradually blends with the ice oi the glacier, formed 
as already described. The glacier is therefore, as it were, the offshoot of 
the Fim, but is easily distinguishable from it, the surface of the ice being 
rounded towards the margins, and that of the Firn towards the centre. 

While the fall of snow and the formation of glacier-ice suffer no inter- 
mission the extent of the glaciers does not increase. The compensation 
in the higher regions is effected by the evaporation and absorption of the 
ice by the influence of the sun and air, in the lower regions bv the con- 
version of the ice into water, which descends through the fissures and 
lorms a brook, the invariable outlet of every glacier. ' 



XIV. GLACIERS. \liii 

It is a well-established fact that glaciers are in a perpetual state of 
motion, and descend with more or less rapidity. Professor Forbes found 
that the ice of the Mer de Glace advanced 209' per annum at the source 
of the Arveyron, while at the base of the Montanvert the annual pro- 
gression amounted to 822'. The motion in winter is less rapid than in 
spring and summer. It has been calculated that 200 years would elapse 
before a mass of rock, lying on the surface of the glacier at its upper end 
would reach the valley of Chamouny. 

Saussure ( pp. 223, 237) attributes the advance of glaciers entirely to 
the mechanical pressure exercised by the masses of snow on the upper 
portions, whilst the lower extremities gradually melt away. Agassiz (p. 140) 
and his disciples maintain that the increase of glaciers is owing to the rain 
and snow which penetrate into the fissures, and, being converted into ice, 
tend to force the glacier downwards. Forbes is of opinion that the glacier 
is a sluggish stream which, notwithstanding the apparently brittle nature 
of the ice, possesses sufficient plasticity to accommodate itself to the irre- 
gularities of its bed. 

The masses of rock and detritus which become detached from the 
mountain-sides descend either to the glacier itself or to its margins, and, 
as the glacier continually, but imperceptibly advances, form long walls or 
barriers on either side. These are termed Lateral Moraines (Ger. Gan- 
decken). When two glaciers meet, their lateral moraines extend over the 
surface of the ice, and form long walls of rubbish, called Medial Moraines 
(Ger. Guff'erlimen), which, conveyed by the glacier to its lower end, and 
there deposited, constitute the Terminal Moraine (Ger. Stirnwall). The 
stones of the latter thus generally afford a clue to the nature of the inac- 
cessible rocks of the higher Alps. 

The formation of ice on the upper part of the glacier is usually 
exactly compensated by the absorption and dissolution of the ice effected 
by the action of the sun and air, and the glacier seldom advances beyond its 
accustomed bed. This, however, is by no means invariably the case; in 
1818, the terminal moraine of the Rhone Glacier (p. 141), for example, ad- 
vanced 150'. The lower extremity, or ' tongue \ of the glacier, then forces 
everything before it — soil, turf, stones, trees, and the ruined chalets — 
forming a huge wall with the rubbish of its lateral and medial moraines. 
If, on the other hand, the formation of ice is exceeded by the consump- 
tion, the glacier decreases, draws in its feelers, so to speak, and retires 
into the narrow mountain-gullies. The former extent of a glacier can in 
this case be traced by the position of the terminal moraine. Warm seasons 
occasion retrogression , whilst an advance of the glaciers , sometimes 
amounting to 2' daily, was observed in the years 1815-17, 1828-30, 1836, 
1837, 1857-59, and lastly in 1861. 

Large slabs of rock are occasionally seen on the glaciers, supported 
by pillars of ice. These so-called Glacier Tables protect the ice on which 
they rest from the influence of the sun's rays, while the ice in their vicinity 
dissolves, thus insulating the 'table'. Smaller objects, such as stones, 
leaves, or even a dead insect, produce an opposite effect on the surface 
of the ice. They become heated by the sun, and melting the ice under 
them, form hollows. 

When the glacier stream overflows the brink of a precipice, the solid 
icy mass is rent by innumerable fractures, which by exposure to the sun 
and air give rise to the Ice-Needles and Ice-Pyramids. 

The streams formed by the melting of the ice on the surface of the 
glacier descend into the crevices and fissures, and, occasionally penetrating 
the entire mass, unite with the brook beneath the glacier. In the former 
case they are termed Brunnen, or wells, Fr. Baignoirs ; in the latter, 
Trickier , or funnels , Fr. Moulins. These openings and clefts are closed 
in winter, and the mass of ice becomes more consolidated. In spring and 
summer , however , new rents continually appear , their formation being 
generally attended by a loud cracking noise. 

The Crevasses (Ger. Schriinde") are a constant source of vexation to 
the glacier-wanderer. When he has succeeded in scaling the lofty and 
precipitous moraines, and has threaded his way through a chaos of rocks 



xliv XIV. GLACIERS. 

on the surface of the ice, his progress is too often obstructed by some 
yawning gulf which compels him to retrace his step6, or have recourse 
to a long circuitous route. When these abysses are concealed by newly- 
fallen snow, a single incautious step may be attended with the most dis- 
astrous consequences. 

The beds of ancient glaciers may frequently be traced by the singular 
manner in which they have polished and furrowed the surface of the 
rocks over which they have passed. This phenomenon (Ger. GletscJier- 
schliff) is occasioned by the friction of pebbles and fragments of quartz, 
interposed between the glacier and the rock, and is observed only on 
granite and gneiss, as for instance at the Handeck (p. 134). From these 
and numerous other indications of a similar nature, it is inferred that 
the extent occupied by glaciers at a very remote period was far greater 
than at present (comp. p. xxxvii). This conjecture is confirmed by the 
frequent occurrence of Erratic Blocks of granite in districts to which they 
must have been conveyed by some external force , having been in all 
probability deposited by ancient glaciers. It is a remarkable fact that 
boulders of this description are found on the E. slopes of the Jura, near 
Bienne and Soleure, where the rock-formation consists entirely of limestone. 

The glacier-domain of Switzerland extends from Mont Blanc to the 
Ortler, the entire area thus occupied being computed at 900 sq. M. The 
cantons of the Grisons (225), Bern (155), and the Valais (130) comprise 
nine-tenths of the Swiss glaciers (540) , two-thirds of which send their 
waters to the Rhine. The most extensive glacier , 15 M. in length, is the 
Aletsch Glacier (p. 146). 



Abbreviations used in the Handbook. 



K. 


= 


Room. 


B. 


= 


Breakfast. 


D. 


= 


Dinner. 


L. 


= 


Light. 


A. 


= 


Attendance. 


51. 


= 


English mile. 


ft. 


(') 


= Engl. foot. 


N. 


= 


North. 



S. 


= 


South. 


E. 


= 


East. 


W. 


= 


West. 


r. 


= 


Bight. 


1. 


= 


Left. 


hr. 


:= 


Hour. 


min. 


= 


Minute. 


carr. 


= 


Carriage. 



KB. Everything specially worthy of note is indicated by an asterisk. 
Distances in mountainous districts are represented by the time in which 
they are traversed by average walkers. 



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Hotels. 'Trois Rois (Plan a), on the Rhine , R. 3-5 fr. and upwards, 
L. >/ 2 , B. l'/ ? , D. 5-6, A. 1 fr. — At the Central Station, "Schweizkrhof, R. 
2'/ 2 , B. li/2, D. 3 fr. ; opposite to it, 'Hotel Euler, R. 2-3, D. 3'/ 2 -4V 2 , B. 
iy 2 , L. and A. l'/<, omnibus 1 fr. — Hotel Hofer; Faucon, corner of the 
Elisabethen-Str. ; Cigogne (PI. h), R. 2'/*, B. l'/ 2 , D. inc. W. 3, L. and 
A. 1 fr. ; "Sauvagb (PI. c), similar charges. — Couronne (PI. d), Kopf 
(PI. e), both on the Rhine; Hotel dk la Poste; Schiff, unpretending, 
well spoken of, R. and A. 2 fr. — In Klein-Basel, on the right bank of the 
Rhine: s Croix (PI. h), R. 2, B. 1, A. >/ 2 fr.; opposite to it, 'Hotel Krafft 
(PI. g), R. from 2, B. li/ 2 , D. 3i/ 2 , L. and A. 1 fr. ; 'Hotel Schrieder (R. 
2, B. l>/«, A. a/4 fr.) and "Hotel Michel (R. 2>/ 2 -3, B. I74, A. 1/2 fr-), both 
opposite the station of the Baden railway. — The usual dinner-hour at the 
hotels is 12.30. 

Cafes. "Cafi des Trois Rois, near the hotel of that name, with a 
balcony overlooking the Rhine; "Bellevue, opposite the Central Station; 
''National, on the right bank of the Rhine, near the bridge. — Ices : Wirz, 
near the bridge ; Kissling, Freie-Str. ; Brilderlin, Schneidergasse. 

Restaurants. At the hotels and cafes, at the "Central and the "Baden 
stations. * Veltliner Halle , at the back of the post-office ; Kibiger, Bar- 
fiisser-Platz ; Jundt, at the Central Station ; Schuhmacher, opposite the 
Central Station. — In Klein-Basel: Burgvogtei, a 'Bierhalle' with garden 
and open-air theatre. — Sommer- Casino (PI. 18), near the St. Jacob Mon- 
ument, music on Wed., Frid. , and Sund. 6-9 p.m.; concerts also at 
Michel's Garden (Tues., Thurs., and Sund.), and the Erlen-Park, I74 M. 
from the town. Restaurant in the Zoological Garden (p. 6). Thoma^s 
Biergarten, near the Central Station. 

Cabs. For 1/4 hr., 1-2 persons, 80 c, each additional [ /4 hr. 40 c. ; 3-4 
pers. 1 fr. 20 c. , each additional ','4 hr. 60 c. ; for a drive to either of the 
railway stations the rates are the same. From one of the stations into the 
town, 1-2 pers. 1 fr. 20 c, 3-4 pers. 1 fr. SO c. ; from one station to the other 
1-2 pers. 1V«, 3-4 pers. 2V 2 fr. ,' each box 30 c. extra. At night (10 p.m. 
to 6 a.m.) 2 fr. for the first l /\ hr. and 1 fr. for each additional l ft hr. 

Railway - Stations. Baden Station at Klein-Basel, nearly '/a M. (in a 
straight direction) from the Rhine Bridge; duty payable on carved wood- 
work brought from Switzerland 30 pfennige per lb. The Alsace and the 
Swiss lines both start from the Central Station in Bale, on the S. side 
of the town, about 1 M. from the Rhine bridge. These two stations have 
recently been connected by a junction line, crossing the Rhine (a journey 
of 10 min.). Travellers with through-tickets to or from Switzerland are 
conveyed from one station to the other by the through-carriages. 

Post and Telegraph Offices (PI. 16) in a handsome building in the 
Freien-Strasse; also at the railway stations. 

Baths. Swimming and other baths in the Rhine near the Miinster, 
entrance from the Pfalz (p. 4); on the right for ladies, on the left for 
gentlemen (1 fr.). Warm baths: Meyer-Ritter, Elisabethen - Str. ; Sigmund, 
I.eonhard-Str. 

Newspapers in the 'Lesegesellschaft' (10 a.m. to 9 ] / 2 p.m.), by the 
Munster. Strangers must be introduced by a member. 

Zoological Garden outside the Steinenthor (p. 6); admission >/ 2 -l fr. 

Picture Gallery (•/■» fr.) in the new Kunsthalle on the Steinerberg 
(p. 6). 

English Church Service in the Church of St. Martin (PI. 8). 

Baedekei:, Switzerland. 7th Kdition. 1 



2 Route I. BALE. Minister. 

BMe, or Basel 1 871'), the principal town of the half-canton 
Bale-Ville (pop. 44,834, 12,019 Rom. Cath.J, is first mentioned 
in the year 374 under the name of Basilea, and appears to have 
been founded by the Roman army when it fell back on the Rhine 
near the old Colonia Augusta Rauracorum, which was founded B. C. 
27 by L. Munatius Plancus (now called Basel-Augsl, 5 M. to the 
S. E., see p. 16). Bale is a very prosperous commercial place, and 
is indebted for its wealth to the convenience of its situation for 
traffic with France and Germany , and to the enterprising character 
of its inhabitants. One of the staple products of the place is silk 
ribbon. 

The town lies on the left bank of the Rhine, and is connected 
with Klein-Basel on the right bank by a wooden bridge , 200 yds. 
in length , and partly supported by stone piers. In the middle of 
the bridge , opposite to a small chapel , rises a triangular obelisk, 
with a barometer and a small bronze figure o,f the Lallenkonig (on 
the left), a thermometer, etc. 

The *Munster (PI. 9), an imposing and picturesque edifice of 
red sandstone, with its two lofty and conspicuous towers, was for- 
merly the Cathedral of the see of Bale. [The bishopric, which was 
founded by Charlemagne, was transferred in consequence of the 
puritanical outrages to Porrentruy (p. 7) in 1529 , and after- 
wards to Soleure (p. 12).] The church was built by the Emperor 
Henry II. in 1010-1019, and was restored in 1185, after having 
been destroyed by fire. In 1356 the old building was all but 
demolished by an earthquake , but was afterwards rebuilt in the 
Gothic style. Of the original structure the N. portal, or St. Oallus 
gateway, still exists, and is adorned with statues of the Evange- 
lists, John the Baptist, and other saints; over the church-door is a 
relief representing the wise and foolish virgins; at the sides in 
six niches are the works of charity, and at the top Christ on the 
Judguientseat and the angels at the last day. The W. Front under 
the towers, with the principal portal and two side-entrances, be- 
longs to the 14th cent. ; on the front are represented the Virgin and 
Child, and under them the Emp. Henry, the founder and bene- 
factor of the church, with the Empress Kunigunde ; on the two side- 
entrances are two knights, on the left St. George and the Dragon, 
and on the right St. Martin. The towers, which are 218' in height, 
were not completed till 1500. In the year 1431 the convocation 
of the great Council began to sit in the Minister; it consisted of 
upwards of 500 clergymen, whose ostensible task was a 'refor- 
mation of the Church in head and members' ; but after having 
disputed for years without any result, and having been excom- 
municated by/ Pope Eugene IV. , the Council was at last dis- 
solved in 1448. The church is not open to the public but is 
shown for a fee of l /.> fr. for one person, or 1 fr. for two or more 
persons ; fee for the church and the mediajval collection 1 fr. for 



Minuter. BALE. I. Route. 3 

one person, or 2 t'r. for two or more persons. The sacristan lives 
opposite the principal entrance (fee ^fr.); but in summer he is 
generally to be found in the church. 

The Intekiok of the Miinster was bereft of its most beautiful ornaments 
in the great iconoclasm of 1529, but was re-decorated in 1852-56 with 
great skill, and is now one of the finest Protestant churches in existence. 
The beautiful rood-loft of 1381 now serves to support the organ, a very 
fine instrument, performances on which may be heard once or twice a week 
in summer, 6-7 p.m. (admission 1 fr.). The pulpit dates from 1486. The 
aisles and choir contain fine old monuments and tombstones built into the 
walls ; in the N. aisle is the old episcopal throne ; also a very remark- 
able relief of the 11th cent, (martyrdom of St. Vincent) ; the font is of 1465 ; 
on the pillar opposite is the tombstone of the learned Erasmus of Hotter- 
dam (d. 1536), with a long Latin inscription. In the retro-choir are the 
monuments of the Empress Anna (d. 1281), consort of Rudolph of Hapsburg 
and mother of Albert I., and of her youngest son Charles. The modern 
stained-glass windows in the three large upper windows of the lofty choir, 
representing Moses and David, Peter and Paul, and the four Evangelists, 
are by Eckert and Eottinger of Zurich; the lower, representing the Last 
Supper and Crucifixion , are by Gsell of Paris ; the newest window , ex- 
hibiting Christ as Judge of the world, is from the stained-glass Insti- 
tution of Munich. The window at the W. end containing portraits of 
Emp. Henry II. and the Empress Kunigunde, together with those of the 
burgomaster Meyer and the Reformer John (Eeolampadius (see below) is 
also from Munich. The crypt is now occupied by the stoves used in 
heating the church. 

The ! Medijeval Collection, which occupie seight rooms and an ante- 
chamber in the cathedral, is worthy of a visit (open in summer from 
10.30 to 12 o'clock, admission '/* f'O- All the curiosities are labelled. 
The anteroom contains architectural fragments from churches and secular 
edifices of Bale, carved choir-stalls, etc.; and here also is preserved the 
Lallenkonig, a large head formerly placed on the clock tower of the 
bridge over the Rhine (taken down in 1839), which rolled its eyes and 
protruded its long tongue ('Lalli') at each stroke of the pendulum. This 
head was originally erected in derision of the inhabitants of Klein-Basel 
in consequence of some dispute, and they returned the compliment by 
setting up a similar figure on their own side of the river. (The mecha- 
nism of the head may be wound up and set in motion.) The Chapel of 
St. Nicholas, which we next enter, has been fitted up as a museum of 
armour, and contains the most interesting objects formerly kept at the 
Arsenal (p. 5). In the centre is a cannon in the form of a dragon 
(1514); on the right, by the window, the armour which is said to have 
belonged to Charles the Bold. A narrow staircase ascends hence to the 
Council Hall, which is still well preserved in its original condition. It 
contains eighteen fragments of the famous Bale 'Death Dance, a fresco 
in commemoration of the plague which once adorned the wall of the 
Dominican burial-ground (taken down in 1804), having been painted at 
the beginning of the 15th cent. , and formerly erroneously attributed to 
Holbein. The hall also contains casts of mouldings, capitals, etc., from 
churches of Bale, and statuettes in wood and clay. We next enter two 
chambers, once set apart for the archives, containing iron-work, minia- 
ture portraits, goldsmiths'' work , vessels of zinc , and other objects of a 
.semi-artistic character. Another staircase ascends to a large room con- 
taining old tapestry, goblets and dishes, tables, beds, cabinets, and other 
domestic articles. The sixth room (a chapel) contains ecclesiastical 
curiosities in wood and bronze (altars, votive-tables). In the seventh 
room are architectural ornaments in wood from secular buildings. The 
eighth room contains old legal and political memorials of Bale. 

On the S. side of the choir are extensive ^Cloisters, constructed 
in 1362, 1400, and 1487, and restored in 1869-73, connecting the 
church with the episcopal palace, and used as family burial-places. 

1* 



4 Route 1. BALE. Museum. 

These cloisters extend to the Pfalz, a terrace behind the Mini- 
ster, rising 78' immediately above the Rhine, and deriving its 
name from an imperial Pfalz, or palace, to which it is said for- 
merly to have belonged. It is planted with chestnuts, and affords 
a pleasing prospect of the green river and the distant heights of 
the Black Forest. Below the Pfalz are the swimming and other 
Baths, and above the most western of the latter is the Lesegesell- 
schctft, or Reading Club (p. 1). Behind the Munster is the house 
of Erasmus of Rotterdam; near it, a statue of (Ecolampadius. 

In the street leading from the Munsterplatz in a N.W. direc- 
tion to the bridge, is the "Museum (PI. 14), open to the public 
on Sundays from 10 to 12, and Wednesdays from 2 to 4 o'clock 
( collection of engravings open on Thursdays from 2 to 5); on other 
days admission 1 fr. It contains a picture-gallery and collections 
of natural and scientific curiosities. 

The Picture Gallery is chiefly remarkable for the paintings and 
drawings which it contains of the younger Holbein (b. at Augsburg 1498, 
d. at London 1554). The Staircase is adorned with frescoes of Gtea, 
Flora , and Apollo by Bbcklin ; then three cartoons for the ceiling-paint- 
ing in the choir of St. Ludwig's church at Munich, by Cornelius; Chriem- 
hilde's lament, the cartoon of a picture in the Nibelungen Saloon at 
Munich, by Schnorr; Moses breaking the Tables of the Law, the cartoon 
of a painting in the chateau of Eheineck, by Steinle; also a number of 
casts from sculptures by Canova, Rietscliel, Hahnel, Chaponniere, and 
Trippel, and a statue of Jason with the golden fleece, in marble, by 
SchWth. — Ante-Room. 2-14. Old and modern copies of Holbein's ob- 
literated frescoes in the Council Chamber; pictures by old masters of 
Bale and other places in Switzerland. — Drawings. Among them are 
84 by H. Holbein the Younger and 96 by Swiss and Upper Rhenish masters : 
8T-89. Amur. Holbein , 91-100. H. Holbein the Elder , 127-130. M. Schongauer, 
131-134. H. Baldung Gruen, 135-137. A. Diirer, 140. H. Sebald Beham, 145. II 
Schaufelin; then, 155. Raphael, God commanding Noah to build the ark, 
the design for a painting on the dome of the Stanza dell'Eliodoro in the 
Vatican; 156. Titian, Landscape with the flight to Egypt. — Pictures. 
A. "Holbein Room. 7, 8. Schoolmaster's signboard of 1516; 13. Portrait 
of Boniface Amerbach; 14. The burgomaster Jacob Meyer and his wife; 
16, 17, 18. Erasmus; 19. The dead body of Christ, of startling fidelity, 
which is said to have been painted from that of a drowned Jew; '20. 
Wife and children of the painter; 21. Last Supper; 11. Lais Corinthiaca, 
the portrait of a lady of the noble family of Offenburg; 23. The same 
lady as Venus with Cupid; '-26. The Passion in eight separate scenes, 
formerly in the Rathhaus , for which Elector Maximilian offered 30,000<1. 
in 1641; 34. Portrait of the printer Froben; 26. A London merchant. In 
the same room: //. Fries (of Freiburg), 45-51. From the history of Mary; 
52-54. Two wings of an altar of St. John from Freiburg. In the centre 
of the room, Rebecca, a statue in marble by H. Imhof. — B. Early Ger- 
man Masters. 51-72. Colmar (Schongauer's) School; 75. H. Baldung Gruen, 
Death kissing a woman, and 76. Death grasping a woman by the hair; 
L. Cranach, 81. Stag-hunt, and 84. Lucretia. — C. Modern Swiss 
.Masters (and others). Left: "151a. Roller, Cows by a lake; 159. 160. 
Steffan, Landscapes; 138a. Oirardet, After the battle. Right: 107. F. 
Buchser, Five Capuchins praying while a lady and gentleman pass by; 
168. F. Buchser, Negro telling his reminiscences of the American war; 
151. Koller, Horses on a road through a dale; "145. Calame, The Schreck- 
horu and Wetterhorn; 136. Oirardet, Fortune teller; ' a LJ5. Vatitier Poor 
rustic debtor compelled by a rich neighbour and his agent to sell his 
properly; 146b. StiickeWerger, The painter's children; 155. BiicMin .Sorrow- 
ing Magdalene. -- It. i---y.tr-. '• •■ '■ V' iiiiftrlhrnii'i: Festival of St.. Mary 



Arsenal. BALE. / . Route. 5 

in the Sabine ?lts.: t34. Veillon, Venice. Right: 137;i. Qirardet, Village 
barber; 146a. Stiickelberger, Marionettes; 156. Diday, Scene on the Lake 
of Brienz ; 139a. Girardet , Snow-balling ; 158a. Gleyre, 'Charmeuse\ Also 
a number of Italian , French , and Flemish works of little importance -. 
171. Herri de Bleu, Holy Family; 176. Honthorst , Flea-hunt; D. Tenters, 
184. Musicians, :S 185. Rustic interior; 198. H. Aldegrever, The Anabaptist 
prophet A. Joris of Delft. — E. Birmann Collection. 266. Ann. Caracci, 
Nativity ; 281. Phil, de Champaigne, Portrait of a clergyman ; 282. Mabuse, 
Adoration of the Magi; s 291. Tenters, Smoker; 311-324. Works by Peter 
Birmann ; 325-230. toi. Birmanit. Bust of S. Birmann by Christen (1871). 
— F. Modern German School (the room farthest to the N., to the left of 
the Holbein Room). J. Koch, s 351. Macbeth and the witches, "352. 
Landscape with a view of Olevano; 360. W. Ahlborn, Landscape with 
a mediaeval town; ''361. Overbeck, Death of Joseph; 362. Schnorr, 'Do- 
mine quo vadis?' ; 366. S\ r eher, The angel visiting Abraham; 367. Steinle, 
St. Luke painting the Madonna; 373. Feuerbach, Idyl; 374. Lessing, Land- 
scape. — G. Modern Drawings (at the S. and opposite end of the 
collection). 1-13. Hess, Schraudolph, and J. C. Koch, Cartoons for the 
frescoes in St. Boniface at Munich; 26-35. Overbeck, Pencil sketches; 
36. Schwind , Parable of the vineyard (in water-colours) ; 29-40. Schioind, 
Drawings of his earlier period; B. Genelli , "41. Jacob and Rachel at 
the well, '42. Rape of Europa; 44-48. K. Eberhard, Drawings; 50. 
J. Koch, Adam and Eve; 51. Cornelius, First design for the Olympus 
in Ihe Hall of the Gods at the Glyptothek; 42. Cornelius, Last Judg- 
ment, a pencil sketch of the fresco in St. Ludwig's church at Munich ; : 53. 
Content, Olympus attacked by the Titans and Rape of Proserpine (in 
water-colours); 54. Schick, Family of fauns; :: 55. Eberle, Mourning Jews 
at Babylon; 58-62. Steinle, Drawings; 65. Rottmunn, View of Sicyon; 71. 
Schnorr, The days of creation; 83. Schwanthaler, Scene in a circus. — 
Collection of Antiquities. On the left a cabinet with Mexican anti- 
quities; remains of the treasure of the cathedral; in the centre of the 
room a number of objects from lake-dwellings and flint tools; on the 
right a cabinet with African antiquities; between the windows a hand- 
some antique cabinet. In the next room are vases, mosaics, and other 
antiquities, chiefly found near Augst (p. 16). 

The University library in the same building ("open from 
2 to 4) contains upwards of 85,000 volumes and 4000 M,SS.; 
among the latter are the transactions of the church council, 
writings of Luther, Melanchthon, etc. The University (200 students), 
founded in 1459 by Pius II. , is celebrated as the school of the 
great mathematicians Bernouilli, Merian, and Kuler. The hall 
contains upwards of 100 portraits of the learned men of Bale, 
of the cosmographer Sebastian Miinster (d. 1552), the reformers 
Oecolampadius and Grynaeus, etc. 

The Bathhaus (PI. 17), or Town Hal), in the Market-place, was 
erected in 1508 in the so-called Burgundian (late Gothic) style, 
and restored in 1826. The facade is adorned with the town-arms (a 
black episcopal crozier resting on a fisherman's grappling-iron ). 
The court contains a Statue of Munatius Plancus, the traditional 
founder of Augst (p. 2) and Bale, erected here in 1850. 

The Arsenal (PI. 23), the receptacle of the arms for the Bale 
contingent of troops, contains nothing worthy of note, the curio- 
sities formerly preserved here having been removed to the Chapel 
of St. Nicholas (p. 3). 

The handsome Spahlen-Thor (St. Paul), on the W. side of the 
town, erected about the year 1400, the St. Albansthor on the S., 



6 Route 1. BALE. 

and the St. Johannsthor on the N. , have been restored, but the 
other gates have been removed, and the ramparts converted into 
public walks. 

Other Mediaeval Structures deserving mention are the late 
Gothic Fishmarket-Fountain, erected in the 14th cent. ; the Spah- 
len-Fountain with a bagpiper , supposed to have been designed 
by Holbein ; the Roman archway in the old St. Albans Monastery 
{ PI. 5). — The Barfilsser-Church (PI. 4), dating from the be- 
ginning of the 14th cent., with its very lofty choir, is now used 
as a store-house. — The Church of St. Martin (PI. 8) was restored 
in 1851 and converted into a Protestant place of worship. — The 
large Gothic (Rom. Cath.) Church of St. Clara (PI. 25) at Klein- 
Basel has been recently restored. 

The chief Modern Buildings are the Gothic Elisabethenkirche 
(PI. (>), erected by Hr. Merian-Burckhardt (d. 1858), and em- 
bellished with fine stained glass from Munich ; the new Kunsthalle 
(exhibition, p. 1), and adjacent to it the new Theatre, designed by 
Stehlin, and the new Musiksaal. In theWall-Strasse is the Bernoul- 
lianum, a handsome edifice connected with the university, and 
destined for the departments of physics, chemistry, and astronomy. 

The Zoological Garden outside the site of the Steinenthor, 
adjoining the 'Nachtigallenwaldohen', about l /. 2 M. from the Central 
Station (adm. 50c. -Ifr.), contains admirable examples of Swiss and 
other animals. Concerts are frequently given in the afternoon. 

The Missionary Institutions of Bale are deservedly in high repute. 
The Mission -House (PI. 12) educates missionaries for the promulgation 
of Christianity. It contains an interesting ethnographical collection from 
the E. Indies and W. Africa, and two large models of the Temple area 
and Great Mosque at Jerusalem. — In the neighbourhood are several 
other charitable institutions — at Riehen, 3 M. to the N.E., at Crischonu , 
M. to the E. , and at Beuggea, 9 M. to the E. (p. 20). — An excellent 
Society for the Promotion of the Public Welfare, which has existed at Bale 
for nearly a century, has a verv extensive sphere of operation. 

The Monument of St. Jacob (PI. 3), about >/, M. to the S.E. of the 
/Eschenthor , on the road to the Munster-Thal , by F. Schloth, completed 
in 1872, commemorates the heroism and death of 1300 Confederates who 
opposed the Armagnac invaders under the Dauphin (afterwards Louis XI. I 
in 1444. Above is Helvetia in armour, with a wreath; on the pedestal 
are four falling warriors in marble. Inscription: 'Our souls to God, our 
bodies to the enemy !' 

2. From Bale to Bienne (Bern and Neuchdtel) through 
the Munster-Thal. 

08 31. Railway (Jura and Bern Line) from Bile to Jloutier (32 M.I 
in 2' '« hrs.; Dii.kjknck from Mouiier to Court |3' 2 31.) four times daily 
in 5(1 min. (railway to be opened in summer 1877); Railway from Court 
to Bienn.; (2'2',j 31.) in l 1 _. 2 hrs.; from Bienne to Bern 1 22' 2 31 I in 1- 
l 1 i hr.; to Xeuchutel (20 31.) in VI 1 , 1 ur- 

The Miinsterthal, French Val Moutim, through which the Bit's Hows is 
the grandest and most remarkable in the whole Jura range. It consists' of 
a succession of deliles and narrow gorges, whose banks are clothed with 
pines, while Ihe plain smiles with verdant meadows, picturesque villages and 



DELF.MONT. 2. Route. 7 

busy mills. This valley, which belongs to the ancient bishopric of Bale, 
afforded the Romans a line of communication between Aventicum (Avenches, 
see p. 169), the most important town of Helvetia, and Augusta Raurarorvm 
fAugst, see p. 16), one of their advanced posts on the Rhine. When the 
railway through this beautiful valley is completed, it will form a new 
and pleasant approach from Bale to Western Switzerland. 

Soon after leaving the Central Station the train diverges from 
the main line to the right (r. the cemetery , 1. the Monument of 
St. Jacob, see above), and before reaching the first stat. Monchen- 
stein crosses the Bits. On the hills to the left are several ruined 
castles. — 5 M. Dornach (1643'), where on 22nd July, 1499, 
(5000 Confederates defeated 15,000 Austrians, thus terminating the 
Swabian war. In the church reposes Maupertuis (d. 1759), the 
celebrated mathematician. On a wooded hill, about Y2 M. to the W., 
near Arlesheim (1066'), rises Schloss Birseck, once a chateau of 
the chapter of the cathedral, recently restored, with a pleasant park. 

7 M. Aesch (Sonne). The village lies on the opposite bank of 
the Birs. The valley contracts. The train passes through a tunnel 
under the well preserved old chateau of Angenstein , and enters the 
canton of Bern. On a hill to the right rises the picturesque ruin 
of Pfeffingen. On the left, before(974M.) stat. Grellingen, is a large 
silk-factory. The train crosses the Birs twice and passes through a 
deep cutting in the rock, beyond which the valley expands. Schloss 
Zwingen, an old chateau on the right, was the residence of the epis- 
copal governors of the district, down to the first French revolution. 

14 M. Laufen (1155'; Sonne), at the confluence of the Luttel 
and Birs. The train continues to traverse the narrow wooded valley, 
enclosed by rocky mountains above. Before stat. Liesberg the train 
passes through a tunnel, and again crosses the Birs twice. At 
(22'/2 M.) Saugern, Fr. Soyhiere (Kreuz), the language changes 
from German to French. On the left is the ruined castle of the 
same name. At the rocky egress of the valley, before its expansion 
into a broad plain, on the right, lies Bellerive, now a manufactory. 
On the height to the left is the ruin of Vorburg. 

24 M. Delemont, Ger. Delsberg (1430'; *Ours; Faucon), an 
old town on the Some, with a chateau of the former Bishops of Bale. 

From Delemont to Porrentruv railway (opened in 1877) in l'/4 hr. 
The line traverses the valley of the Some. Stations Courtetelle, Courfaivre, 
and Olovelier, Ger. Lietingen, beyond which the train passes through a long 
tunnel and reaches St. Ursanne, an old town picturesquely situated in the 
romantic valley of the Doubs (p. 174). Another tunnel under the Mont Ter- 
rible is then traversed to stat. Courgenay and Porrentruv, Ger. Pruntrut 
(1391'; "Ours; C/ieval Blanc), a well-built town with 5400 inhab. and an 
old chateau, once the residence of the Bishops of Bale. — From Porrentruy 
the line proceeds via Delle, the French frontier station, to MontMliard, 
a station of the line from Miilhausen (in Alsace) to Belfort and Besancon. 

The line leads southwards across a level part of the valley, and 
beyond stat. Courrendlin enters the *Munsterthal, a wild, romantic 
ravine of the Birs. The huge cleft through which the stream passes 
testifies to the mighty convulsion which has forced the horizontal 
strata to assume their present almost perpendicular position, re- 



8 Route :>. MOUTIEH. 

sembling gigantic walls on each side of the ruad. In the middle 
of this deflle. and at the finest point on the route, are situated the 
glass-houses and forges of Roche. 

From JIlnstkk to the Weissenstein (p. 13). At the mouth of the 
gorge, near a restaurant, a good road, bounded on the S. by Mont Graitery, 
and on the N. bv Mont Raimeiu; ascends to the left to (2 M.) Gran/elden (Fr. 
Grandval, 1982') and (3/4 M.) Vremine (Kreuz), passing the watch-manu- 
fai'tury (if M. Perret; following the course of the Jtausse, which here forms 
some picturesque cascades, it next reaches (2 1 4 M.) St. Joseph am Gans- 
bruniien (Post). This place lies at the N. base of the Weissenstein, the 
summit of which (4213') can easily be reached hence in V/v hr., or by 
the road in 2 hrs. Carriages may be had from Gansbrunnen (15 fr.) to the 
Weissenstein. or to Miinster; from Minister to the Weissenstein 20 to 25 fr. 
Diligence between Miinster and Olten by Gansbrunnen twice daily in 6 his. 

3*2 M. Moutier, Ger. Miinster (1752'; Krone; Hirsch; Ross), a 
pleasant looking old village, situated in a feitile dale, is at present 
the terminus of the railway. 

The Road (railway in course of construction ; diligence, see 
above) traverses a wild and very picturesque gorge, beyond which, 
at the village of (35!/ 2 M. ) Court (2201 ft. ; Couronne; Ours), the 
Railway recommences. 

From Court or (preferable) from Be'vihtrd. 3 ,4 hr. \V., a steep path 
diverges to the left to (3 hrs.) Reuchenelte (see above), crossing the Montoz 
(4371'). Guide desirable. View similar to that from the Weissenstein. 

The railway traverses pasture-land, and proceeds by stat. Alal- 
leray to — 

43Y'2 M- Tavannes , Ger. Dachsfelden (2497'; *A'rone), a largo 
village at the source of the Birs. (Diligence three times daily to 
Porrentruy and Seignelegier.) — Farther on, the line ascends slight- 
ly and passes under the deflle of Pierre Pertuis by means of a 
tunnel 150 yds. in length. 

The Pierre Pertuis (petru pertusa; 2598') is a natural opening in the 
rock. 36 feet high, and more than once fortified in time of war. It bears 
a restored Roman inscription on the "N. side, which cannot be earlier 
than 161 A.D. This gate, the highest point between Tavannes and 
Sonceboz, marked the limit of the Helvetian province, and, at a later 
date, that of the bishoprics of Avenehes, Lausanne, and Bale. 

The train descends towards the W., skirting the .S. slope of 
the Mont de Corgemont . into the Valley of St. lmier (p. 175), de- 
scribes a sharp curve between Sombeval and Corgemont. crosses the 
Suze (or Scheuss) twice, and reaches — 

48 M. Sonceboz (2152'; *Couronne)< the junction of the rail- 
way to St. lmier and Convers (see p. 175). 

The train now passes through a tunnel under the (S.W. spur of 
the Montoz(se.e above). The valley of the Suze, on the left bank 
of which the railway runs, is narrow and wooded. 50' .''.> M. Reuchen- 
ilte (1942'; Truitc), with its ironworks, lies in a wider part of the 
valley. 

The line now suddenly turns towards the S. , and enters the 
narrow ravine which the Suze has formed for itself through the last 
heights of the Jura range. This is the most picturesque i )ar t f the 
railway journey. Kour tunnels between this point and IMenne. On 



BIENNE. :'. Route. 9 

the right beyond the first tunnel is a fall of the Suze , and on the 
hill are the ruins of the chateau of Rondchdtel. Two more tunnels. 
Pleasant view of the green valley of Or-vin to the right. The train 
passes through another long tunnel and crosses the deep and wild 
ravine of the Suze by a lofty bridge ; it then quits the ravine and 
commands to the left a striking *View of the rich plains of Bienne 
with its lake, and in the distance, in clear weather , the whole 
of the Alpine chain from the mountains of Unterwalden to Mont 
Blanc. Descending the vine-clad slopes, we soon reach — 

58 M. Bienne, Ger. Biel (Couronne; Croix; *Rail.-Reataurant), 
an ancient town, which enjoyed independence from 1250 to 1798, 
is situated near the lake (1424 ft.) of the same name and at the S. 
base of the Jura, the slopes of which are planted with the vine. Pop. 
8113 (891 Rom. Cath.). Colonel Schwab possesses an interesting 
collection of antiquities, chiefly from ancient lake-villages. New 
Roman Catholic church. 

From, Bienne to Neuchdtel, see pp. 11, 12. 

The Railway from Bienne to Bern (see p. 6) crosses the Zihl 
(Thiele) near stat. Briigg , and the Aare near stat. Busswyl. 

On the Aare, above (66 M.) Lyss , lies Aarbery (p. 170) with 
an ancient castle (railway to Lausanne via Payerne and Moral, see 
R. 41). Stations Subery, Schiipfen, Munchen-Buchsee , and Zolli- 
kofen, a station on the Swiss Central line (Bdle-Herzoyenbuchsee- 
Bernj. Thence to (80 72 M.) Bern, see p. 15. 

3. From Bale to Geneva by Neuchatel. 

165 M. Railway. To Geneva by express in 8, by ordinary trains in 
1 1 hrs. ; fares 27 fr. 60 c. , 19 fr. 65 c. , 14 fr. 30 c. — The equally short 
route by Bern and Lausanne (R. 40) is far preferable. — Steamboats on 
the lakes of Neuchatel and Geneva, see RR. 45, 49. 

On leaving the station , a view to the left is obtained of the 
vine-clad hills of Grenzach (p. 20) beyond the Rhine, and of Cri- 
schona (p. 6) on the hill. The line crosses the Birs (view of the 
valley); to the right the wooded slopes of the Jura. 3 M. Muttenz. 
Beyond (5 M.) Pratteln, where vineyards begin, the ruin of Schauen- 
bury is seen on the hill to the right. (Bblzberg Railway to Zurich, 
see p. 16.) On the Rhine, at some distance to the left, lies Basel- 
Augat(j>. 16), beyond which rise the mountains of the Black Forest. 

The line now leaves the valley of the Rhine, enters that of the 
Ergolz in the Jura, and traverses picturesque scenery as far as 
Olten. 7^2 M. Nieder-Schbnthal is the station for Frenkendorf 
(1119'), a pretty summer-resort on a hill to the right. Near Liestal, 
on the left , is the large new prison of Basel-Land, and beyond it 
the Cantonal Hospital. 

9 M. Liestal (1033'; *Falke, with salt and other baths; 
Schtiissel; Enyel; Sonne), with 3873 inhab.. prettily situated on the 
Eryulz, is the seat of the government of the half-canton Basel-Land, 



10 RouteS. OLTEN. From lit If. 

or Biile-Canipagne. In the council-hall is shown the cup of Charles 
the Bold, found in his tent after the battle of Nancy. — Bienenberg 
(Kurhaus), l'/ 2 M - t0 the N.W., is frequented as a summer-resort. 

Before reaching (13 M.J the thriving village of Sissach (1233'; 
Lowe), the train passes (r.) the small chateau of Ebenrain and its 
park. Fine view from the Sissacher Fluh (2398'), 1 hr. N. 

From Sissach to Aarau by the S< hafmatt, 10 31. By diligence 
In Oltingen in 1»' 4 hr., via (1" 2 M.) G elterkinden (1371': :, Rosslii, a manu- 
facturing village; (hence through a picturesque vallev to the IJanggiessen 
waterfall; (U/ii M.) Tecknau (1440'); to (1» 2 M.) Wensiingen (1860'J a steep 
ascent; (1>,2 M.) Oltingen (Ochs). The path which ascends the (l' /Z M.) 
Schafmatt (2. r >16') diverges close to the 'Cells' 1 , and cannot be mistaken, 
being provided with numerous direction-posts. The summit commands 
an extensive panorama of the Jura mountains and the Alps, as far as the 
deep valley of Rohr. Turning to the left here, we reach the upper part 
of a meadow, at the foot of which (l'.'s 31- from the summit) lies a chalet 
and whey-cure establishment. From this point we enjoy a view of the 
lake of Lucerne with its environs, the Rigi, 1'ilatus, etc. bounded on 
cither side by the mountains between which we stand. From the chalet 
to Aarau (p. 19) in 1 hr. by Ober- and Meder-Erlinsbarh. 

After crossing several picturesque valleys and passing stations 
Sommerau and Laufelflngen (2008'), the train enters the great 
Hauenstein Tunnel, 2970 yds. long, during the construction of 
which in 1857 fifty-two workmen were buried by a fall of earth, 
and eleven more perished in attempting to rescue them. On leav- 
ing the tunnel, we observe the ruin of Neu-Wartburg on a height 
(see below), to the right of which, farther on , the Bernese Alps 
gradually become visible from the SVetterhorn to the Doldenhorn. 
The train descends by a long curve to the Aare, which it crosses 
far below Olten, and then ascends to the station on the right bank. 

At the summit of the Hauenstein, ascended in 3 \ hr. from stat. Laufel- 
flngen (from Olten l 1 ^ hr.), is situated the Frohburg (2772'), a good inn, 
commanding a beautiful panorama of the Alps , from the Sentis to Mont Blanc ; 
in the foreground the Wartburg (see below) and the Wiggernthal with the 
railway to Lucerne-, r. Pilatus, 1. the Rigi. About 10 inin. from the inn are 
the ruins of a castle destroyed by an earthquake. — The traveller coming 
from the X., and visiting Switzerland fur the first time, would do well 
to leave the train at Laufelflngen, and walk to Olten over the Frohburg; 
in fine weather the view of the Alpine chain , which suddenly becomes 
visible from the top of the hill, is strikingly beautiful. — 2'/2 hrs. farther 
\V., on the summit of the pass of the Obere Hauenstein (2356')i is situat- 
ed Langenbruck, a favourite summer resort with a new 'Kurhaus (high 
road to Liestal and to Oensingen, p. 111. 

24 M. 01ten(129G'). — Suiiweizerhof; Krone; *Halbmond; "Rail- 
way- Restaurant. Passengers to or from Lucerne and Herzogenbuchsee-Bern 
change carriages; those from Bale to Zurich keep their seats. Detention 
of i/ 4 -i ;., hr. On leaving the waiting-rooms the trains for Bale and Zurich 
are to I he left, those to Lucerne and Bern to the right. 

Olten. the second town in the canton of Soleure (2998 inhab., 
733 Prot. ), is prettily situated on the Aare. The Parish Church 
possesses an 'Ascension' by Distili, and the Capuchin Church a Ma- 
donna by Denchwanden. Extensive railway work-shops and large 
shoe-manufactories here. — Railway to Aarau, see R. 7. 

To the ^. of Olten, and visible to the left of the line, rises the Wart- 
burg (223i': Restaurant), a small chateau recently restored, situated on 



to Neurh'tel. LAKE OF BIENNE 3, Route. 1 1 

an isolated peak several hundred feet above the Aare. View similar to 
that from the Frohburg (see above), and the ascent likewise recommended. 
From Olten station to the top 3 /i hr. ; same distance from Aarburg (p. 14). 
Beyond Olten , the train diverges to the right from the Bern 
line (p. 14), and, crossing the Aare, traverses in a S.W. direction 
the plain watered by the Diinnern, along the S. base of the Jura. 
Stations Hagendorf, Egerkingen, (36 M.) Oensingen (diligence twice 
daily in l 3 / 4 hr. to Lungenbruck, p. 10), Niederbipp. Near (39 M.) 
Wangen the train crosses the Aare, and farther on the Orosse Emtne 
not far from its confluence with the Aare. Above Soleure, to the 
right, rises the inn on the Weissenstein (p. 13); to the left a 
panorama of the Bernese Alps. 
46 M. Soleure, see p. 12. 

From Soleure to Burgdorf (15 M.) by the Emmenthal railway in 
1 hr. (2 fr. 50, 1 fr. 25 c). Stations Derendingen (see above); Biberisl; 
(8 M.) Utzensdorf, the largest village in the lower Emmenthal; Aefligen; 
Kircliberg; (15 M.) Burgdorf (p. 15). 

From Soleure to Ltss (15 31.) by railway in l-l'/4 hr. The line skirts 
the right bank of the Aare. Stations Zeuzingen, Biiren (Krone), a well- 
built little town with an old chateau, Busswyl (p. 9), and Lyss (p. 9). 

Next stations Selzach, Grenchen (Lowe ; Neues Bad) , a village 
where watches are manufactured, and Pieterlen. 

61 M. Bienne, see p. 9. 

Near the beautiful avenues to the S.W. of the town, the train 
reaches the Lake of Bienne (1424'), 10 M. long, 2 M. wide, great- 
est depth 250', and originally 3' lower than the lake of Neuchatel, 
with which it is connected by the upper Zihl or Thiele. This river 
again emerges from the lake at Nidau, a village situated on the E. 
bank. In consequence of the recent construction of an artilicial 
channel for the lower part of the Zihl, the level.of the lake has been 
lowered by several feet, and some interesting remains of lake- 
dwellings have thus been brought to light, particularly near Miirigen 
and Liischerz, on the E. bank. The train skirts the N.W. bank of 
the lake, and the fine view it commands is enhanced in clear weather 
by the snowy Alps in the background, which, as we proceed, be- 
come visible from the mountains of Unterwalden to Mont Blanc. 

Beyond (67 M.) Twann, Fr. Douanne (*Bar), the brook of that 
name forms a picturesque fall. 

This is the best starting-point for a visit to the Isle of St. Peter, situated 
a little to the S., opposite Ligerz (Fr. GUresse) and Chavanne (Kreuz), two 
villages where boats may also be hired for the purpose. The island, which 
is 3 /4 M. from the N.W. and l'/a M. from the S.W. bank, rises perpen- 
dicularly from the lake on the N. and W. sides. These sides are shaded 
by fine old oaks, and present a most picturesque aspect. The S. side, 
which is a gradual slope, is covered with vineyards and orchards. On 
the E. side, near the bank, is seen the small house ("Inn) which was oc- 
cupied by Rousseau in 1765 after his expulsion from Motiers-Travers 
I p. 176); but after a stay of two months he was driven from this retreat 
also by the government of Bern. The room of the great philosopher is 
preserved in the same state as it was when he occupied it, and the walls 
are of course covered with the names of thousands of visitors. It is to 
Rousseau's somewhat exaggerated description that the Isle of St. Peter 
and the Lake of Bienne owe their reputation. Boat from Neuveville, there 
and back in 2 hrs., 6 fr. In consequence of the lowering of the lake 



12 Route 4. SOLEl'KK. 

mentioned above, the island of St. Peter is now connected on the S. side 
with the smaller Kaninchen-lnsel, and even with the mainland near Cerlier 
(see below). 

70y[.JHeu.veyille(*Faucon 1 *Liond'Or, moderate; Trois I'oissons) 
is a smiling little town , the last in Canton Bern , and the ftrst 
place where French is spoken. In the College and at the house of 
J)r. Gross are valuable collections of antiquities, chiefly from the 
lake-dwellings. On the Schlossberg (1752 ft.), to the AV of the town, 
are the ruins of a former chateau of the Bishops of Bale, near which 
the Beonbach forms a picturesque fall foften dry in summer). 

To the right of Neuveville rises the Chasseral (5279') , or Gestler. in 
three terraces, studded on the S. side by numerous villages and verdant 
meadows. The view from the summit (ascent 3 1 /-.: hrs.), like that from the 
Weissenstein (p. 13), embraces a large part of E. Switzerland, the Black 
Forest, the Vosges , and the Alps. Poor inn at the top. The return may 
be made by Bienne, to which there is a road (13'. '2 31.). The view is more 
striking when the ascent is made on the N. side from Courtelary or <S(. 
Imier in the valley of St. Imier (p. 175). 

The old town of Cerlier, or Erlach (Ours), is situated opposite Neuve- 
ville at the N. foot of the Jolrmont (1981'), which is easily ascended in 
:i 4 hr. and commands a charming view. 

Near (71 V2 M.) Landeron the railway quits the Lake of 
Bienne; the little town lies to the left. 74 M. Cressier, with its 
church on a lofty rock; 75 M. Comaux. 

On emerging from a tunnel, the train reaches St. Blaise, where 
it skirts the slope of the mountain, and affords a complete view of 
the Lake of Neuchdtel, and it soon reaches the N. end of the lake, 
opposite to the distant Mont Blanc. 

80 M. Neuchatel, see p. 170. Thence to — 

165 M. Geneva, see K. 45. 

4. Soleure and the Weissenstein. 

Hotels. CoruoNNE, R. 2-3, B. 11/2, D. 3, A. 3/4 fr. ; C'euf ; Thium; 
Bakokzzi, near the station, also a restaurant (beer), R. 2, B. t fr. 

Restaurant of 'Bargezii. with a few bedrooms, '/■.. M. to the N.E., 
near the 'Hermitage' (p. 14), with a garden and pleasant view. 

Telegraph Office at the post-office. 

Carriages to the Weissenstein, see p. 14. 

Soleure, or Solothurn (1424'), on the Aare, a dull town with 
7054 inhab. (1291 Prot.), is the capital of the canton of Soleure 
and the residence of the Bishop of Bale. It^was incorporated in 
the Confederation in 1481 ; with Treves it claims to be the most 
ancient town on this side of the Alps ( l in Celtis nihil est Solo- 
doro antiquius , unis exceptis Treviris, quarum ego dicta soror\ is 
the inscription on the Clock Tower mentioned below). It is at least 
certain that the Roman Salodurum was once a flourishing settle- 
ment. The ramparts, planted with trees, afford a pleasant promenade. 

The St. TJrsus-Miinster, or cathedral of the Bishopric of Bale, 
was built in 17(i'2-73 on the site of an edifice of 1050. A flight 
of 33 steps leads to the facade between two fountains one of 
which is adorned with a statue of Moses striking the rock the 
other with a figure "»' "i<innn wringing the dew from the sheepskin. 



SOLEURE. 4. Route. 13 

The * Arsenal, not far from the cathedral, contains the arms 
of the cantonal militia, and on the first floor a collection of ancient 
armour, halberds, pikes, and standards, taken by the Confederates 
from the Austrians, Burgundians, and others. Among the curiosi- 
ties is a mitrailleuse of the 15th cent., adjoining which is an auto- 
maton figure which the custodian sets in motion. On the upper 
floor a large plastic group represents the reconciliation of the (Jon- 
federates effected at the Diet of Stans (p. 79) by Nicholas von der 
Fliie, from a drawing by Disteli (d. 1844). 

The oldest building in Soleure is the Clock Tower, which is 
said to have been erected in the 4th cent. B.C., but probably 
dates from the Merovingian period. The figures and mechanism 
of the clock are similar to those at Bern (p. 98). 

Under the arcades of the Hotel de Ville, and in the Public 
Library are preserved a few Roman antiquities. The Museum at 
the orphanage near the bridge contains a good collection of min- 
erals and fossils. The Kunstverein possesses a *Virgin and Child, 
with SiS. Ursus and Martin of Tours, by Holbein the Younger (1522). 

At No. 5 Bieler Strasse, near the post-office, the illustrious Polish 
exile Koscziusko (d. 1817) passed the last years of his life. His heart 
was interred at Zuchwyl, 3 j\ M. S.E. of Soleure, on the right bank of the 
Aare, where a simple monument, shaded by weeping willows, bears the 
inscription — ' Viscera Thaddaei Koscziusko\ His remains rest near those 
of Sobieski and Poniatowski in the Cathedral of Cracow. 

The "Weissenstein (4213'), 3 hours' walk or drive to the N. 
of Soleure, is one of the most frequented heights in Switzerland, 
and well merits its repute. On the Vordere Weissenstein (to the 
right of the Soleure and Miinster road) is a *Hotel (R. 2, B. l 1 /^, 
D. 4, pension incl. R. 8 fr.), surrounded by woods and pastures, 
and much resorted to in summer. 

The "View is less picturesque , but more extensive than that from 
the Rigi; and no spot commands a better view of the complete chain 
of the higher Alps from the Tyrol to Mont Blanc. To the N.E. are dis- 
tinguished the Sentis, the Glarnisch, with the Rigi in the foreground, the 
Todi between the Rigi and Pilatus, the lofty summit of Titlis, and the 
Sustenhorn ; then, beyond Soleure, the eye reaches to the Wetterhorn and 
Schreckhorn, the Finsteraarhorn , the Eiger, the Monch, the Jungfrau, the 
Blumlisalp, the Doldeuhorn, the Altels, ilonte Rosa, and still farther S.W. 
-Mont Blanc. To the W. glitter the lakes of Bienne, Morat, and Ueuchatel ; 
the Aare winds to the S. through the fertile plains , and the Grosse Enime 
Hows into it at the foot of the mountain. 

The -Rbthe (4587'), •/« hr. t° 'b e E. of the hotel, commands a still 
more extensive view towards the N. and E. (Black Forest and Vosges), 
which are hidden from the Weissenstein, and affords a good survey of 
the picturesque mountains and valleys of the Jura. — Towards the W. 
the view is concealed by the "Hasenmatt (4754'), l'/a hr. from the hotel, 
whence an uninterrupted panorama may be enjoyed. The path to it leads 
across the pastures to the W. for 3 /4 hr., turns to the left and ascends 
for 10 min. through wood, and skirts the crest of the hill for 10 min. 
in order to avoid the ravine descending from the Hasenmatt. A little 
beyond a path diverging to the chalet to the right a narrow path also 
leads to the right to the top in 25 min. more. (The easier route past 
the chalet is '/< hr- longer.) — We need not now return from the Hasen- 
matt by the Weissenstein. Leaving the top on the N. side, we may descend 
its W. and S. slopes, pass by Limimistcyl^ and regain Soleure, or the less 



14 Route 4. WEISSENSTEIN. 

distant station of Sclzach (p. 11). 3Iunster or Court in the JIunMerthal 
(p. 8) may he reached in 2 hrs. from the Hasonmatt. 

Fkom Solelke to thk Weissenstein. 1st. Carriage Road , parsing 
by Langeudorf and oberdorf (two-horse carriage for 3 pers. 20 fr., for 4 
pers. 25 fr., driver's fee not included; if the carriage remains during the 
night on the top, 5 fr. more). — 2nd. Footpath (guide or porter 5 fr., and 
3 fr. more if required to pass the night on the summit, which is however 
unnecessary, as porters may always be procured there), passing near the 
Eintieilelei (hermitage), by the Stiegeulos and Rest. By either of these routes 
the Weissenstein may easily be reached in 3 hrs. ; but the footpath is much 
to be preferred. We pass the cathedral of St. Ours, and through the 
handsome Bale gate, bearing to the left towards the Villa of M. Cartier 
with its two lowers, where we turn to the right. Farther on we enter the 
avenue to the left, at the end of which we turn to the right towards 
the church of St. Nicholas. Before reaching the church our route passes 
■Bargezzfs Brewery (with a few bedrooms) and turns to the left into the 
'St. Verenathal (1 M. from Soleure), a narrow, cool, and shady ravine, 
'/■2 31. in length. (A finger-post indicates the route to the 'Kremitage' to 
the left.) The path to the left, at the beginning of the gorge, leads to the 
Wengistein (see below). At the other end of the valley are quarries of Port- 
land limestone, where interesting fossils are frequently found. The blocks 
of granite on the neighbouring slopes are believed by geologists to have 
been deposited there by the agency of ancient Alpine glaciers (Introd. 
XIV). This gorge is now converted into a promenade. 

At the N. end of the ravine is the 'Hermitage of St. Verena. On 
the right is the dwelling of the hermit ; on the left is the chapel, hewn in 
the rock, which is reached by a broad flight of steps, and contains a re- 
presentation of the holy sepulchre with life-size figures. The traveller may 
now ascend by -the chapel to the crosses, and passing near the extensive 
marble quarries, and traversing the wood, reach the Wengistein, the view 
from which is similar to that from the Weissenstein, though on a smaller 
scale. A large huge granite boulder here bears a Latin inscription record- 
ing two memorable events in the history of Soleure. 

From the hermitage to the base of the Jura, the footpath is uninter- 
esting. Leaving the hermitage, we cross a meadow in the direction of the 
inn on the Weissenstein which lies before us ; near some cottages we cross 
the high road and ascend the hill, crossing a brook and reaching another 
group of cottages. Passing between these, we leave the stone cross to the 
right and proceed towards the nearest pine-wood, on the borders of which 
we cross a brook (avoid turn to the right), and reach a finger-post. Beyond 
this the path is indicated by direction-posts. We soon reach (1 hr. from 
the hermitage) the foot of the most precipitous rocky slopes. The steep but 
well-shaded path leads in */i hr. to a sharp projection of the rock, after 
which we turn to the left reaching the Nesselboden-Alp in 10 min., where 
the footpath rejoins the road. The latter ascends gradually in '/'-' hr. more 
to the summit of the Weissenstein. 

5. From Bale to Bern by Herzogenbuchsee. 

66 31. Railway in 3' j-5 hrs.; fares 11 fr. 10, 7 fr. 80, 5 fr. 60 c. 

From Bale to (24 M.~) Olten, see pp. 9-11. (From Olten to So- 
leure and Xeuchatel, see pp. 11, 12.) The train passes through a short 
tunnel under the Aarburyer Schloss, and emerges at the station of — 

27 M. Aarburg ("1286'; *Sonne; Bar; Krone), a prosperous 
little town, almost entirely rebuilt since afire in 1840. The pic- 
turesque old castle, once a fortress, built in 1660, and provided with 
casemates hewn in the rock, was the residence of the governors 
and a state-prison down to 1798; it is now a prison and arsenal. 

The Lucerne line Td. 15~) diverges here to the S.E. Stations 



HERZOGENBUCHSEE. 5. Route. 15 

Niederwyl, Morgenthal, Roggwyl, Langenthal (*Lowe), a thriving 
village with busy timber trade, and Biitzberg. -ll'/j M. Herzogen- 
buchsee (Hotel du Soleil) is a considerable place (2042 inb.) with a 
loftily situated church (view). 

FRO>r Heezogenbuchsee to Soleuke (9>/2 M.) railway in 40 min. (1 fr. 
50, 1 fr. 5, 75c.)- Stations Inkwyl, Subigen, and Derendingen, beyond which 
the train crosses the Grosse Emme and the Aare. Soleure, see p. 12. 

Near stat. Riedwyl the railway enters grassy valleys with wooded 
slopes. Beyond stat. Wynigen is a long tunnel (1 min.). The train 
crosses the Grosse Emme and reaches — 

52 M. Burgdorf, French Berthoud (1863'; *H6tel Guggisberg, 
at the station; Stadthaus; Bar), a busy town, picturesquely situated 
on the slope of a hill. The substantially built houses are flanked 
with 'Lauben', or arcades, as at Bern. The public buildings, the 
hospital, schools, orphanage, and public walks testify to the wealth 
and taste of the community. In the chateau of Burgdorf, in 1798, 
Pestalozzi established his famous educational institution, which in 
1804 he transferred to Miinchen-Buchsee (see below), and after- 
wards in the same year to Yverdon (p. 178). Fine views from 
the church and chateau, and still more beautiful from the *Lueg 
(2917'), 2 hrs. to the E. — Branch-line to Soleure, see p. 11. 

Stations Lyssaeh, Hindelbank. Near (59 M.) Schonbilhl, to the 
right, are the buildings of Hofwyl with their numerous windows, 
which once contained the agricultural and educational establish- 
ments of Hr. v. Fellenberg. 

Beyond (6IV2 M.) Zollikofen, on the right, lies Rilete, for- 
merly the property of Hr. von Fellenberg, and now an agricultural 
institution. Farther on, beyond a bridge, we obtain a glimpse of 
Schloss Reichenbach to the right, opposite the N. end of the narrow 
peninsula of Enge (p. 102), and of the bridge of Tiefenau over 
the Aare, constructed in 1851. The train then ascends in a few 
minutes to the Wyler Feld (drilling ground), whence, to the left, 
we obtain a magnificent *view of the Bernese Alps. Farther on, to 
the right, is a new suburb inhabited by workmen, beyond which the 
train crosses the Aare and enters the station of Bern. The *Bridge, 
200 yds. in length and 142 ft. in height, is furnished with two 
roads, the upper for railway, the lower for ordinary traffic. 

66 M. Bern, see p. 97. 

6. From Bale to Lucerne. 

091/2 M. Railway in 3i/.-4'/2 hrs.; fares 9 fr. 90, 6 I'r. 95 c, 5 fr. — 
The trains correspond with steamboats from Lucerne to Waggis , Fliielen, 
etc. (see pp. 52 and 55). 

From Bale to (27 M.) Aarbury, see pp. 9-11 . Then (31 1/2 M") 
Zoflngen (1430'; *Rbssli; Ochs), a busy little town. Besides a col- 
lection of coins, the library contains autograph letters of Swiss re- 
formers, and drawings by members of the Swiss society of artists, 
founded in the year 1806 , which formerly met annually at this 



16 Route d. SURSEK. 

town, and on these occasions contributed to embellish the album 
of the library. The Zofingen Union of Swiss students celebrates 
the anniversary of its foundation here, to which the members 
resort in great numbers from the Swiss universities. On the 
branches of the fine old lime-trees near the Schiitzenhaus two 
'ball-rooms' have been constructed. Beyond the town ('/4M.) is 
an ancient Roman Bath with a few Roman relics. 

The line next passes through the broad Wiggernthal, with its 
rich meadows. On an eminence near stat. Reiden stands an ancient 
lodge of the knights of Malta, now a parsonage-house. Stations 
Dagmersellen , Xebikon (diligence daily by Willisau to Wohlhausen 
in the Kntlebuch, p. 95). Farther on, a view is obtained to the 
right of the Bernese Alps. Beyond stat. Wauwyl, to the right, 
lies the small Mauensee with its island and castle. 

43 1 /2 M. Sursee (Sonne; Hirsch), an old town, over the gates 
of which the double eagle of the house of Hapsburg is still en- 
throned. The Town Hall reminds one of the Burgundian style of 
architecture. Near stat. Nottwyl the line approaches the Lake 
of Sempach (1663'), 6 M. long, 2V2 M. bToad , abounding in fish, 
and more interesting on account of its historical associations than 
its scenery. At the S. end of the lake, on a hill to the right, stands 
the castle of Wartensee, with its angular gables and red tower. 

At the S.E. end of the lake lies the small town of (49 M.) 
Sempach (Kreuz; Adler), l'/4 M. from the station, near which Duke 
Leopold of Austria was signally defeated on 8th July, 1386, by the 
Swiss Confederates, owing to the noble self-sacrifice of Arnold von 
Winkelried. Thousands of his knights and adherents were slain. 

A Chapel (2064'), I1/2 M. to the N.E. of Sempach, marks the spot where 
Leopold fell. His uncle, Duke Leopold,- had been defeated by the Swiss 71 
years before at Morgarten (p. 323). 

The train intersects plantations of firs. On the right appear 
the precipitous cliffs and peaks ofPilatus; on the left the long 
ridge of the Rigi. 53 '/j M. Rothenburg . After passing stat. Kmmen- 
briicke the line skirts the bank of the Reuss, whose emerald waters 
emerge from the lake of Lucerne, and passes through a tunnel under 
the rock of Gibraltar (p. 52). 

59i/ 2 M. Lucerne, see p. 51. 



7. From Bale to Zurich (Botzberg Railway). 

iV) M. Railway in 2 l / t -3</? hrs. ; fares 9 fr. 20, 6 fr. 45, 4 fr. 60 c. 

From Bale to (ft M.) Pratteln, seep. 9. The train diverges 
here to the left from the Central Railway, crosses the Ergolz near 
I 7 1 /.) v ') Augst, and approaches the Rhine. On the left is Kaiser- 
Augut, with an old church anil new salt-works. Opposite to it, on 
the left bank of the Ergolz , is the hamlet of Basel- AuQxt , which 
o<cnpies the site of the ancient Augusta Rimrarnrum In,' '>). 



BRUGft. 7. Route. 1 7 

lO'/a M. Rheinfelden (860' ; *Zum Schi'dzen ; *A>one, both with 
salt-baths), an old town with 2078 inhab. , the walls and towers of 
which are still partially preserved, was once strongly fortified, ami 
was one of the frontier-forts of the Holy Roman Empire. It was 
repeatedly besieged, and was at last taken and razed to the ground 
by the French in 1744. Since 1801 it has belonged to Switzerland. 
Under its walls in the spring of 1638 Bernhard von Weimar and 
Johann von Werth, the celebrated generals of the Thirty Years' War, 
fought several battles, with varying fortunes. The foaming stream 
here dashes over the rocks , and forms the so-called Hollenhaken 
rapids. Near the town are extensive salt-works and salt-baths, which 
attract numerous visitors (*Struve's bath-estab., pension 4-6 fr.). 

The train quits the Rhine , which here describes a bend to the 
N. , traverses woods and meadows , and passes stations Miihlin and 
Mumpfj beyond which it returns to the river for a short distance. 
18'/2 M. Stein is connected by a bridge with the small town of 
Siickingen (p. 20) in Baden, on the right bank. 

The train now leaves the Rhine, and near stat. Eiken enters the 
pleasant and fertile Sisseln-Thal. — 23 M. Frick (1119'), a con- 
siderable village. The train ascends in a long curve , and passes 
large vineyards on the left. — 26 M. Jlomussen. — 28^2 M. 
Effingen (1427') is the highest point on the line. Immediately 
beyond it the train enters a tunnel, 2412 yds. in length (4min.), 
under the Botzberg (1945 ft.), the Mons Voeetius of the Romans, 
rieyond stat. Bbtzenegg the train gradually descends the vineclad 
slopes , commanding a magnificent view of the valley of the Aare 
to the right. It then passes through a short tunnel and crosses the 
Aare by a bridge 259 yds. in length and 104 ft. in height. 

35 l /2 M. Brugg(1096'; *R'6ssli; *Rothes Haus), a small town, 
once the seat of Rudolph of Hapsburg. A pleasing view of the 
antiquated town may be obtained from the bridge which spans the 
Aare, here only 70' wide. The Sehwarze Thurm ('black tower') 
dates from the later Roman Empire , and was restored in the early- 
part of the 15th cent. At a short distance to the N.E. of the town, 
three of the chief rivers of Switzerland, the Aare, the Reuss, and 
the Limmat, unite their streams, and fall into the Rhine at Koblenz 
(p. 20), 9 M. to the N. 

The ancient Abbey of Konigsfelden ft 4 M. to the S.E. of Brugg), for- 
merly a convent of Minorites, was founded in 1310 by the Empress Eliza- 
beth and her daughter, Queen Agnes of Hungary, on the spot where 
Albert of Austria, husband of the former, had been murdered two years 
before (1308) by John of Swabia and his accomplices. It was secularised 
in 1528; the building was converted into an hospital, and afterwards a 
lunatic asylum. Part of the church now serves as a magazine, but divine 
service is still celebrated in the choir. The "stained-glass windows, of 
the 14th century, opposite the door, represent the nuptials of Agnes, one of 
the foundresses of the abbey, with the king of Hungary, and the ceremony 
of her taking the veil. The numerous portraits of knights who fell at Sem- 
paili (p. 10) are of the last century. Uuke Leopold himself with sixty "t 

Bakdkkek, Switzerland. 7th Edition. ') 



18 Route 7. BADEN". 

these warriors is interred here. The doorkeeper, who shows the chureh 
(fee V2 fr.), oilers Roman coins and anticaglias for sale. 

On the tongue of land formed by the Eeuss and the Aare stood in 
ancient times the considerable Helvetian town of Vindonissa , where 
during the early centuries of the Christian era a Roman legion w ith its 
Rhtetian cohorts was posted, as is proved by inscriptions still extant. 
The position of the amphitheatre is easily recognisable; the well of the 
convent of Konigsfelden is fed to this day by a subterranean Roman con- 
duit. The town was destroyed in the 5th cent., and no trace now remains 
of its extensive edifices. The name still survives in that of the village 
of Windisch, >/s Jl - to the E. of Brugg. Vindonissa was afterwards the 
seat of a bishop, which was however transferred to Constance in 1639. 

The train crosses the Reuss at its confluence with the Aare, 
and reaches (38 M.) stat. Turgi, the junction where the Baden 
line to "Waldshut diverges (see p. 20). The Zurich line approaches 
the Limmat and remains on its left bank. The precipitous banks 
of the river are clad with vines. 

41 M. Baden (1257'; Stadt Baden, Hotel Bahnhof, both near 
the station; Balance; Linde; Engel) was much resorted to by the 
Romans in early times for the sake of its mineral springs (Aquae 
Helvetiae). In the time of Nero, according to Tacitus (Hist. i. (57), 
it had all the appearance of a town ( 'in modum municipii exstructus 
locus, amoeno salubrium aquarum usu frequent). In the middle 
ages Baden was a fortress , and frequently the residence of the 
princes of Hapsburg, down to the beginning of the loth cent. 
The extensive ruins of the fortress Stein zu Baden (150(3'), de- 
stroyed in 1415 and again in 1712, rise above the town ; the grounds 
command a fine view. 

The hot springs (98°-126° Fahr.) are situated in the narrow 
valley of the Limmat, '/a M. to the N. of the railway station, and 
3 / 4 M. from the town. The 'Small Baths' (1151'), on the right bank 
of the Limmat , are chiefly frequented by the inhabitants of the 
neighbourhood; the 'Great Baths'' (Hotels: *Kuranstalt Baden, a 
large and comfortable establishment; Staadhof; Hinterhof; Bar; Drei 
Eidgenossen; Schiff; Limmathof; Schiveizer Hof; Verenahof; Frei- 
hof, etc.), on the right bank, are patronised by the more fashionable 
world. The Verena Bath is the principal public establishment. The 
new Bahnhof- Strasse leads from the station straight to the Kur- 
anstalt, past the handsome new Kursaal (*Ilestaurant '). The bridge 
over the Limmat affords the best view of the banks of the river. 
Baden is annually visited by 15,000 patients and travellers. 

The line now passes through a short tunnel under the Stein 
zu Baden (see above). On the left, surrounded by the Limmat, 
stand the extensive buildings and gardens of the former Cister- 
cian Abbey of Wettingen (1200'), now a seminary. The church 
contains the sarcophagus of the Emperor Albert (see above), whose 
body reposed in it for 15 months, after which it was conveyed 
to Speyer. The stained-glass windows are of the 10th and 17th cen- 
turies, the carved stalls of the 17th. The handsome building to the 



AARAU. 6. Route. 19 

left, on the slope of the Lagern-Gebirg (2828'), a hill with a long 
and sharp ridge , formerly contained the wine-press of the Abbey. 

The line now passes stat. Killwangen, and enters the canton of 
Zurich near (481/2 M.) Dietikon (1286' ; Loive). At this town Mas- 
sena made his celebrated passage of the Limmat, 24th Sept., 1799, 
after which he repulsed the Russians and took Zurich. Next 
stations Schlieren and Altstetten. Near Zurich the long ridge of the 
Uetli with its inn (p. 35) becomes visible to the right; on the E. 
side it is very precipitous. The large building on the slope to the 
left is the Weid (p. 30). Before entering the railway station the 
train crosses the Sihl. 

55 M. Zurich, see p. 29. 

8. From Olten to Waldshut by Aarau and Brugg. 

33 M. Railway in 2 hrs. ; fares 6 fr. 15, 4 fr. 35, 3 (r. 5 c. 

Olten, see p. 10. The train runs near the Aare as far as its con- 
fluence with the Limmat, and commands many pleasing prospects. 
To the left the wooded chain of the Jura remains in view. 

4 M . Danikon. Opposite (5!/ 2 M.) Schbnenwerth, on the left bank 
of the Aare, is the castle of Obsgen with a ruined tower, the seat 
of the authorities of Soleure down to 1801. The train passes under 
the town of Aarau by a tunnel. 

83/ 4 M. Aarau (1263'; *Storch; *Ochs ; Lowe; Wilder Mann), 
a manufacturing town, capital of the Canton of Aargau, with 6000 
inhab. (904 Rom. Oath.), lies on the Aare (which is crossed by a 
suspension-bridge, constructed in 1850), at the foot of the Jura 
Mts., some of the lower slopes of which are planted with vines. 
The Town Hall , Barracks , and School are modern edifices. The 
Government Buildings contain -fine stained glass windows of the 
16th cent, and the Cantonal Library (60,000 vols.). Colonel Roth- 
pletz possesses a small picture-gallery (visitors admitted). The his- 
torian Heinrich Zschokke (b. at Magdeburg 1771 , d. 1848) once 
resided here. Above the town, to the N. , rises the Wasserfluh 
(2851'), and to the N.E. the Gislifluh (2539'), over which a path, 
commanding a pleasing view of the lakes of Hallwyl and Baldegg, 
leads to the Baths of Schinznach. — From Aarau to Sissach by the 
Schafrnatt, see p. 10. 

On the left as the train proceeds, beyond the Aare, at the 
foot of the Gislifluh , lies Biberstein , with an old castle , formerly 
a lodge of the knights of St. John. 12'/ 2 M. Rupperswyl, where the 
line again approaches the Aare. (Branch-line hence by Lenzburg 
and Wohlen to Muri, 18 M.) To the right are the chateaux of Stauf- 
berg and Lenzburg. 15 M. Wildegg, with a castle of the same name, 
picturesquely situated on the slope of the Wiilpelsberg, possesses 
a mineral spring, the water of which is used for exportation only. 
This is the station nearest to the hydropathic establishment of 

2* 



20 Route S. SCHINZNACH. 

Brestenberg, situated on the lake of Hallwyl, 7'/ 2 M. to the S. (pro- 
prietor Dr. Erismann , pension from 5 fr.). On an eminence on 
the opposite bank of the Aare rises SMoss Wildenstein. — 17 M. 
Stat. Schinznach lies halfway between the village of Schinznach 
(1246'), on the left bank of the Aare, and the Baths of Schinznach, 
or Habsburger Bad, close to which the line passes. The water is 
impregnated with sulphur , and the baths are chiefly freqnented by 
the French. (*Hotel, with 450 beds and 200 baths, >/ 4 M. from the 

station. ) 

The balhs lie at the foot of the Willpelsbevg (1686'), on the summit of 
which (20 min. ) stand the ruins of the Habsburg, the cradle of the imperial 
family of Austria, erected by Count Kadbod von Altenburg about the year 
10211. The lofty walls of the tower, 8' in thickness, are now the only re- 
mains of the castle. The adjoining house is occupied by a farmer. The 
view embraces the entire domain of the ancient counts of Hapsburg, and 
the valleys of the Aare, the Reuss, and the Limmat, bounded on the S. by 
the snow-clad Alps. 

20 M. Brugg, and thence to (227 2 M.) Turyi, see p. 18. The 
Waldshnt train crosses the Limmat near its influx into the Aare, 
passes stat. Siggenthal, and traverses the broad valley of the Aare, 
at a distance from the river, which it at length approaches near 
(28 1 /;; M.) Dottingen. The train then describes a wide curve, passes 
through a tunnel, atid crosses the Rhine by an iron bridge below 
stat. Koblenz at the mouth of the Aare. 

I!!! M. Waldshut, see p. 21. 

9. From Bale to Schaffhausen and Constance. 

90 M. Uaukk Railway in hrs. ; fares to Schaffhausen 9 fr. 50, 
6 fr. 30, 4 fr. 5 c. ; to Constance U fr. 50, 9 fr. 20 c. — Neuhausen (p. 21) 
is the station for the Falls of the Rhine (R. 11). Views to the right. 

— Stkamkk from Schaffhausen to Constance in about 4 hrs. (descending 
in 3 hrs.), pleasanter if time pei'mits (see p. 22); fares 3 fr. , 1 fr. 95c. 

— Hallway from Stein to Constance, see p. 36. 

Raden station, see p. 1. The line traverses the narrow, fertile 
plain between the S. spurs of the Black Forest and the valley of the 
Rhine, which is here of considerable depth. Stations Qrenzach, 
Wyhlen. At (10 M.) stat. Bheinfelden , opposite the town of that 
name (p. 17), the line approaches the Rhine, which here rushes 
impetuously over rocks. The left bank is precipitous and wooded. 

The line intersects the vineyards and gardens of Beuggen 
(909'J, formerly a lodge of the Teutonic order, a handsome build- 
ing with numerous windows. Since 1817 it has been used as a 
Seminary and Reformatory for children. Brennet, which is next 
reached, is the station for the* Wehrastrasse (see Baedeker's Rhine). 

20'/ 2 M. Sackingen (958'; Liiwe), a considerable town, pos- 
sesses an old abbey-church with two towers. The abbey, after- 
wards a nunnery, was secularised early in the present century. 

Stations Murg and ('26 M. ) Klein- Lauffenbury ( *Fost), opposite 
which, pictiirrsijiiely placed on the left bank, is the Swiss town of 
Lauffenburg with it" mu-u-.ut rastle, where the Rhine flushes im- 



SCHAFFHAUSEN. 9. Route. 21 

petuously over its narrow, rocky bed. Below the cataract (the 
'Laujfen^ , of which a glimpse is obtained from the train , salmon 
are caught in large numbers. 

The train passes through a tunnel , and at Luttinyen and 
Hauenstein crosses lofty viaducts. It occasionally approaches the 
river. Stations Albbruck and Dogern. 

35 M. Waldshut (1122' ; *Kiihner, at the station ; Hdtel Blume; 
*Rebstock, in the town), the most important of these small towns 
on the Rhine , is situated at a considerable height above the river. 
— Journey to Turgi (for Zurich), Aarau , and Oltcn, see R. 8; to 
Winterthur, see p. 36. 

About 10 M. to the N. of Waldshut, on the high road to St. Blaslen 
(post-omnibus once daily), is situated Hochenschwand (3314'; 'Hotel 
Hdche-nschwand), the highest village in the Black Forest, which commands 
an imposing panorama of the Alps (see Baedeker & lihine). 

Beyond Waldshut the train passes through a tunnel ; to the 
right occasional glimpses of the Alps arc obtained. Beyond (38'/2 
M.) Tltienyen (Krone) we traverse the ancient Klettgau , a fertile 
tract with wooded hills. Near (41 M.) Oberlauchrinyen the Wutach 
is crossed. To the right, on a wooded height, is the castle of Kiis- 
senbery. Stations Oriessen, Erzinyen, Wilchingen , the first village 
in the canton of Schaffliausen, Neunkirch, Beringen, and (57 M. ) 
Neuhausen (*Schweizerhof; Bellevue; Hotel Rheinfall, in the vil- 
lage), station for the Falls of the Rhine (p. 27). 

591/2 M. Schaffhausen (1296'; *Krone, in the town, K. 2'/ 2 , B. 
i l /'i, A. 3 / 4 fr. ; Rheinischer Hof, Miiller, both at the station ; *Post, 
Schwan , and Schiff, unpretending; omnibus from the steamboat 
to the railway station '/» fr- ; ^Railway-Restaurant), the capital 
of the canton of that name (pop. 10,303), still retains the pictu- 
resque mediaeval features of a Swabian town of the empire and is 
best surveyed from the village of Feuerthalen , on the left bank of 
the Rhine (two bridges), or from the villa Charlottenfels on the right 
bank (p. 29). Hr. Moser (d. 1871), the late proprietor of the villa, 
was the originator of the imposing * Waterworks in the Rhine (out- 
side the Miihlenthor) , by means of which the manufactories of 
the town are supplied with water-power, and which together with 
the busy railway traffic have contributed greatly to the prosperity 
of the town. 

The Cathedral, a basilica in the early Romanesque style, 
founded in 1104, completed in 1453, formerly an abbey-church, 
is remarkable for the massiveness of its construction. Portions 
of the cloisters are in a good state of preservation , and the in- 
terior of the church has lately been restored in harmony with the 
original style. The great bell, cast in 1486, bears the inscrip- 
tion : Vivos voco, rnortuos plango, fulyura frango, which suggested 
to Schiller the idea of his beautiful '■Lied von der Olocke 1 . — The 
Church of St. John dates from 1120. 

The castle of Mufoth (Munitio?), erected during the great 



22 Route 9. RADOLFZELL. From Utile 

famine of 1004, in order to afford support to the indigent, com- 
mands the town. It consists of a round tower of several stories, 
which with the adjoining building is believed to date from the 
15th cent., although since frequently added to. 

The Library (Biirger-BibliotUek) contains nothing worthy of 
mention, except a collection of books and MSS. of the eminent 
Swiss historian Johannes v. Miiller (b. at Schaffhausen in 17:)'.?, 
d. at Cassel in 1809), to whose memory his fellow-citizens have 
erected a monument on the Vesenstauh promenade; the terrace 
towards the Rhine affords a beautiful view of the rapids and the 
Alps. — The Imthurneum, erected and presented to the town 
by M. Imthurn , a citizen of Schaffhausen , contains a handsome 
theatre, concert-rooms, etc. 

Beyond Schaffhausen the line turns towards the N.E. Stations 
Herblingen , Tbayingen , (/ottmadingen, and ( 71'/ 2 M.) Singen 
(*Krone), the junction for F.vgen and D/mnuescliinyen [see Bae- 
deker's Rlune, or S. (rermany). 

From Kinokn to Etzweilen, 8 3 /4 M., by railway ( Strisx National) in 
Va hr. ; fares 1 fr. 30, 90, 65 c. — Stations Rielmingen, Htimtrn. The train 
then crosses the Rhine l>y an iron bridge between (7 31.) /Jemisliofen and 
Rlieii/kiingen (p. 23). At Stat. Eliifileii the line unites with the Constance 
ami Winterthur railway (p. 36). 

(In an isolated basaltic rock, 3 / 4 hr. to the N. W. (left) of the Singen 
station, rises the fortress of Hohentwiel l'224i'), (tie property of the Wur- 
temherg government, although in the bavarian dominions. It was bravely 
and successfully defended by the Wurtemberg commandant in the Thirtv 
Years' War. The grand ruins command a line prospect of the Tyn 
Swiss Alps as far as Mont Blanc At the farm (refreshments), 
up, a ticket of admission (30 pf.) to the tower must be procured. 

Stat. Rickelshausen. — 7? '^ ^'- Radolfzell (Post), an o 
on the Untersee (p. '2.'S), with a handsome Gothic church of 

The train now skirts the lake. Stations Markelfinyen, 
bach, and Reichenau. 

In the middle of this basin of the Lake of Constance lies the 
Reichenau, in the dominions of Baden, 3',2 31. long, l'/« M. wide, c 
with the E. shore by an embankment, s * 31. in length. The Be 
Abbey, once richly endowed, fell to decay owing to mal-:idmin 
in the 14th cent., and was secularised in 179!!. The church, ecu 
as early as Ml(j, contains the remains of Charles the Fat, great-gra 
Charlemagne, who was dethroned in SST. It is now the parish cli 
the neighbouring village of Mittrlsell or Miinsli-r (Krone). The to 
nave belong to the original building. There are now few antiquit 
with the execution of a few reliquaries in the sacristy. 

The train then crosses the Rhine to (ill) M. 1 Constance 



Steamboat i-kom Sohaffhaiskn to ('oxstanof. The pier (i 
p. 5!1| is above the bridge, near ftflilniss Afvnol/i (p. 21). opposil 
lhaleti. 

'■ Right: ParatHn, formerly a nunnery. 
1,'OLeft: Stat, ftlisinc/cn, a Baden village. 
iJ 'jR. Si. Catharinrnthal, a handsome nunnery. 

jpL Stat. Diessenhofen (1325': Adler; Liiict : Hirseti), the Komi 

TM"J, where a skilful passage of tin- Rhine » a; effected on 

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to Constance. UNTF.RSEE. 9. Route. 23 

fore the battle of Hohenlinden. The river is crossed here by a covered 
wooden bridge, below which the steamer lowers its funnel. 

R. Rheinklingen ; 1., opposite to it, Bibern. The steamer passes under 
the new bridge of the Singen and Winterthuv railway (p. 22); both banks 
are wooded. L. Hemishofen, with the ruin of Wolkenstein above. 

R. Wagenhausen. 

L. Stat. Stein (Schwan ; Krone), a picturesquely situated old town, 
connected with the village of Burg (Wasserfels) by a new wooden bridge. 
Several houses, such as the Rothe Ochs and the Weisse Adler adjoining 
the Kaufhaus , are still adorned with rude old frescoes. The suppressed 
monastery of St. George contains a hall erected in 1515, embellished with 
seven frescoes in grisaille from the history of Rome and Carthage , and 
covered with a vaulted wooden roof adorned with arabesques. The old 
chateau of Hohenklmgcn (1945'), on a hill to the X. of the town, affords 
an admirable view. 

Above Stein the channel of the Rhine widens, and the steamer enters 
the S.W. arm of the Untersee. R. Eschenz (railway station , see p. 36) ; 
on the bill above it the chateau of Freudeti/els. L. Stat. Oberstaad, an 
old mansion-house with a square tower, now occupied by dye-works; 
beyond it the suppressed monastery of Oehmngen. The neighbouring quar- 
ries contain numerous fossils. 

R. Stat. Mammem, a hydropathic establishment; in the woods, the 
ruin of Neuberg ; then, on the bank, the chateau of Glarisegg. Opposite 
to it, Wangen and the chateau of Marbach. 

I!. Stat. fiieckbom (1312'; "Liiwe; Krone), with a castellated mer- 
chants' hall, now restored. Below it, the nunnery of Fetdbach. 

R. Stat. Berlingen (Schiff). The lake expands , and the island of 
Reirlitnaii becomes visible (see p. 22), On the hill to the right, concealed 
among trees , is the chateau of Evgensberg , erected by Eugene Beauhar- 
nais, vice-king of Italy, and now the property of Count Reichenbach- 
Lessonitz. Farther on, above the charmingly situated (r.) Mannenbach , 
stands the handsome pinnacled chateau of Salenstein ; then, on a beauti- 
fully wooded hill, Arenenberg (1062'), once the residence of Queen Hor- 
tense (d. 1837), and occasionally visited by her son Napoleon III. (d. 1873). 

R. Stat. Ermulingen, prettily situated on a promontory; on the hill 
above it, Schloss Wol/sberg (now a hotel and pension). The neighbouring 
Schloss Hard, with its beautiful garden, is not visible. 

The steamer enters the narrow arm of the Rhine which connects the 
Untersee with the lake of Constance. R. Goltlieben (Krone), with a 
chateau, now restored, in which Huss and Jerome of Prague were once 
imprisoned, and where Pope John XX II. was afterwards confined by order 
of the Council. The chateau and ruin of Cattel, on the hill at the back 
of the village, command a charming view. Farther on we obtain a beau- 
tiful retrospect of the Untersee, with the Hohenhofen, Hohenstoffeln, and 
other peaks of the Hohgau in the distance. 

Tlie banks now become Hat, and at places marshy. The steamer 
threads its way among reedy shallows, and at length passes under the 
handsome railway bridge of Constance. L. Peterhausen, with extensive 
barracks. 

Constance, see p. 25; passengers are landed at the long pier, with a 
lighthouse at its E. end. 

10. From Friedrichshafen (Rorschach) to Constance. 
Lake of Constance. 

Steamboat to Constance 3 times daily in summer (direct, or by 
Romanshorn or Meersburg) in l'/n to 2 hrs. Between the chief places on 
the lake, Friedrichshafen, Langenargen, Lindau, Bregenz, Rorschach, Ro- 
manshorn, Constance (kchaffhavsen), Meersburg, UeberJirtgen, Lvdwigshafen , 
the steamboats (about 26 in number) ply at least once daily, and on the 



24 Fo„te 10. LAKE OF CONSTANCE. 

chief routes (Friedrichshafen-Constance in I'/s br., Friedrichshafen-Romans- 
liorn in t hr. , Friedrichshafen - Rorschach in U/4 hr. , Constance- Lindau in 
l'/« hr.) three or four times daily. The second cabin fare is > 3rd less 
than the first. The hours of starting are frequently altered. On Sundays 
return - tickets are issued at reduced fares. Cnmp. Introd. X. with regard 
to excursion-tickets. The lake of Constance being neutral, the traveller is 
subjected to custom-house formalities even on arriving at one German 
town from another, for instance at Constance from Friedrichshafen orl.indau. 

The Lake of Constance (1306'; Oer. Bodenscv, Lat. Laeut Briganliinis), 
an immense reservoir of the Rhine, 207 sq. 31. in area, is, from Bre- 
genz to the influx of the Stockach, 42 M. long, about 8 M. wide, and between 
Friedrichshafen and Arbon 912' deep. The water is of a light green colour. 
The lake forms the boundary of five different states : Baden, Wiirtemberg, 
Bavaria, Austria (Vorarlberg), and Switzerland (St. Gallcn and Thurgau). — 
Meersburger is the best wine grown on its banks, and Felchen and trout 
are the best fish it yields. 

The N. E. banks are in general flat, but are bounded on the S. \V. by 
beautiful wooded hills, which gradually decrease in height towards Con- 
stance. In the beauty of its scenery the lake of Constance cannot vie with 
its other Swiss rivals ; but its broad expanse of water, its picturesque banks, 
and green hills, the chain of the Appenzell Alps in the distance, the snow- 
clad Sentis in particular, and other snow-peaks of the Vorarlberg Alps, visible 
in clear weather , combine to produce a. very favourable impression upon 
the traveller who is visiting Switzerland for the first time. 

Friedrichshafen ("13 19'~)- — Deutsche* Hals, near the station, IJ. 2, 
B. 1, I,, and A. 1 Jl '; 'Hotel Bei.lkvue , halfway between the station and 
the quay, similar charges, pension 4-5 J?, closed in winter; KOnig von 
Wubtkmbekg, '/< M. to the N. of the station; Sonne; "'KkoNE, with a 
garden on the lake; f/ Leitthp''s licxtai/rtnit. 

Friedrfchshafen, the 8. terminus of the Wiirtemberg line, is a 
busy place in summer. Its lake-baths attract many visitors, espe- 
cially from Swabia, and it boasts of a Kurhaus and a Kurgarten on 
the lake. The royal Schloss contains a few pictures by Gegenbaur, 
Pflug, and other modern Wiirtemberg artists; a pavilion in the gar- 
den, which is open to the public, commands a very beautiful view of 
the lake and the Alps. The harbour with its lighthouse, 1 M. from 
the railway station, presents a scene of brisk traffic. 

Travellers intending to continue their journey by steamboat without 
stoppage keep their scats until the train reaches the terminus on the quay; 
those arriving by steamer may procure tickets immediately on landing, and 
take their seats in the train at once. 

In rough weather the steamboat passenger not unfreqiieiitly 
experiences the horrors of sea- sickness. Views to the E. and 
S., see above. On the N. bank lies the village of Immenstaad, 
with the chateaux of Herrsberg and Kirchberg ; then the village 
of Hugnau. Farther off, on the N.W. arm of the lake called the 
I'ebeHinger See, stands the little town of Meersburg , in the do- 
minions of Baden, with an ancient and modern castle and sem- 
inary, picturesquely situated on a height above the lake. Beyond 
it lies the little island of Mainau (p. 26). Farther N. is L'eberlin- 
gen, with lake and mineral-water baths. The steamer next passes 
the promontory which separates the Ueberlinger See from the bay 
of Constance, and reaches Constance after a passage of l'Aj » r - 
(Route via Homanshorn , see p. 27. J 




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CONSTANCE. 10. Route. 25 

Constance (1335'"). — *Insel Hotel (PI. h), a new establishment, on 
the site of the old Dominican monastery f p. 26). well fitted up; Bad-Hotel, 
(PI. a), a large new building on the K. bank of the lake, above the Rhine 
bridge (both these hotels command :i fine view): -Hotel Halm fPl. c), op- 
posite the railway station, also new, R. and A. 2'/'i, B. 1J; 'Hecht 
(PI. d), B. from 2, L. "/a, D. 3, B. 1, A. »U Jl ; Adlek (PI. e) ; 'Badischer 
Hof (PI. f). — Krone (PI. g), Schifk, and Falke, second class. — The exten- 
sive Swimming-Establishment in the lake is well fitted up. — At Krein- 
lingen (p. 26), '/i". from the S. gate: 'Hotel Helvetia, pension 5 fr. 
per day ; 'Lowe. 

Constance , which was a free town of the Empire down to 
1548, and after the Reformation subject to Austria, now con- 
tains 10,052 inhab., although it once numbered as many as 40,000. 
It lies at the N.W. end of the lake, at the efflux of the Rhine. 
The episcopal see, over which 87 bishops in succession held juris- 
diction, was deprived of its temporalities in 1802, aud finally sup- 
pressed in 1827. By the treaty of Pressburg in 1805 Constance 
was adjudged to Baden. 

The *Cathedkal (PI. 5"), founded in 1048, was rebuilt in its 
present form at the beginning of the 16th cent. The Gothic tower 
was erected in 1850-57; the open spire has a platform on each 
side, commanding a charming survey of the town and lake. 

On the doors of the principal portal are * Basreliefs in 20 sections, 
representing scenes from the life of Christ, carved in oak by Sim. Haider 
in 1470. The "Choir Stalls, with grotesque sculptures, are of the same 
date. The organ-loft was richly ornamented in the Renaissance style in 
1680. In the nave, the vaulting of which is borne by 16 monolithic columns 
|4R' high, 3' thick), sixteen paces from the principal entrance, is a large 
stone slab, a whife spot, on which always remains dry when the rest is 
damp, and is pointed out as the place where Huss stood when the Council, 
on 6th July, 1415, sentenced him to be burnt at the stake. The N. chapel 
adjoining the choir contains a Death of the Virgin, with painted stone 
figures life-size, date 1460. Adjacent is an elegant spiral staircase. — The 
Treasury contains missals embellished with miniatures, date 1426. In the 
Chapter Room is preserved Vincent's interesting collection of stained glass 
and other objects of art. On the E. side of the church is a crypt, contain- 
ing the Chapel of the Holy Sepulchre, with a representation of the sepulchre 
in stone, 20' high. Adjoining the church on theX., two sides of the once 
handsome cloisters are still standing. The sacristan (fee) shows the cathe- 
dral, but the door on the S. side is always open. 

The Wessenberg-Haus (PI. 17) contains a collection of books, 
pictures , and engravings , bequeathed to the town by the pro- 
prietor (d. 1860), who for many years was the administrator of 
the bishopric. 

The church of St. Stephen (PI. 7), a late Gothic building 
of the 15th cent., near the cathedral, with a slender tower, 
contains some good sculptures in wood and stone. Exterior 
modernised in bad taste. 

From this point the Plattenstrasse leads to the S. to the Obere 
Markt, at the corner of which is the house 'Zum Hohen Hafen'. 
where, according to the inscription, Frederick VI., Burgrave of 
Nuremberg , was invested with the March of Brandenburg by 
Emperor Sigismund on 18th April, 1417. Adjacent is an old build- 
ing with arcades (now the Cafe Barbarossa, PI. 9), styled by the 



26 Route W. CONSTANCE. 

inscription Curia Pacts, in which Kmperor Frederick I. concluded 
peace with the Lombard towns in 1183. 

The Staht-Kanzlei , or Town Hall (PI. .14 J, erected in 1503 
in the Renaissance style, and recently decorated on the exterior with 
frescoes relating to the history of Constance, contains the Municipal 
Archives in the lower rooms, comprising 2800 documents, most of 
which date from the period of the Reformation. — In the market- 
place stands a Monument (Victory by Bauer) in memory of the war 
in 1870-71. — The Ro.sgab.ten , the old guild-house of the but- 
chers (PI. 11), contains the * Rosgarten- Museum, an interesting col- 
lection of antiquities of Constance (including relics from lake- 
dwellings) and natural history specimens (adm. 40 pf.). 

The Kaufhaus (PI. 1) on the lake, erected in 1388, contains 
the spacious Conciliums-Saal, 5'2yds. long and 35 yds. wide, borne 
by ten massive oaken pillars, restored in 1866, where the Great 
Council held its meetings (1414-18). The hall is decorated with 
modern frescoes by Pecht and Schwiirer illustrative of the history 
of the town (adm. 20 pf. ). Upstairs a collection of Indian and 
Chinese curiosities, the property of the castellan (40 pf. ). 

The Dominican Monastery in which Huss was confined, sit- 
uated on an island close to the town , was used as a manufactory 
for a time , hut has lately been converted into the Mnsel-Hotel' (p. 
25 ). The well-preserved Romanesque cloisters , with the hand- 
some vaulted dining-room adjacent to them, are worthy of a visit. 

The house in which Hnss was arrested, the second to the right 
of the Schnetzthor, bears his effigy in stone, with derisive verses, 
dating from the 16th century. The spot where the illustrious refor- 
mer and Jerome of Prague suffered martyrdom is indicated by a 
huge mass of rock with inscriptions outside the town (about '■_> M. 
from the Schnetzthor). 

The traveller will obtain beautiful views of the lake and the 
t'lwn by following the new Promenade which skirts the lake and the 
railway, crossing the railway-bridge, and walking along the new 
'Seestrasse' on the bank of the lake, past the Had-Hotel. 

The abbey of h'reu~litt;itn (hotels, see p. 25), in the Canton of 
Thurgaii, :l / 4 M. from the 8. gate, is now a school. The church 
contains a curious carved representation of the Passion, with about 
1000 small figures, executed by a Tjrolese in the last century; 
also a mitre adorned with pearls, presented by Pope John XXII. 
in 1414, on the evening before his entry into Constance. 

In the V\V. ami of (lie Lake of Constance | lYlicrlinger Sec, p. 24), 
3','k M. from Constance, is situated I lie beautiful island of "Mainau ('/tin), 
formerly Hie seat of a lodge of llie Teutonic order, as is indicated by a cross 
on the .S. side of |h e caslle. The island, li/» Jl. in circumference, is con- 
nected with the mainland h\ an iron bridge ('.oil paces in length. Since 1853 
it has liecn lie' property of the Ciaud-Duke of Baden, and is laid out in 
beautiful pleasure .grounds. < inehorse ran-, from Constance 0. two-horse 
111 .11 ; boat |a pleasant row ol 1 hr.| -I .li and gralmC. 




rogra.p'K.Anstalt Ton 



Wagner *;])<%**. £•"!'«£ 



FALLS OF THE RHINE. 11. Route. 27 

From Rorschach (p. 39j to Constance (2 hrs.). The steam- 
boat keeps near the !S. bank, passing Horn (p. 40) and Arbon 
(*Bar; Engel; Kreuz), a small town on the site of the Roman Arbor 
Felix, and enters the harbour of Romanshorn (p. 37). The con- 
spicuous building rising above the woods on the N. bank is 
Heiliyenberg (1066' above the lake), a beautiful chateau of the 
Prince of Fiirstenberg. On the left bank Schloss Giittinyen is next 
passed; then the old monastery of Munslerlingen , now a hos- 
pital and lunatic asylum. Constance with its numerous towers 
is a conspicuous object in the distance. Near the town is per- 
ceived the former abbey of Kreuzlinyen (see above). 

The Railvvat from Rorschach to Constance (21 31., in l'/o hr. ; 4 fr. 
25, 3 fr., 2 fr. 15 c.) skirts the bank of the lake, affording pleasant glimpses 
of its glittering surface. Stations Horn (p. 40), Arbon (see above), Egnach, 
Romanshorn (p. 37; station close to the harbour); then Uttwyl, Kesswyl, 
Qiitlingen, Altnau, Munslerlingen, Kreuzl'mgen (to the left the abbey, see 
above), Constance (p. 25). 

Railway from Constance to Winterthur (and Zurich)., see p. 3ti. 

11. The Falls of the Rhine. 

Hotels. On the hill (1410') on the right bank, near slat. Neuhausen, 
■Schweizerhof, R. from 3, D. 4-5, B. I'/'-j, A. J fr. ; : Bellevuk, opposite 
the station, R. 2 1 /-.-, L. and A. 1, B. l'/ 4 fr. ; omnibuses to and from the 
steamboat -pier at Sehaffhausen (l'/» fr.). At Neuhausen, Hotel Rheinfall. — 
On the left bank, above the Falls, Hotel Schi.oss Laufen R. 2'/ 2 , A. '/< fr.; 
omnibus to and from the Dachsen station (p. 29). Hotel Witzig, R. 2, 
B. li/ 4 , D. 3'/ 2 , A. 3/ 4 fr. , at stat. Dachsen, a/ 4 M. from the Falls. 

English Church Service at the Schweizerhof. 

The station for the Falls of the Rhine on the right bank is Neuhausen 
(p. 21) on the Baden Railway, that on the left bank JJachsen on the Swiss 
line. Travellers arriving from Germany, and not pressed for time, should 
spend the night at the Schweiterhof Hotel (a fine view* of the Alps in the 
morning in clear weather). After breakfast descend through the grounds 
to the Sehlosschen Worth, cross to the Fischetz (30 c), ascend to Schloss 
Laufen , and return to the hotel by the Rheinfall-Hrucke. Those who 
arrive at Sehaffhausen by steamboat from Constance are also recom- 
mended to take a hotel-omnibus or a fiacre to Neuhausen. Schloss Laufen 
is 2 M. from Sehaffhausen. — The traveller who desires to combine a visit 
to the falls with the journey to or from Switzerland may alight at stal. 
Dachsen (allowing his heavier luggage to go on to its destination and 
await his arrival), walk or drive (omnibus there and back 1 fr.) to t'. 2 M.) 
Laufen, descend through the grounds to the Fischetz, cross to Schlosschen 
Wiirlh, and return in the reverse direction of that above indicated ; or 
descend from Worth by the road on the right bank to the ( 3 /4 31.) village 
of A'ohl, cross the river (ferry 10 c), and regain stat. Dachsen in a few 
minutes. — All the points of view should if possible be visited, as the 
traveller's impression of the Falls will otherwise be imperfect. 

The **Falls of the Rhine, which in point of volume are the 
most imposing in Kurope, locally known as the 'Laufen', are 
precipitated in three leaps over a ridge of unequal height. The 
breadth of the Rhine above the Falls is 380'; their height is about 
50' on the right bank, and 64' on the left; and if the rapids, 
the whirlpools, and the falls a few hundred paces farther up be 
taken into account, the total height of the cataract may be estim- 
ated at nearly 100' (level of the Rhine below the falls 1181'). 



28 Boiitell. FALLS OF THE RHINE. 

In June and July the \olunie of the water is greatly increased by 
the melting of the snow. Before 8 a.m. and after 3 p.m. innumer- 
able rainbows are formed by the sunshine in the clouds of silvery 
spray. The spectacle is also very impressive by moonlight, and_a 
night should therefore be spent at the Falls, or at Dachsen, in prefer- 
ence to Schaffhausen. The Falls are frequently illuminated in sum- 
mer. 

Of the four limestone -rocks which rise from the cataract, one third 
of that nearest the left hank has been worn away by the action of the wa- 
ter. In 1848, when the river was unusually low, and part of its bed un- 
covered , an iron rod was erected in the middle of the channel. When 
viewed from below, the rocks seem to tremble and waver. From the 
chati'iiu of "Worth (see below) visitors are conveyed by boat to the central 
rock, from which the Falls are surveyed to the best advantage (small 
pavilion on the top). The passage, which only occupies a few minutes, is 
unattended with danger, though the agitated waters cause considerable 
motion to the boat. Fare for 1-3 pers. 3 fr. and fee i each additional 
person 1 fr. These rocks have undergone no change within the memory 
of man, but a decrease in the volume of water has been observed of late 
years. 

*Schloss Laufen (1361'"), picturesquely situated on a wooded 
rock on the left bank, immediately above the falls, affords the most 
advantageous survey of the imposing scene. The proprietor charges 
1 fr. for admission to the grounds (no other fees). The balcony and 
a jutting pavilion with stained glass windows both command a good 
survey of the falls, the bridge, and the environs. 

Footpaths descend through the grounds to an iron *Pavilion, an 
admirable point of view; then to the wooden *fuinzli. and finally to 
the. *Fi$chetz, an iron platform projecting over the foaming abyss. 
A stupendous spectacle is witnessed here. The vast emerald-green 
volume of water, descending with a roar like thunder, appears to 
threaten to overwhelm the spectator, and constantly bedews him 
with its spray. This immediate proximity alone is calculated to 
fulfil and even surpass the expectations of the visitor. — Ferry to 
iSc.hldsschen Worth (see below") 30 c 

After having surveyed the falls from the different points of 
\iew at the castle of Laufen, the visitor on leaving should de- 
scend to the left, at the sign-post indicating the way to Schloss 
Laufen, to the *Bridgc across the falls {RheinfuUbriidce, 1)30' long), 
over which the railway from Schaffhausen to Zurich (see below) 
passes. The nine arches vary in width of span (4'2-(56ft.) owing 
to the difficulty that was experienced of obtaining a foundation for 
the piers. The upper side of the bridge is provided with a foot- 
way, which affords a remarkable view of the rocky bed of the river, 
the rapids, and the falls below. 

On the right bank a good footpath, leading to the left from the 
bridge. as( ends at a considerable height above the Rhine (fine 
view of the falls'), to an extensive railway- carriage manufactory 
near ,\ei,l,uusen (p. 21). Here we descend by the steps on the 
left to the parapet near the sluices, whence another good view 



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DACHSRN. 12. RnuU. 29 

of the falls is obtained. We next descend to the right by the road 
past the iron-works, and follow the path by the Rhine (a bench by 
the path commands another fine *view) to Schlossehen Worth 
(Restaurant; camera obscura 75 cent.), a square tower on an 
island opposite the falls, connected with the right bank by a bridge. 
We then ascend to the terrace of the Schweizerhof (at stat. Neu- 
hausen, p. 27), 230' above the water on the right bank, command- 
ing a view of the entire chain of the Alps (to the right the Bernese 
Alps), together with the falls and their environs. 

12. From Schaffhausen to Zurich. 

Comp. Maps, pp. 2j, 42. 

35 M. Railway in 2 hrs. (In Winterthur 1 hr., to Zurich 1 hr.). Fares 
G fr., 4 fr. 20 c, 3 fr. View of the Falls of the Rhine on the right. 

The line skirts the lower end of the Vesenstaub (p. 21) prom- 
enade, and passes below the villa Charlottenfels, built by a wealthy 
manufacturer of Schaffhausen (p. 21). On the right, high above 
the Zurich line , is the railway to Waldshut (R. 9), which passes 
through a tunnel, 564' long , under Charlottenfels. The Zurich 
train, immediately beyond the long cutting, crosses the Bridge above 
the Falls (see p. 28). A glimpse is obtained of the falls to the right 
and the tunnel, 2i3' long, under Schloss Laufen (p. 28) is then 
entered. On emerging, the train commands another beautiful , but 
momentary retrospect of the falls. 

The train stops at (3 M.) Dachsen (1296'; Hotel Witzig), i/ 2 M. 
from Schloss Laufen, beyond which pleasing views present them- 
selves at intervals of the bluish-green Rhine , as it flows far below 
in its narrow channel, enclosed by lofty wooded banks. 

5^2 M. Marthalen. The valley of (lO'/o M.) Andelfingen soon 
begins to open , and the handsome village is visible in the distance 
to the right, on the precipitous bank of the Thur. The train ap- 
proaches it by a wide curve, and crosses the Thur above the vil- 
lage by a suspension bridge, 115' long. It then skirts the river 
for a short distance and arrives at Andelfingen on the S. side. 

The rest of the route to Winterthur is less interesting, although 
the scenery is still picturesque. Stations Henggart, Hettlingen. The 
vine-clad slopes of Neftenbach, to the right, produce the best wines 
of N. Switzerland, the most esteemed of which is called Gallen- 
spitz. Near Winterthur the broad valley of the Toss is entered. 

19 M. Winterthur, and thence to Zurich, see p. 36. 

13. Zurich and the Uetliberg. 

Hotels. 'Hotel Bauk au Lac (PI. a), charmingly situated on the 
bank of the lake, well conducted, with garden, baths, and reading-room 
adjoining, R. 3-6 fr., B. l'/g, D. at 1 o'cl. 4, at 5 o'cl. 5, A. 1 fr., pension 
8 fr. and upwards. *Bellkvue (PI. b) on the lake, opposite the Bauschanze, 
similar charges, also commanding a tine view. 'Hotel Baur-Ville (PI. c), 
in the town, more moderate-; Suhwkrt (PI. d(, by the lower bridge, view 



30 Route IS. Zi'IUCH. Hotels. 

of the Alps, K. 2-3, B. 1-1' 4, A. »/,, I,, i ... fr. ; -Hotel i>v Lac (PI. it , on 
the Sonnen-Quay ; Zukiuheu Hof (PI. e), K. from 2, I,, and A. 1 fr. ; ' Stokch 
(PI. f|, commercial; 'Fai.kk (PI. g), between the lake and the post-office, 
R. 2, B. M'j, A. 1/2 fr. ; Sciiwkizeriiof (PI. h), K, 2. D. 3 fr. , Limmathof 
and Com oiiuiA , on the right bank of the Limmat, not far from the sta- 
tion; Hkcht (PI. k), Seehue (PI. 1), and Eossli (PI. in) at the landing 
place (Sonnen-tjuay), below the Zuricher Hof; Sciiwakzer Auler, Sonne, 
and Krone, for moderate requirements. Visitors are received at. all 
these hotels en pension (reduced charges in spring and autumn). — Pen- 
sion - Nei-tun at Seefcld, near Zurich, 5'/a-6 fr. per day ; near it, 'Weisses 
Kreuz; Hotel et Pension Cvgne (PI. h) on the Miihlenhach, well situated, 
pleasant garden, 6' •-' fr. a day. — Buegli Terrace and Weid, see below. 
Kakolinknhukg and Fokstek, both at Fluntern, 2 JI. to the E. of Zurich. 

The "Uetliberg (* Hot. -Pens. Fiirst), a charming point of view, 2 hrs. 
S.W. of Zurich, is now easily reached by railway in '/a hr. (comp. p. 34). 

Restaurants and Cafes. At the hotels Baur and Bellevue ; " Kronen- 
Italic , above the Ziiricherhof; "Cafe zur Jfeise , by the Miinsterbriicke ; 
■ Sa (fran, opposite the Bathhaus; Caff Litteraire , adjoining the Storch, 
table d'hote at 12. 30; Tonlialle (PI. 20), on the lake; Baugarten, see 
below; "Rail. Restaurant; Cafe du Nord and Allen Sehiitzenhans , near the 
station. — Ices at Spriinylis, near the Hotel Baur-Villc. — Beer. Brunner 
COrsini 1 ), Frau-Munsterplatz ; Gambrinus, Schot'elgasse ; Wanner, Bahnbofs- 
fitr. ; Boiler, on the quay; Strohhof, at the back of St. Peter's; Tonhalle 
(PI. 20). — Valtellina wine at the Veltlinerhalle. 

Points of View. The "Baugarten (PI. 2), the property of a club, to 
which strangers are readily admitted, adjoins the Hotel Baur an Lac. 
Tonhalle (PI. 20) on the lake, with an open pavilion and *restaurant, 
where concerts are frequently given. '-'Garden (restaurant) at Oberstrass, 
with open-air theatre. The "Biirgli Terrace (with pension), '/s "■ on the 
road to the Uetliberg (p. 35) ; the - Weid on the Kaferberg , 3 M. to the 
N.W. of the town (pension 4-7 fr.); the JSonnenberg, to the S. of the 
Ziirichberg, above Hottingen; the "Uetliberg (p. 34), by railway in ','z hr. 

Newspapers at the Museum (p. 33) ; strangers introduced by a member 
are admitted gratis for 1 month, from 9 a.m. to 10 p.m. 

Baths in the lake (for ladies also) near the Bauschanze, admirably 
titled up ; bath 15 c, towel etc. 20 c, private cabinet 40 c. — At the S. 
end of the town, on the E. bank of the lake, is the new Xeumiinsler 
establishment. Warm Baths (vapour, etc.) at "Stocker^s in the Jliihlgarten. 

Rowing-boats for 1-2 persons 50 c. per hour: for 3 or more persons 
20 c. each per hour ; large boat with awning 1 fr. ; each rower 60 c. per 
hour. 

Steamboats (see p. 41) start from the Bauschanze (p. 34), the Wasser- 
kircho (PI. 3), and the Stadthaus-(juay. — Small Strew-steamer from the 
Sonnen-Quay to the Enge station (p. 43i, 20c. 

Railway Station (p. 33) at the lower (N.) end of the town, 3 ,'i M. from 
the steamboat quay. Omnibus 75, each box 20 c. 

Post and Telegraph Office (PI. 23), Bahnhofs Strasse, nearly opposite 
the Hotel Baur; branch- offices by the new museum (p. 32) and at the 
railway station. 

Cabs. To or from the station 1-2 pers. 80 c. , 3-4 pels. 1 fr. 20 c, 
each box 20 c, in the evening 10 c. extra for the lamps ; from 10 p.m. to 
G a.m. double fares. Cabs with fixed charges stand by the Hotel Baur, 
the Uellevue, 6ie.\ to Weid 1-2 pers. 3 1 t, 3-4 pers. 5 i'r. 20 c. — For a 
two horse carriage the fare is the same as for 3-4 persons with one horse. 

English Church Service in the Chapel of St. Anna (p. 34). 

Zurich ('1351'), the Roman Turicum, the capital of the canton, 
with '21,199 inhab. (3377 Rom. Catli ._), or, including the suburbs, 
56,000, is situated at the N. end of the lake, on the banks of 
the green and rapid Limmat, which divides it into two distinct 
parts, the 'Orosse Stadf on the right, and the 'Kleine' on the left 
bank. On the "NV. side flows the Sihl, which unites with the 



Situation. ZURICH. 13. Route. 31 

Limmat immediately below the town. Zurich is the most flour- 
ishing manufacturing Swiss town (silk and cotton manufactories; 
there are 10,000 silk-looms in this canton), and at the same 
time the literary centre of German Switzerland. Its schools enjoy 
a high reputation, and have for many centuries sent forth men 
of distinction, such as Bodmer, Hottinger, Orelli, Gessner, Lavater, 
Hess , Pestalozzi , Heidegger . Horner , Hirzel , Henry Meyer the 
friend of Goethe , and many others. The Hochschule, or university, 
founded in 1832 (320 students, half of whom are medical), and 
the Polytechnic School, founded in 1855 (676 students), are both 
under the direction of an excellent staff of professors. 

The Situation of ZObich is beautiful. Both banks of the lake are 
enlivened with villages, orchards, and vineyards, scattered over a highly 
cultivated country; in the background rise the snow-capped Alps ; to the left 
is the ridge of the O'liirnUch, then the perpendicular sides of the Grieselt- 
stock (9200'), near it on the right the Pfannstock, and farther on, the Drusberg 
(like a winding staircase) ; next the snow-clad Bifertenstock and Todi; in front 
of these the Clariden, the most W. point of which is the Kammlistock (10,610') ; 
between this and the double-peaked Scheerhorn the Gries Glacier is imbedded ; 
then on the N. side of the Schdchenthal the Ross- Stock-Chain with grotesquely- 
formed horns •, the broad Windgelle ; between this and the Scheerhorn ap- 
pears the dark summit of the Mylhen near Schwyz; above the valley, be- 
tween the Kaiserstock and Rossberg, towers the pointed pyramid of the 
Brislenstock near Amsteg on the St. Gotthard-route ; then, if the spectator 
occupies a commanding position, the Blackenslock and Uri-Rothstock, and a 
portion of the snow-mountains of the Evgelberger Thai , appear above the 
Albis. To the right of the Albis is the Uelliberg, the most N. point of 
this range, with the hotel on its summit. 

As the beauty of its situation is the great attraction of Ziirich, a plan 
is here proposed, which will enable the traveller to visit the finest Points 
of View and chief objects of interest in the shortest possible time. No 
one should omit to visit the Terrace in front of the Polytechnic, the Hohe 
Promenade, the Katz, and the Bauschanze. 

We start from the four -arched Munster-Bridye (the highest), 
which commands a pleasant view of the lake and Alps. Close to 
the bridge, on the right bank of the Limmat, is an open vestibule 
leading to the Town Library (PI. 3). Admission obtained on ap- 
plication at the shop on the right. This building was formerly a 
church (1479), known as the Wusserkirche, from its having once 
stood in the water. In 1860 it was considerably enlarged, and now 
contains many valuable MSS. 

A letter of Zwingli to his wife; Zwingli's Greek Bible with Hebrew 
annotations in his own handwriting; an autograph letter of Henry IV. of 
France ; three autograph Latin letters of the unfortunate Lady Jane Grey 
to Antistes Bullinger; a letter of Frederick the Great, dated 1784, to 
Professor Miiller; Portrait of the worthies of Zurich, amongst others of 
Zwingli; a marble bust of Lavater by Dannecker; a marble bust (if 
Pestalozzi by Imhof ; eight panes of stained glass of the year 1506. The large 
: ■Relief-maps of a portion of Switzerland, and of the Engelberger Thai on 
a much larger scale, both executed with great care and accuracy, are worthy 
of note. (Fee 1 fr., for a party 2 fr.) 

The same building contains the Antiquities (open daily, 8-12 
and 2-6) belonging to the Antiquarian Society, the most interesting 
of which are the relics from the ancient Swiss lake- villages (pp. 
9, 11). 



32 Route 13. ZURICH. llnhe. Promenade. 

The steps opposite to the vestibule in front of the Library 
lead to the Gross- Munster (PI. 18), erected in the unadorned 
Romanesque style of the llth-13th cent. In the year 1779 the 
towers were crowned with helmet-shaped ornaments surmounted 
by gilded flowers. On the W. tower Charlemagne is seated with 
gilded crown and sword, in recognition of donations made by him 
to the original church. The choir contains three large stained-glass 
windows representing Christ, St. Peter, and St. Paul. — On the 
adjacent site of the ancient residence of the canons now stands 
the Tiichterschule, erected in 1851 in the same style as the church. 
In the interior are Cloisters dating from the beginning of the 13th 
cent., which were restored at the same period, and adorned with 
a statue of Charlemagne. 

The Town Hall (PI. 30) near the bridge, on the right bank, 
opposite to the Schwert hotel, constructed in 1689 in the style 
of that period, presents nothing worthy of note. Below the 
bridge, to the left, on the bank of the Limmat, is the new Fleisch- 
Halle, opposite which is the new Museum (PI. 26). 

Above the Miinster- Bridge, where the Limmat issues from 
the lake, extends the busy Sonnen- Quay on the right bank. Beyond 
it, in the See-Strasse, is situated the Tonhalle (PI. 20), which 
contains concert and ball rooms, a restaurant (with an open pav- 
ilion in summer), etc. We now turn to the left, and ascend straight 
on past the Kronenhalle (p. 30), or cross the Stadelhofer-Platz, 
which is adorned with a tasteful fountain with figures of children 
in bronze, to the *Hohe Promenade (PI. 13), a loftily situated 
avenue of lime-trees. Beautiful view (morning-light most favour- 
able) from the plateau with the Monument of Nageli (d. 1836; 
PI. 10), an eminent vocal composer, erected ' Von den Schweizerischen 
Sangervereinen ihrem Vater Nageli\ — Adjacent are the new 
Cemeteries (PI. 27), containing several handsome monuments. 

From the N. end of the Promenade a road, passing the N. side 
of the cemetery, leads to the high road to Winterthur, ascending 
which for a short distance, we reach the Cantonal School (PI. 7) 
on the left, a handsome edifice, comprising a grammar and a com- 
mercial school. Farther on, to the right, are the Cantonal Hospital 
(PI. 6) and the School of Anatomy; to the left on the slope of the 
hill is an Asylum for the Blind and Dumb (PI. 4); lower down to 
the left, the Kunstgebaude (PI. 21), containing the recently found- 
ed Picture Gallery of the Kunstverein (open on Sat. 2-4 and Sund. 
10-12; for admission at other times apply at the restaurant at the 
back of the building). 

Pictures (chiefly Jim-traits) liy Asper. Aniiiiiiii , Hofmanu, Mriier, and 
oilier early artists of Zurich. 20O. Millenet, Return (if the Ziirichers from 
the hattle of Tattwyl; 64. Fiissli/, Portrait of Bodmer; 311, 312. Baade, 
Sea-pieces; 316, 317. liigaud, Portraits; 31)3. Titchbein, Portrait of Bodmer ; 
:U5. Marir FUenrieder , Portrait; 78-109. L. Hess, Landscapes- 221. FrSh- 
lirhtr, Korest scene; 212. Uvn't. The artist on a professional tour- 210. 
tttili/utlb. The Wetterhorn ; 1 70. A'o//ee, Midday repose; ;;7fi. Ktilhr An 



Polytti,.,*,' . Z.UKICU. 13. Route. 33 

Alp in tlie Engelberger Thai ; 211. Anker, Pestalozzi: 185. Ziind, Landscape ; 
184. Deschwanden , The Maries at the Sepulchre; 188. Diday, Scene from 
theHandeck; 152. Hitz, Queen Mary of Bavaria; 62. Angelica Kauffmamt, 
Winckelmann; "158. Scheuchzer , The Fuscherthal; 177, 178. Bosshard, 
Scenes from the history of Zurich; 190. Diday, Landscape in the Valais; 
193. Veillon , Evening on the Lake of Lucerne; 197. Qirardet, The sick 
child. — Watereolours : 220. Corrodi, Scene from Ischia; 318. Isabey, 
Napoleon I.; 192. //. Rath, Pestalozzi (miniature); 110. .ff. Meyer, (Edipus 
and the Sphynx. 

Farther on, to the left, rises the handsome *Poly technics (PI. 28), 
designed by Prof. Semper, and erected in 1861-64, the terrace of 
which commands the finest *snrvey of the town. The 'sgraffito' deco- 
ration of the N. facade, also designed by Semper, was executed by 
the historical painters Schiinherr and Walter of Dresden. 

On the ground-floor is a collection of Casta; on the first floor are 
Minerulogical and Palaeontological collections; on the second floor are the 
Zoological Collection and the Aula, a handsomely decorated hall, with 
mythological ceiling-paintings by Bin of Paris. Opposite the platform is 
a marble bust of Orelli (d. 1849), the founder of the university, by Meilli. 
The balcony commands a splendid view. On the staircase is a bust of 
Bolley, the chemist (d. 1870). 

On the right is the St. Leonhards-Pfrundhaus ('deanery', 
PI. 22), now an asylum for the aged poor. Returning to the road 
and passing the Pfrundhaus, we take the first street to the left 
and descend by a flight of steps. The smoking chimneys and confused 
din of machinery intimate that we are now in the manufacturing 
quarter of Zurich. One of the largest manufactories is that of the 
engineers Escher , Wyss , if- Co. (PI. 24), who have constructed 
most of the steamboats which navigate the Swiss and Italian lakes, 
and many of those on the Danube and Black Sea. We now 
cross the broad Bahnhofs-Briicke and reach the *Railway Station, 
with its handsome portal and spacious interior. 

The long avenue of handsome trees, to the N. of the railway station, 
skirting the banks of the Linimat, affords a cool and pleasant walk. It 
terminates in the 'Platzspitz' tso named from the former Schiitzenplatz), 
a point of land formed by the junction of the rapid river Sihl, which 
is generally very shallow in summer, with the Liminat. A bridge cross- 
es the Limmat to the beer -garden D rahtschmiedli on the right bank; 
and this is also the pleasantest route to the Weid (p. 30). Halfway be- 
tween the old gasworks and the Platzspitz stands the simple monument 
and bust of the poet Salomo Oessney (d. 1788; PI. 9), whose favourite 
resort was the 'Platzpromenade 1 . 

The new Bahnhofs-Strasse, intersecting the whole quarter of 
the town between the Limmat and the Sihl, leads direct from the 
railway station to the Jake. 

Near the centre of the town rises the Lindenhof (PI. 23), 
situated 115' above the Limmat, once a Celtic settlement, then 
a Roman station , and afterwards an imperial palace. The Gothic 
Masonic Lodge on the S.E. side was erected in 1851. 

Descending on the S. side by the street to the right, we arrive 
at the (Old Cath.) Augustinian Church (PI. 16), which was used 
for three hundred years as a magazine , but was again fitted up as 
a church in 1848, and is now a model of simplicity and good taste. 

Baedeker, Switzerland. 7th Edition. 3 



34 Route 13. ZURICH. Bauschanze. 

The two pictures over the side altars. Christ on the Mount of 
Olives' and the Risen Saviour', by Desrhwunden, are able works; 
the high altar, pulpit, and organ are also worthy of mention. A 
little farther to the S.E. is St. Peter's Church (PI. 19), with a 
massive tower and large electric clock (dial 29ft. in diam.), where 
the excellent Lander (d. 1801) was pastor for 23 years. 

To the N.W. of tin 1 Roman Oath, church, on the opposite side of the 
Bahnhofs-Strasse , is the old Cemetery, adjoining the i'/ia/icl of N/. Anna, 
in which English Church Service is performed during the season. An 
upright stone by the E. wall marks the grave of Laratcr (d. 1801). Ebel , 
the author of an admirable work on Switzerland (d. 1830), and Eschcr von 
der Linth (d. 1823), the constructor of the Esclier canal (p. 45), are also 
interred here. 

Crossing the Bahnhofs-Strasse and following the Pelican-Strassc, 
we reach the Botanic Garden (PI. 5), which is well stocked with 
Alpine plants , and contains busts of A. P. de Candolle (d. 1841) 
and Conrad Gessner (d. 1565), in bronze, and another, in marble, 
of H. Zollinger, a Swiss botanist (d. in Java, 1859). In the garden 
rises a bastion of the old fortress known as the *Katz, forming an 
elevated platform planted with flue trees, and commanding an ex- 
cellent survey of the town, lake, Alps, and valley of the Limmat. 

The Thalgasse and Seegasse lead to the S. from the Botanic 
Garden, past the hotels Zuni Falken and Baur au Lac, to the lake. 
We now proceed through the new grounds of the Stadtyarten, past 
the Bath-Establishment (p. 30), to the *Bauschanze, a small pen- 
tagonal island , surrounded by walls (formerly a bastion), shaded by 
thick foliage, and connected with the land by a bridge, like the 
Rousseau-Island at Geneva, and commanding a beautiful view of the 
lake and Alps. On the Stadthaus-Quay, opposite the island, rises 
the Stadthaus (formerly the Bauha-us, PI. 42). 

Adjoining the Minister-Bridge, on the left bank, rises the Frau- 
Munsterkirche ( PI . 17), erected in the 13th cent., with a lofty red- 
roofed tower. 

The Collection of Armour in the new Arsenal, on the opposite 
bank of the Sihl(Pl.G, 1 ), consists of battle-axes, armour, flags, and 
cross-bows, among which is one of the many which claim the dis- 
tinction of having belonged to Tell. Zwinyli'x Battle-axe, which was 
taken by the Lu corners at the battle of Kappel (p. 51), waslirst placed 
in their arsenal, but after the War of the Separate League in 1847 
was transferred hither, together with his sword, coat of mail, and 
helmet. 

The TJetliberg. 

Railway to the top in i/ 2 hr. (fare 2 fr. ; return-ticket, 3 fr.). 
This line, which is f></ 2 M. in length, with a maximum gradient of 
7 in 100 ft., is constructed in the ordinary way, but the trains, 
like those on the Rigi Railway, are propelled by engines placeu 
behind them. The station is at Selnau, on the S.W . side of the 
town, not far from the Botanic. Garden on the Silil (finger-posts in 



UUTLIBERG. 13. Route. 35 

the Bahnhofs-Str. and elsewhere). The train skirts the Sihl for 
some distance, crosses it, and soon begins to ascend the hill, com- 
manding a pleasant view of the valley of the Limmat and the lake. 
It then enters the wood , describes a long curve on the N.W. side 
of the hill, and after several windings reaches the terminus. About 
4 min. from the station is the handsome new * Hotel -Pension 
Furst (R, 3-4, B. V/ 2 , D. 4 , A. 1, pension 8-10 fr.), and 4 min. 
higher, at the top of the hill, is the large * Restaurant Uto-Kulm. 
Near the hotel a 'Kurhaus' and a number of 'Chalets' are being 
built for the accommodation of visitors. 

The *TJetliberg (2864' above the sea-level, 1523' above the 
Lake of Zurich), the most N. point of the Albis range, 5M. to the 
S.W. of Zurich, is the finest point of view in the environs. The 
prospect may be surpassed in grandeur , but not in beauty , by 
those from heights nearer the Alps. It embraces the Lake of Zurich, 
the valley of the Limmat, the Alpine range from the Sentis to the 
Jungfrau , the Stoekhorn on the lake of Thun , and in the fore- 
ground the Rigi and Pilatus ; to the W. the Jura chain from the 
Chasseral on the Lake of Bienne , to its spurs near Aarau. over 
which appear the summits of some of the Vosges Mts. ; farther N. 
are the Feldberg and Belchen in the Black Forest, and the volcanic 
peaks of the Hbhgau , Hohentwiel , Hohenhowen , and Hohen- 
stoffeln. On the opposite bank of the Reuss stands the old Bene- 
dictine Abbey of Muri, with a facade 750' in length, secularised by 
the government of Aargau in 1841; the building is most conspic- 
uous by morning light (p. 19). Baden with its. old castle (p. 18) 
is another prominent object. 

Walk to the TTetliberg (2 hrs.). The road leads to the W. through 
the suburb Enge, and where the telegraph wires diverge to the left it 
pursues a straight direction (to the left is the Biirgli, p. 30). After 1 M. 
(from the Hotel Baur) it crosses the Sin], turns to the left in the direction 
of the mountain, and reaches ( 3 /i 31.) the Albisgiitli (tavern; cab to 
to this point 2-3 fr.). Where the road terminates, we follow the most 
frequented path, which cannot be mistaken, winding somewhat steeply 
up the valley. Near the top we obtain a view of the Rigi, Pilatus, and 
the Bernese Alps. About 20 min. below the inn, we pass an inscription 
to the memory of F. von Diirler (p. 315), who lost his life here in 1840. 

Fkom the Uetlibf.kg to the Albis -Hochwacht (p. 51), a beautiful 
walk of 3 hrs., ascending and descending on the Albis-range, and chiefly 
through wood. The broad path, which cannot be mistaken , and is even 
practicable for carriages, passes the above-mentioned Diirler inscription, 
and follows the crest of the mountain, affording occasional glimpses of 
the lake of Zurich. To the left is the ravine of the Sihl, beyond it the 
blue lake with its thousand glittering dwellings, to the right the pretty 
Tiirler lake, and farther distant a fertile undulating tract, with the Alps 
towering in the distance. — From the *Albis Hochwacht to Zug , see p. 51. 

From Zokich to Regensberg. A branch-line diverges from the N.E. 
Swiss railway at Oerlikon (p. 36), and, passing stations Oberglatt (branch- 
line to Biilach, p. 36), and Dielsdorf, conveys the traveller in 1 hr. to the 
picturesquely situated old town of Regensberg (2024'; "Lime; Krone), on 
the S. E. spur of the Lagerngebirg (p. 19). Fine view from the tower of 
the old castle; still more extensive from the Hochwacht (2828'), 1 hr. 
farther W. 

3* 



36 

14. From Zurich to Friedrichshafen and Lindau by 
Romanshorn. 

f'omp. Maps, pp. 42, 22, 24. 

Railway In Romanshorn (51 M.) in 3 hrs. ; fares 8 fr. 75, G fr. 15, 4 fr. 
•40 c. — Steamboat to Friedrichshafen in 1 hr. ; fare 1 J( 20, or 80 pf. ; 
to Lindau in l'/ 2 hr. ; fare 2 M 25, or 1 M 50 pf. (see p. 23). 

The train crosses the Slid, ascends in a wide curve , crosses 
the Limmat by an iron bridge, and passes under the Kdferberg 
by a tunnel 1020 yds. in length. Between (3 M. ) Oerlikon (Lowe) 
and I") 1 /;; M. ) Wallisellen ( Ijinde) it crosses the Olatt. To the S. 
the line to Rappersr.hwyl diverges, see p. 44. Next stations Diet- 
likon, Effretikon (branch-line via Pfciff ikon to Wetzikon and Hinweil, 
p. 44), and Kempthal. Near Winterthur the Tim is crossed. On 
a hill to the left are the ruins of Hoch-Widflingen (1962' ). 

1(3 M. Winterthur (1447'; *IAon a" Or; * Krone; *Adler; 
Rheinfels, near the station, li. 1 1 / 2 , B. 1 fr. ; restaurants at the 
Cafe Ritter, Casino, and Rail. Station), on the Eulach, is an 
industrial and wealthy town with 9404 inhab. The town dis- 
played a devoted attachment to Austria in ancient times. Inde- 
pendence was accorded to it in 1417, but this distinction it vol- 
untarily resigned in favour of Austria in 1442. Since 14(57 it has 
belonged to Zurich. The new Stadthaus was designSd by Prof. 
Semper. The large School{ adorned with statues of Zwingli, Oessner, 
Pestalozzi, and Sulzer), on the Promenade, contains a few small 
Roman antiquities found near Ober-Winterthur (Vitodurum), and 
the town-library. — The ancient castle of Kyburg (2070'), in the 
Tiissthal, 4'/ 2 M. S. of Winterthur, commands a tine view, and 
contains a collection of ancient pictures (l'Aj M. distant from stat. 
Sennhof, see p. 37). 

From Winterthur to Waldshut, 3'2 11., railway in 2 hrs. (fares 5fr. 
35, 3 fr. 80, 2 fr. 70 c). The line traverses the valley of the Toss. Sta- 
tions Tiiss , Wiilflingen , and Pfunrjen , heyond which the train passes 
through a long tunnel. lO'^M. Bulaeh | 137V ; Kupf; Ki-vw.), a small town 
and formerly a fortress on the (Halt (branch-line to oberylall, p. 35). Farther 
on, the line intersects the Ilttrdmtitl in a N. direction. Stat. Oliiltfelden, 
(14 31.) Eglisau; the small town with its castle lies opposite on the right 
hank of the Rhine. The train then follows the left hank of the Rhine 
and crosses the Glatt. Stat. Xweidlen , (IK'/ 2 5I.| Weiach-Kaisersluhl , the 
latter an old town with a massive tower; on the right bank we ohserve 
the chateau of Ilutrlii, and farther on the ruins of Weixs- Wasserxtel:. Stat. 
Riimikon , Herkinyi n , Zur:aeh, and (30 31.) Kohlenr, where the Rhine is 
crossed. 32 M. Waldshiil, p. '21. 

From Winterthur to ConstancKj 3S'.-j M by railway ( L Xational- 
buhin in 2-21/* hrs. (lares G fr. 20, 4 fr. '35, 3 fr'. I. The train passes 
Obey -Winlfrthui' with its old Komauesque church, and between stat. Dor- 
likon and intsiiitjrn crosses the Thur by a lofty iron bridge. 17 M. Stamm- 
tiiim, a considerable village, with the chateau of <lirsper</. '2'2 M. A'(c- 
terilmi is the junction for Sin yen (p. 221; to the N. a distant view of the 
HohentwicKp. '2'>|. The station of ('22 M.| Sli-in I p. 23 1 tics on the left hank 
of the Rhine; on the right bank is the small town, surmounted by the old 
chateau of Huhenklinyen (p. 23). Stat, lischmz (p. 23). The train skirts 
the I'lilirxee (p. '23). affording line views of the lake, the island of Rei- 
chenau and the distant hills of the Hdhgau. Stations Maminerii (p. 23), 



FRAUENFELD. 14. Route. 37 

Steckborn (p. 23), Berlinge/i (p. 23), Mannenbach (p. 23) ; in the middle 
of the lake, which here attains its greatest width, lies the island of Rei- 
chenait (p. 22). Beyond (.33 M.) Ermaltnge/i , the station for Arenenberg 
(p. 23), the train quits the lake and intersects a richly cultivated dis- 
trict. Stat. Tagerweilen, Emmishofen, and (38'/2 M.) Constance (p. 25). 

From Winterthur to Ruti, 29 M. , by railway (' Tbssthalbahri 1 ) in 
2-3 hrs. (fares 3 fr. 90, 2 fr. 75, 1 fr. 95 c). The train passes the stations 
Grilse and Seen, and near (5 M.) Sennhof enters the pretty valley of the 
Toss (hence to the Kyburg, see above). Stat. Kollbrunn possesses exten- 
sive manufactories; then stations Rykon, Zell, (10 M.) Turbenthal, Wyla, 
Saland, (16 M.) Bauma, all of which are thriving industrial places. Sta- 
tions Sleg, Fischenlhal, Gibswyl-Ried, (25 31.) Wald (Lowe; Rbssli), at the 
S.E. foot of the Bachtel (p. 45). At (29 M.) Riiti the line joins the Zu- 
rich and Rapperschwyl railway (p. 45). 

From Wiiitert/tur to Schaffhausen, see p. 29; to St. Gallen and Ror- 
schach, see below, 

The line to Ronianshorn traverses the green and fertile canton 
of Thurgau. Stations Wiesendanyen and Islikon. 

26 M. Frauenfeld(1374'; *Falke), the capital of Thurgau, with 
5138 inhab. (1079 Rom. Oath.), on the Mury, possesses important 
cotton-manufactories. The handsome old castle on its ivy-clad rock 
is said to have been built by a Count von Kyburg in the 11th cent. 

Stat. Felben. Near (32 M. ) Mullheim the train crosses the 
Thur by a covered wooden bridge. Stations Mlirstetten and Wein- 
felden (1463 '). Schloss Weinfelden (1850') rises on a vine-clad 
hill to the left. Stations Bilrylen, (41 M.) Sulyen. 

From Sulgen to Gossau, 14 M., by railway in l',4 hr. (1 fr. 65, 1 fr. 
15 c). The line traverses the pretty valley of the Thur. Stations Kra- 
dolf, Sitierthal , Bischofszelt (Linde ; Schwert) , a small town at the con- 
fluence of the Thur and Sitter; then Jlauptweil, Arnegg, and Gossau 
(p. 38). 

The last stations are Erlen, Amriswyl, and (51 M. ) Romans- 
horn (1322'; Hotel Bodan, or Rbmerhorn; *Falke), situated on a 
peninsula on the Lake of Constance , with a good harbour , on 
which the station is situated. The trains correspond with the steam- 
boats. Lake of Constance and Friedrichshafen, see p. 23. 

15. From Zurich to Lindau by St. Gallen and 
Rorschach. 

Comp. Maps, pp. 42, 22, 24. 

Railway U> Rorschach (63 M.) in 4i/a hrs.; (arcs 10 fr. 65, 7 fr. 50, 
5 fr. 35 c. — Steamboat from Rorschach to Lindau in IJ/4 hr., fares 1 .// 
65, or 1 ,// 10 pf. ; see p. 23. This route is about 3'/« hrs. longer than the 
last (K. 14). 

From Zurich to (16 M.) Winterthur (in 1 hr.) see p. 36. The 
St. Gallen railway traverses meadows and moor, with wooded hills 
on each side. The Churfirsten (p. 46) gradually become visible to 
the S. , and the mountains of Appenzell to the S.E. 

Stat. Raterschen. Near stat. Elyg rises Schloss Elgg (2012') ; 
about 4M. to theS. is the Schauenberg (2930'), commanding aline 
view, on the S.W. slope of which lies the Oyrenbad (2430'). Sta- 
tions Aadorf, Eschlikon, Sirnach. Then (33"/ 2 M. ) Wyl(1936'; 



38 Route lf>. ST. GALLEN. From Zurich 

Schbnthal, or Post), a town with several monasteries. The station 
commands a pleasing view of the Sentis ami the Churtirsten. Branch 
line to Ebmtt, sue p. 310. 

The train crosses the Thur by an iron bridge near the old 
castle of stat. Schwarzenbach. On the right of stat. L'tzwyl is Ober- 
Utzwyl, and on the left Nieder-Utzicyl [near which is the hydropa- 
thic establishment of Buchenlhal). 43 M. Flawyl ('2021'; *Riissli) 
is a large manufacturing village. The <Uatt is crossed. Stations 
Gossan (branch-line to Sulyen, see p. 37), Winkeln, Brugyen. 

Fko.m Winkki.n to Urnasoh, 9 l /'-''M-, by a railway of very narrow gauge 
(Appenzeller Balm) in I lir. The line passes the Heinrichsbad ("Kurhaus, 
with chalybeate springs, whey-cure, etc.). 3 M. Herisau (2549'; Lowe; 
Slovrli). a small town with extensive muslin manufactories and a venerable 
clock-tower of the 7th century, fr/'-i M. WaUlstatt (.2701)'; Liivve ; Sonne), 
with a small bath-house. The train then traverses the Urnasch-Valley via 
Zurchenmiihle to (9'/a M.) Urnthrli (2746'; Krone), whence a diligence runs 
twice daily in l'/a hr. via Goiiteti and Gontei/bad to Appenzell (p. 298; 
railway in course of construction). — Ascent of the Sentis, see p. 300. 

The handsome iron *Bridge (10 min. by rail, from St. Galle/i), 
which spans the deep valley of the Sitter near Bruggen, is 200 yds. 
long, and '225' above the level of the river. To the left, a little 
lower down the stream, is the Krazernbriicke, constructed in 1 H 10, 
once regarded as a triumph of engineering skill. 

52 M. St. Gallen ( 2165'). — :: Hecht; St. Gallkk Hof, new, R.3, 
B. l'/a, I- and A. li/ 2 IV.; Lowe, K. l'/2, B. 1, !>■ 3, A. 1/2 fr. ; Hirsch; 
'Linde; SciiiFF, Ochse, and Bar, moderate. Beer at the Lochlibad, near 
the Lowe, at the Cafe National, and Trisc/tli's. Baths of every kind at 
Dr. Seii:'s establishment 4m Paradies'. Telrtjraph Station at the post-office. 

St. Gallen, or St. Gall, one of the most loftily situated towns 
in Europe, the capital of the canton, and since 1846 an epis- 
copal residence, with 18,500 inhab. ( 6000 Kom. Cath.), is one of 
the most important manufacturing towns in Switzerland. The 
embroidery of cotton goods is one of its specialties. 

The once celebrated Benedictine Abbey , founded in the 7th 
cent, by St. (callus, a Scotch monk, and suppressed in 1805, 
was one of the most important seats of learning in Europe from 
the 8th to the 10th century. The Library contains many valuable 
MSS. (including a psalter of Notker Labeo of the 10th cent, and a 
Nibeltiugeiilied of the 13th cent. ). Of the manuscripts mentioned 
in a catalogue of the year 823 about 400 still exist. 

The Abbey Church (Horn, t'ath. ; open SI-12 a.m. ), which was 
rebuilt in 1755 in the Italian style, is adorned with good ceiling 
frescoes. The Prot. Church of St. Lawrence, to the N. of the 
abbey-church, has been restored, and partly rebuilt! IS50-54) in the 
Gothic style. 

The Rathhaus bears an inscription to the effect that 'the glory 
of Cod and the public weal shall And protection in this house . 
The adjoining Literary Museum is well supplied with newspapers. 
Schiitl's Cabinet of Relief*, including one of the Sentis ( 106 sq. ft.), 
is worthy of a visit. 



to Linaau. RORSCHACH. 15. Route. 39 

The spacious School House at the E. end of the town contains 
the Natural History Museum, the Town Library (' Vadianische Bib- 
liothek^, whic'i possesses valuable MSS., chiefly of the time of the 
Reformation , and the Picture Liallery of the Kunstverein, consist- 
ing of works by Koller, Diday, and others. 

The Arsenal , the Prison , the Deaf and Dumb and Orphan 
Asylums, the Hospital , and Reformatory may also be visited. 

Excursions. Trogen, Oais, Appenzell, Weissbad, see R. 68. One-horse 
carr. from St. Gall to these places and back 12 fr. , a pleasant excursion 
for one day. Diligence and omnibus to Appenzell see p. 295. — "Freuden- 
berg , "Vbglisegg, Frolichsegg , see R. 68. — The Kurzegg inn on the road 
to Vbglisegg commands a fine view of the Lake of Constance. Near it is 
the nunnery of Notkersegg (2567'). — The Rosenberg (2445') with the Kur- 
zenburg, a deaf and duml) institution (view towards the S.W.); walk along 
the hill to the (3/ 4 hr.) inn of SI. Peter and St. Paul (2628'), fine view. — 
Across the pastures to the Bernegg (inn ; 2757'), which commands a view 
of the Sentis , and back by the Teufen road (2 M.). — Bruggen and the 
handsome bridge over the Sitter (p. 3S), by railway in 8 niin. 

Between St. Gallen and Rorschach (11 M.) the line descends 
850', and great difficulties were encountered in its construction. 
On leaving St. Gallen the train passes through a long cutting (on 
the right the Cantonal School and Hospital, on the left the Prison), 
and enters the wild valley of the Steinach, the banks of which are 
composed of the alluvial deposit of the river. Embankments and 
cuttings are traversed in rapid succession. The Lake of Constance 
is frequently visible almost in its entire length , and Friedrichs- 
hafen is conspicuous on its N. bank. Stat. St. Fiden (p. 40). 

Near stat. Mbrschwyl the train enters the valley of the Qoldach, 
and crosses this stream by a five-arched stone bridge, 85' high. 
The district between this and Rorschach is very fertile. There 
are two stations at Rorschach . the first of which is '/., M. from the 
town, while the terminus is at the harbour. 

63 M. Rorschach (1312'). — Seehof, on the lake, R. 3, li. l'/a, L. 
and A. 1 fr. ; Anker; Hirsoh, moderate; Hotel Bodan, new; : Schiff; 
Krone or Post; "Gruner Baum, R. 2, B. 1 fr.; Zur Toggenburg ; Rossle ; 
Zur Ilge. — ''Cafe Seehof , * Caf6 Knop/ler, both on the lake; "'Rail. 
Restaurant (upstairs). — Private apartments reasonable. The wines of 
the Rhine valley ('Rheinthaler'), of Schaffhausen. and Winterthur are the 
best in N.E. Switzerland. — Telegraph Offiee at the harbour. — *Lake 
Baths on the W side of the town; bath with towel 30c. 

Rorschach, a handsome-looking town , with 3492 inhab. (1017 
Prot.), is a busy commercial place, and is chiefly important for its 
corn trade with Swabia and Bavaria. Railway to Coire, see p. 302 ; 
to Bregenz and Lindau, see pp. 380, 381 ; to Heiden, see p. 296. 

Excursions. Above Rorschach rises the ancient abbey of Marienberg, 
with beautiful cloisters, now used as a school. The view from the Ror- 
sehaeher Berg, the green and fertile hill which rises behind the town, 
embraces the entire Lake of Constance, with the Yorarlberg mountains 
and the Alps of the Grisons ; its summit, the Rossbiihel , may be reached 
in l ! /4 hr. from Rorschach. The whole hill -country is intersected by 
roads, which afford a great, variety of pleasant walks. The St. Anna, 
or Rorschacher Schloss, once the seat of the Barons of Rorschach 
who became extinct in 1449, and afterwards the property of the Abbots of 
St. Gallen, is now occupied by peasants. Fine view from the upper rooms. 



40 Route 15. LINDAU. 

The path to it turns to the right below the Marienberg, and, beyond 
the bridge, to the left; then by the next turning, where the path divides 
among the trees, we ascend the hill to the left. — The Martinstobel and 
Mottelischloss, with the help of the railway, form a pleasant excursion of 
3 hrs. By the St. Gallen railway to stat. til. Fiden (.see above). Below the 
station we take the carriage-road to A'eudorf (brewery on the left), 
and descend by the high-road to the point where the road to Heiden 
diverges to the right. The latter descends to the Martinstobel, the gorge 
of the Goldach, which is spanned by a wooden bridge, 116' long, 102' high, 
constructed in 1468, the oldest bridge of the kind in E. Switzerland. Here 
at the beginning of the 10th cent, the monk Notker composed his 'Media 
vita in mortc snmns\ upon seeing a man accidentally killed. Beyond the 
bridge we ascend the road to the left, across (he debris of a landslip 
which took place in 1845, lo Unlereggcn (Schaile), and thence descend the 
Goldach road as far as the Mottelischloss, the chateau rising above a green 
dale on the right. This was. formerly the seat of the Barons of Sulzberg, 
of whom it was purchased by (he wealthy Motteli of St. Gallen, and after 
various vicissitudes it has now fallen into a dilapidated condition. A 
footpath leads direct to the castle. The view from the new platform on 
the top (gratuity) is one of the tinest near the lake. Pleasant walk back 
to Rorschach through the Wil/ioU, 1 hr. — To Tiiback surrounded by fruit- 
trees, and the Castle of Xteinach about 1 hr. — Railway to Heiden, in 
'/■/ hr., see R. 68. — Rheineck, Thai, Weinburrj (chateau of Prince Hohen- 
zollern-Sigmaringen), and the "fiteincrne Tisch (stone table), see p. 302. — To 
the Meldegg, a projecting rock at the angle of the Rhine valley, com- 
manding a charming view of the valley and the lake. The route is by a 
good road via Rheineck and Walzenhauseii to (9 M.) the monastery of Grim- 
mcnstein, whence the Meldegg is reached by a footpath to the left in ] /4 nr - 
( Inn in summer only). This point may be still more easily reached from 
St. Margarethtn (p. 302) in 1 hr. ; we may then descend to Rheineck and 
return by the 1; st train to Rorschach. 

At Horn (on the lake, l'/» M. N.W.; railway, see p. 27) there is an ex- 
tensive Pension and Bath House, R. 1-6 fr., I!. 85 c, D. 2>/s fr-, A. 40, 
whey 70, cold bath 45 c, warm or shower bath 70 c, pension 25 fr. per 
week. Visitors are also received at the chateau near the baths, to the left 
of the road. No shady walks in the vicinity. The Villa See/eld, on the 
road to Horn, was formerly a country seat of the Queen of Wiirtemberg. 

To Lindau by steamer (l'/ 4 hr.. tare l,//(35or 1 J/ 10P1\), romp, 
p. 23. To the S.E. Bregenz (p. 3<S0") is visible, situated at the toot 
of picturesque mountains, with the Rlueticon chain in the back- 
ground; on the W. side of the valley of the Rhine rise the 
Appenzell Mts. and the Sentis. 

Lind.au. — --Baykisohkk IIok, K. 2, IS. 1, A. Vi ,U\ Bad- Hotel, 
new; both of these are on the lake and close to the station; "Krone, or 
Post, H, from I'/a Ji ; Hotel Reutemann i.nd Dkutsches Hais, both on 
the lake; Helvetia, moderate; Gaktchkn ale uerMaif.u, a pension on 
the mainland. SchiitzciKjarten , a restaurant with view; adjacent toil, 
Rvpflin (wine); "Railway Restaurant. — Lake Baths on the > T .W. side of the 
town, in the inner arm of the lake. 

Lindau, the terminus of the Bavarian S.W. Railway (express 
to Augsburg 5, to Munich b 3 / t hrs.), formerly an imperial town and 
fortress, and a thriving commercial place in the middle ages, lies 
on an island in the Lake of Constance, which is connected with 
the mainland by a railway-embankment and by a wooden bridge, 
35r) yds. long. Lindau is said to have boon the site of an ancient 
Roman fort, to which the \enerable tower near the bridge perhaps 
belonged. Monument to Am;/ Max II. (A. I!^(i4j at t| u . harbour 



LAKE OF ZURICH. 16. Route. 41 

in bronze, designed by Halbig. At the end of the (S. pier, on 
a granite pedestal 33 ft. in height, is placed a lion in marble 
20 ft. in height, also by Halbig. The top of the Lighthouse on 
the N. pier commands a fine view (adm. '/^ Jfy. 

Excursions. Pleasant walk along the bank of the lake towards the 
W. (to the left after crossing the railway embankment), passing the villas 
of Lolzbeck (pretty park), Giebelbach , Lingg (adorned with 'frescoes by 
Naue), and others, to the t 1 /^ 51.) Schachenbad (Pension Freihof ), and the 
( 3 /i M) Lindenhof (or Villa Gruber), with its beautiful grounds and hot- 
houses (admission Tues. and Frirl. gratis, at other times 1 M\ closed on 
Sund.). About 1/2 M. farther is the chateau of Alwind. — Beautiful view 
from the 0/2 hr. ) 'Hoierberg (1496'), which is reached by a path skirting the 
railway, or by the road by Aeschach (Schlatter) to the village of floiren, 
at the foot of the vine-clad hill. Two inns and a belvedere. on the top. 
— Railway via, Locliau to Bregenz, see p. 381: 



16. From Zurich to Coire. Lakes of Zurich and 
Wallenstadt. 

Comj). Afap, p. 296. 

SO M. Railway by Wallisellen, Rapperschwyl, Weseu, and Sargans in 
33/4-4V4 hrs. ; fares 14 fr. 70, 8 fr. 90 c, 6 fr. 5c — The railway does not 
approach the lake of Zurich till it reaches Rapperschwyl. — Railway: on 
the Left (S.) Bank from Zurich to Richterswyl and Glarus, completed 
in 1875. To Ziegelbriicke (p. 44, junction for Wesen) 36 M., in I1/2-2 
hrs.; fares 5 fr. 80, 4 fr. 10, 2 fr. 90 c. — To Glarus, 43 31., in 2-2'/j hrs.; 
fares 6 fr. 90, 4 fr. 85, 3 fr. 45 c. 

Steamboat, preferable to the railway, to Rapperschwyl in l 3 /4-2'/a hrs. 
(2 fr. 10, or 1 fr. 20 c); to Schmerikon in 3 3 /4 hrs. (2 fr. 65 c. or 2 fr.; 
return-tickets, available for the day of issue, at a fare and a half; no 
charge for landing or embarking). 

The Lake of Zurich (1341'), 25' / 2 M. long, and 2'/ 2 M. 
broad at its widest part (between Stafa and Richterswyl), is fed 
by the Linth and drained by the Limmat. Its scenery, though 
with slight pretensions to grandeur, is scarcely equalled in beauty 
by that of any other lake. The banks rise in gentle slopes, at the 
base of which are meadows and arable land ; above these is a 
belt of vineyards and orchards, and on the K. side forests crown 
the summits of the hills, here about 2700' high. The two banks 
of the lake are sometimes not unaptly termed the suburbs of 
the town of Zurich , so thickly are they sprinkled for a long 
distance with houses, villages, and large manufactories. In the 
background the snow-clad Alps (see p. 31) bound the landscape, 
adding to its pastoral loveliness a little of their imposing majesty. 

Steamboat. Soon after starting, we pass , on the left, iVew- 
munster (1453'), a suburb of Zurich, with its picturesque church 
on the hill. The steamer now steers towards the W. bank (ex- 
cept for the two routes along the E. bank), to Bendlikon (Lowe), 
in the parish of Kilchbery , which stands above it, on the hills 
which bound the bank. On the right is Wollishofen, on the left 
Zollikon, on the hill, with its pointed spire. The boat now steams 
along the left (S.) bank. Above Ruschlikon peep the white build- 



42 Route 76'. HORCtEN. From Zurich 

ings of the Xidelbad (beautiful view). Opposite, on the right bank, 
is A'i«snac/jt(*Soiinej, not to be confounded with the village of that 
name on the Lake of Lucerne (p. 71 ). The next place on the N. 
bank is Erlenbach; on the S., Thalwyl (Krone, on the lake ; *Adler>, 
charmingly situated. Beautiful *view of the lake from the neigh- 
bourhood of the church, or still better from the gallery of the tower. 
Between Thalwyl and Herrliberg, the next village on the N. bank, 
is the deepest part of the lake (4(57'). Oberrieden is the next place 
on the S. bank ; the steamer then stops at the important looking 
village of — 

Horgen ( 1394'; Scltwun, ■' Lowe; Weingnrten ; Krauss, a hotel 
garni), with handsome houses chiefly belonging to the silk manu- 
facturers (til 99 inhab.). The place is pleasantly situated amidst 
vineyards and orchards, and is well adapted for a prolonged stay. 
Route hence to the Sildbriicke and Zuy (in 2 hrs. by diligence, 
starting at S a. m. ), see p. 50; the Zimmerberg, see p. :")0. 

The picturesque peninsula of Au, covered with orchards and 
meadows, projects into the lake on the S. bank (*Leuthold's Hotel, 
160 ft. above the lake, pension !"> fr. ). Opposite, on the N. bank, 
is the considerable village of Meilen (Lowe; Sonne), and beyond 
it Obermeilen, where the first remains of lake -dwellings were 
discovered in 1S54; then Uelikon and Miinnedorf. Behind the 
latter rises the Pfunneiistiel (2799'). To the E., in the distant 
background, rises the Speer (p. 40); to the right the mountains 
of Glarus; to the left of the Speer the Sentis (p. 300); more to 
the N. the mountains of Toggenburg; to the right, above the lake, 
the forest-dad Hohe Rhonen (404'2'j. 

The next places on the S. bank are the important villages of 
Wadenswyl (*Engel, opposite the quay; diligence to Zug daily in 
3 hrs.; railway to Einsiedeln , p. 3'20), the largest on the lake 
(6049 inhab.), and Richterswyl (*Drei h'onige, or Lost- *Engel; 
3r>fi7 inhab. ). 

Exrc.usioN to the whey-cure establishment of <l'/< hr.) Hiitlen (2428'), 
commanding a fine view to (lie N. as far as the .lura, Vosges , and Black 
Forest; thence tn the summit of the ll'/2 hr.) Gottschallenberg (3743), 
the \V prolongation of the Hohe Rhonen (see above), which affords a fine 
survey of the Alps, with (he pretty Kgcri-Sce (p. 323 1 at. the foot of the 
mountain on the S. side. It will repay the traveller to make this ex- 
cursion even from Zurich. In returning, we follow the crest of the Gott- 
schallenberg as far as ('/;. hr.) Maugrli , and proceed by the monastery of 
Uubel to (t/jlir.) tfenzingen, from which we mav eidier go by Schonbrunn 
(p. 4f)| to (4 1 /-.: M.) Zug (p. 49), or cross the Hilil (p. 5(1) to (T'/j 31.) Horgen, 
and return to Zurich by steamer. 

The steamer now steers N. to Stafa on the opposite bank. This 
is the widest part of the lake (2'/-2 M )■ Beautiful retrospect of 
Wadenswyl anil Richterswyl. Stafa (Sonne; Li'nre), the largest 
village on the N. bank (3.S41 inhab.), is noted for the active 
part which it takes in all national movements. 

From Stafa the boat steers along the N. bank. Stations 
h'ehlhof, Uerikf'ti. Srhirmensee ( Ifiissli ). Before reaching Rapper- 



ibJRbMAw 




to Coire. RAPPERSCHWYL. 16. Route. 43 

schwyl, we observe the small flat islands of Liitzelau and Vfnau 
to the right, in front of the wooded heights of the Etzel (p. 320). 
Ufnan, the property of the abbey of Einsiedeln, contains a farm- 
house, and a church and chapel consecrated in 1141. Vlrieh von 
Hutten, one of the most violent of the early reformers, and one of 
the boldest and most independent men of his time, sought refuge 
here when pursued by his enemies in 1523, and died a fortnight 
after his arrival, at the age of 36. His remains repose in the little 
churchyard, but the exact spot is unknown. 

Rapperschwyl (*Cygne, * Hotel du Lac, both on the lake, 
R. 2, B. 1, L. and A. 3 / 4 fr. ; Poste, at the station, with restaurant 
and garden, R. 1-2, D. 2% B. 1, A. '/-2 fr- ; * Freihof, in the 
town), a picturesquely situated town with 2574 inhab. (848 Prot.), 
possesses an ancient Schloss and Church (sacred vessels worthy of 
inspection), and a Capuchin Monastery, between which rises an 
eminence, shaded by lime-trees and commanding beautiful views. 
The old castle, restored by Count Plater in 1871, contains the 
Polish National Museum , an interesting collection of antiquities, 
coins, autographs, etc. (adm. 1 fr.). Fine view from the tower. 

The conspicuous Bridge across the lake, originally constructed 
in 1350, and restored in 1819, is supported by 180 triple pillars of 
oak, and is nearly 1 M. in length. Below the bridge, near the 
S. bank, a Column was erected in 1873 to mark the spot where 
the boundaries of the cantons of Zurich, Schwyz, and St. Gallen 
meet. (From Rapperschwyl by the Etzel to Einsiedeln, see R. 76.) 

The upper end of the lake is less smiling, but far more im- 
posing than the lower. The mountains of St. Gallen, Glarus, and 
Schwyz form the background. The steamer passes through the 
bridge and steers in a S. direction to Altendorf, on the left (S.) 
bank, in the canton of Schwyz. It then follows the S. bank, 
stops at the large village of Lachen (Bar; Ochse) , and at the 
small Baths of Nuolen, and finally directs its course to Schme- 
rikou (*Rossli ; Seehof; Adler) on the N. bank, at the upper 
end of the lake , not far from the marshy influx, of the Linth 
Canal (p. 45). Railway to Wesen and Coire, see p. 45. 

Railway Route. (1) Railway on the S. Bank from Zurich 
to Wesen and Glarus. The train describes a wide curve round 
the town, crossing the Sihl twice, intersects the suburb of Enge 
(station) , and approaches the lake , which it skirts all the way to 
Lachen , affording beautiful views to the left. Stations Wollis- 
hofen , Bendlikon-Kilchberg , Riischlikon, Thalwyl (all described at 
p. 41 and follg.); Oberrieden , and (11 M.) Horgen , where in 
Sept. 1875 a long portion of the line subsided into the lake, but 
was reconstructed a little farther from the bank. The peninsula of 
Au (station) lies to the left. Stations (IS'/aM.) Wadena wyl (branch- 



44 Route 16. WAGGITHAL. From Zurich 

line to Einsiedelu, see p. 320), (.17'/ 4 M.J Richterswyl , Pfdffikon 
(opposite Rapperschwyl, p. 43 ), and Lachen, where the train quits 
the lake. Near ( '27 M. ) Siebnen it crosses the Waggithaler Aa (see 
below"), and traverses a somewhat marshy plain ( romp. p. 45) to 
stat. Reichenberg. On the right rise the mountains of Glarus, on 
the left the Untere and Obere Buchbcrg(p. 45), and farther distant 
the Speer (p. 46). Stat. Bitten. The train crosses the Linth Canal 
(p. 45), reaches the Rapperschwyl and (dire railway at (36 M.) 
Ziegelbrilcke (p. 46; travellers for Wesen and Sargans change 
carriages), and then re-crosses the Linth Canal to Ober-Urnen, 
Ncifels and (43 ,M.) Glarus (p. 313). 

From Siebnen to Glakus through the picturesque Waggithal (to 
Bichisau 7'/2 hrs., thence to Glarus 4 hrs.), a very attractive walk (new 
road as far as Innerthal ; omnibus in connection with the trains in 2 hr.v). 
We follow the left bank of the profound channel of the Aa to (I'/a hr.) 
Vorder-WaggiUial (2430'), pleasantly situated in a green basin. The road 
then leads through a narrow defile, between the Grosse Auberg (5584') on 
the right and the Gvgelberg (3780') on the left, to ( !>/■.> hr.) Hinter- 
Waggithal , or Innerthal (3802'), '/< hr. beyond which we. reach the "Kur- 
haus of the same name , with a supply of excellent water. From this 
point to the Klonthal a guide is desirable. From the bridge our path 
ascends to the right, past the Aaberli-Atp (3487') and the Obev-Alp (5140' ), 
to the highest part of the pass (Karrenegg, 5151'), and then descends by 
several chalets (Briisch-Alp and Schwein- Alp) until we obtain a view of 
the Kurhaus in the Riehimu far below us. Lastly we descend the slope 
to the right into the valley. From Bichisau to Glarus, see pp. 325, 326. 
(2) FKOM ZURICH BY RaPPERSCHWYI, TO WeSEN AMI SARGANS. 

This railway ( Glattthal-Bahn) traverses a pleasant and fertile, but 
somewhat uninteresting district as far as Rapperschwyl , beyond 
which it commands a number of fine and occasionally very impos- 
ing glimpses of the lakes of Ziirich and Wallenstadt. 

From Zurich to (o 1 /., M.) Wullisellen, see p. 36. The train trav- 
erses a flat district, not far from the right bank of the Glutt, which 
flows out of the Greifensee (1440'; 3 l /» M. long, I M. wide, not 
visible from the line). Stations Dubendorf, Schwerzenbuch , A'a- 
nikon, and (13 M.) Uster (1529'; Kreuz); on the right is the 
church with its tapering spire, and the loftily situated old castle 
with its massive central tower, where the district court of justice 
and a tavern are now established ( View ). In the neighbourhood are 
several large cotton -mills, driven by the An, a brook near the 
railway. Near stat. Aathal is the Lake of l'faffikon (1775'), not 
visible from the railway. The Alps of Glarus and Schwyz form the 
S. background. From (17'/ 2 M.) Welzikon branch-lines diverge to 
the N.W. to Pfaffikon and E/fretikon (p. 36), and to the S.E. (in 
11 min.) to Hinweil (Hirsch ; Kreuz), at the N.W. base of the 
Bachtel (see below). Near (22'/ 2 M.) Bubikon the line attains its 
highest level (1800'), and thru descends rapidly. '23 M. Rati with 
a former Praemonstratensian abbey, is the junction of the Tussthal 
line (Wald-Bauma-Winterthur, p. 37). 

The Bachtel (31171'; 'Inn), 2 hrs. to the X. K. ol Ruli, commands a pleas- 
ing view to the N.W. over the district of I'slcr sprinkled with manufactories, 



to Voire. LItfTH OANAL. 16. Route. 45 

the Lakes of Greifen and Pfaftikon, N.W. the Lake of Zurich from Wa- 
denswyl to the Linth Canal , the valley of the Linth as far as the bridge 
of Mollis, and the Alps from the Sentis to the Bernese Oberland. Consult 
Keller's Panorama, to be seen at the inn. From Wold (p. 37; by railway 
from Riiti in 15 min.), or from Hinweil (see above; small carriage to the 
top 7 fr.), the summit is easily reached in l'/2 hr. 

The train passes through a tunnel, and descends, chiefly through 
wood. As it approaches the picturesque village of Jona , which 
adjoins Rapperschwyl, we obtain to the left an extensive view of 
the Alps of Schwyz , and farther to the left of the Miirtschenstock, 
Schiinisberg, Speer, and lastly the Sentis. 

2872 M. Rapperschwyl, see p. 43. The station on the lake near 
the long bridge and steamboat-pier, is a terminus, from which the 
train backs out on its departure. As far as Wesen a seat on the 
right should be selected. The line crosses the Jonen-Fluss, passes 
the nunnery of Wurmspach on the right, and approaches the bank 
of the Lake of Zurich near stat. Bollingen. Extensive quarries 
of sandstone near the lake. The Miirtschenstock towers above 
the wooded heights near the lake (Untere Buchberg, see below), 
and on the right are the Fronalpstock and the Schild, nearGlarus. 
As far as (34 M.) Schmerikon (p. 43, station on the lake) the train 
runs close by the lake, and on reaching its upper end enters the wide 
valley through which the Linth Canal flows. To the right, on a 
spur of the Untere Buchberg (1977'), round which the canal winds, 
stands the ancient Schloss Orynau, with a frowning square tower, 
situated in the canton of Schwyz. 36 M. Uznach (1378'; Falke) 
is a manufacturing village , situated to the left on an emin- 
ence , surmounted by the church. (Diligence to Wattwyl in the 
Toggenburg four times daily in 2^4 hrs., p. 311.) To the left, 
on the hill, the monastery of Sion (2317'j. The two villages of 
Kaltbrunn on the left and Benken on the right have the next 
station in common. The isolated range of wooded hills here skirted 
by the railway and the Linth Canal is the Obere Buchberg (2021'). 
Near stat. Schcinis (1450'; *Gmiir), a manufacturing village, the 
ancient frontier of Uhaetia, some sharp skirmishes took place be- 
tween the French and the Austrians in 1799. 

The train now approaches the Linth Canal, which runs parallel 
with the high road and the railway , at the foot of the Schaniser 
Berg ; to the right we obtain a beautiful view of the Valley of Glarus 
with its snow mountains. 

Linth Canal. The Linth descends from the valley of Glarus, and 
often with such violence as to carry fragments of rock and deposit of all 
kinds along with it. In process of time this deposit so completely tilled 
the bed of the river, that the entire plain between the lakes of Wallen- 
stadt and Zurich was inundated, and a once fertile district converted into 
a dismal swamp, from which the inhabitants were at length driven by 
malaria. In 1837, in accordance with a proposal by Conrad Escher of 
Zurich , the Diet ordered the lower part of the Linth to be converted 
into a canal , and to be conducted into the Lake of Wallenstadt, and 
a new canal (the Escher Canal) to be constructed to drain the latter lake into 
the Lake of Zurich ; or rather that the Maag, an outlet of the Lake of 



46 Route 16. WESEN. From Zurich 

Wallenstadt, which formerly flowed into the Linth, should also be converted 
into a canal. Under Eschei's supervision the works were begun the same 
year, but not completed until 1822. The total test was 1,500,000 fr., but 
the proposed object has been perfectly attained; the land is again under 
cultivation and thickly peopled. For this service the Government confer- 
red on Escher and his descendants the title of Vun der Linth (p. 34). 

Opposite, on the left bank of the Linth Canal , is the 'Linth 
Colonie , originally a colony of poor people from the canton of 
Glarus, whose occupation was to keep clear the bed of the river 
before the construction of the canal, and now an agricultural in- 
stitution. Beyond (43 '. 2 M.) Zieyelbriicke (the junction of this line 
with the railway of the S. bank, p. 44), the train passes through 
a short tunnel. To the right tower the Wiggis and the Glarnisch 
(p. 326). The railway, the canal, and the high road wind round 
the Biberlikopf (1896'), the extreme spur of the Nchaniser Berg, 
which commands a line view of the whole Lake of Wallenstadt 
and the Linth-Thal up to Nettstall and down to the Buchberg. The 
station of Wesen (passengers for Giarus change carriages, R. 73) 
is '/2 M. from the village. 

4"5 M. Wesen (1394' ; *Zum Speer, at the station, R. 2, B.. 1, 
A. l / 2 , pension 5 fr. ; *Schwert, prettily situated on the lake, R. 2 fr. ; 
both commanding a tine view ; Sonne, Rijssli, aid Adler, unpretend- 
ing; several others in the 'Fly', the side of the village next the 
lake; *Rail. -Restaurant), lies in a sheltered situation at the W. end 
of the Wallensee, nestling in an almost southern vegetation. 

The s Speer (6417') is ascended from Wesen in 4'/a hrs. (guide unne- 
cessary, finger-posts at doubtful points). At the church we turn to the 
left (to the right to Amden , see below), and ascend for the first ','» lir. 
over rough blocks of conglomerate (pleasant retrospects of the lake). Then 
a steep ascent through woods and meadows; l 1 /.! hr. Maitalp; 1V4 hr. 
Ober-Kasern Alp ( : Inn Zum Hohen SpeerJ. Thence to the summit a steep 
ascent of 1 hr. more. Beautiful view, especially towards the E. and N.E. 
— From Ebnat and Ncsslau (p. 311) the Speer may also be easily ascended 
in 3 1 ,V4 hrs. 

From (1 hr.) Amnion, or Amden (2S74'; Rossli) to Mciu in the Tog- 
genburg (p. 311) a picturesque walk of 5 hrs. over the Aiiidener Berg (5056'), 
commanding a succession of beautiful views, but fatiguing on account of 
the stone pavement so often used in this district. 

The Lake of Wallenstadt, or Wallensee (1394'), 1'2 M. long, 
2'/ 2 M. wide, and 400-500' deep, is scarcely inferior to the Lake 
of Lucerne in mountainous grandeur. The >' . bank consists of 
almost perpendicular precipices from 2000' to 3000' high ; on 
the E. rise the barren peaks of the seven Cltur/irsten (LeUt- 
kamm 6890', Selun 7241', Friimsel 74.14'. Ihisi 7477', Zustoll 
7336', Scheibenstoll 7556', Hint er ruck 752:!'). The Rayerbach 
(1300'), the Serenbach (1650'), high above which lies the vil- 
lage of Ammon or Amden (see above), and other cataracts pre- 
cipitate themselves over the cliffs, but are generally dry towards 
the end of summer. One solitary village., (Juinten , has found a 
nook for itself on the N. bank. 

On the S. bank (of which the railway -traveller obtains no 
general view) the precipitous rocks are pierced by nine tunnels. 



to Coire. WALLENSEE. 16. Route. 47 

A tolerable footpath runs along this bank of the lake, occasionally 
parallel with the railway, the first part of which (to Miihlethal, 
before reaching stat. Miihlehorn, see below) is the worst. At the 
mouth of several of the small torrents which descend from the 
Murtschenstock (8012') , several small hamlets have established 
themselves (see below). The names of the hamlets Primsch, 
Gum, Terzen, Quarten , and the above-mentioned Quinten , and 
that of the lake itself, indicate that the ancient population was of 
Rhaitian, and not of Germanic origin. 

Beyond Wesen the train crosses the Linth Canal by an iron 
bridge. The line to Glarus diverges to the right, see R. 73. The 
Coire line traverses the broad valley , crosses the Escher Canal 
(p. 45) near its exit from the Lake of Wallenstadt, and then 
passes through two tunnels with apertures in the left side, towards 
the lake. Beyond them the Bayerbach waterfall is seen on the 
opposite bank of the lake , and the village of Amrnon on the 
hill above ; then the falls of the Serenbach , which after rain 
have a considerable volume, but sometimes disappear in summer. 
Four more tunnels now follow in rapid succession (the first with 
apertures on the lake side) ; between them are obtained pleasant 
glimpes of the lake , the waterfalls, and the precipices to the left. 

49 M. Miihlehorn (Tellsplatte ; *Seegarten, on the lake; boat 
across the lake to the waterfalls and to Wesen 2 fr.). To the right, 
above the valley, the Murtschenstock is visible. 

From Muhlehorn to Mollis (8Va M.), an interesting walk. The road 
leads over the Kerenzen-Berg, by (3 Ml Obstalden (2237'; Hirsch; 'Stern), 
and (IV2M.1 Filzbach (2336'), a village near the highest part of the route. 
The view embraces the whole Wallensee , the mountains of the Seezthal, 
the valley of the Linth, bounded on the left by the Ilirzli (5387'), and the 
valleys of Glarus with the Wiggis and Gliirnisch. Near (3 M.) Beglingen we 
get a glimpse of the snow-fields of the Tbdi. The road then descends in 
windings, which may be cut oil" by a rough footpath, to (1M.) Mollis (p. 313). 

Two more tunnels. 52 M. Murg (*Schiffli ; Kreuz; Rbssli), on 
the lake, at the mouth of the Muryilud. The best view of the lake 
is obtained hence ; those who desire to spend a few hours on its 
banks may alight here and go on by a later train. 

A visit to the picturesque : Murgthal is recommended (guide unne- 
cessary). The path ascends rapidly, past the ISossli, as far as a waterfall 
(20 min.), below a bridge, which we do nut cross. In 20 min. more we 
reach another bridge, and cross it. After a steep ascent of 3 /i hr. on the 
left bank we come to a third bridge at the N. end of the Erlenalp 
(3642 1 ). Hence to the three Murg&een (the highest 5981') a beautiful 
walk of 2'/2 hrs. through meadows and wood. From the upper lake the 
'"Roththorstock may be ascended in 2 hrs. (guide desirable; the fisherman 
or a herdsman), commanding a striking view of the Alps of Glarus and 
Appenzell and the plains of X.W. Switzerland. — From the upper lake 
an easy pass crosses the Widderstein-Furkel (6607') to the Milhlebachlhal 
and Engi in the Sernfthal (p. 327), 6 hrs. from Murg; another path leads 
over the Murg see- Fvrkel to the Miirtsc/ienalp, past the Miirtscltenstock and 
Fronalpslock, to the Heuboden-Alp (p. 314), and (5 hrs.) Glarus; or the 
Miirtschenalp may be reached by ascending from the Erlenalp (see above) 
through a rocky ravine towards the W. 

Beyond Murg another tunnel. 53'/-2 M. Unterterzen ; the vil- 



48 Route 18. WALLENSTADT. 

lage among pastures to the right, with the red-capped tower, is 
Quarten (1SI7'). Another tunnel. The train now reaches the E. 
end of the lake, and crosses the Seez-Canal by an iron bridge. 

561/-2 M. Wallenstadt ( i:S94'; Seehof, on the lake, R. l'/ 2 , B.l, 
pension 5fr.; Hirsch, in the village; Hotel Churfirsten, at the station, 
moderate, fine view, good beer) lies near the E. bank of the lake. 
Looking back on the left side , we obtain a view of the whole lake 
as far as its W. end near Wesen, and of the horns of the Miirt- 
schenstock towering above the mountains on the S. bank. 

Exoi rsion (with guide) from Wallenstadt in 2 hrs. by a steep path 
through wood to the Alp Liisis ,• then, nearly level, to the Alp Hiilx and ( 3 / 4 hr.) 
the Tschiiigehi-Alp (milk); follow the slopes of the Churfirsten to (i hr.) the 
Alp Seltrienen, and return in t'/a hr. to Wallenstadt. 

From Wai,lknstai>t to Wildiiai'h in the Toggenburg (G hrs., p. 312) 
a path commanding beautiful views traverses the Kaiserruck, hut it. should 
not be attempted without a guide; or (preferable) the battel (ridge) to 
the E. of the Rossboden may be crossed to the Alp Sehlewiz and Wildhaus. 

The train now traverses the beautiful valley of the Seez ; on 
the right, on a projecting crag, stand the ruins of Qriiplang ( Ro- 
manic, Crap Long), or Lnngenstein , the ancestral castle of the 
Tse.hudi of Olarus ; opposite, to the left above Bdrschis, on a height 
near stat. Flums, is the pilgrimage church of St. Oeorgen (1778'). 
Near(63M.)Mels(1637'; Melserhof, at the station; Hotel Frohainn ; 
*Krone , moderate) the Seez flows out of the Weisstannen-Thnl, 
which opens on the S.W. 

The 'Alvier (7753') may he ascended hence in 5 hrs. (guide unneces- 
sary, except for the inexperienced). The path ascends from the station 
to the right to tin 1 (3 hrs.) Alji 1'alfries (53Gi r ), beyond which it traverses 
steep and rocky slopes, and at length reaches the summit (2 hrs.) through 
a narrow cleft by steps cut in the rock. On the top there is a Club-hut 
(refreshments and beds in summer). The magnificent view embraces the 
Rhine Valley, the Rhaeticon, and the mountains of Vorarlberg, Appenzell, 
and Glarus. - The descent may be made to Sevelen , Buchs , Trubbach, 
or Flums. 

From Mki.s to Vattis through the Wtisstaiinen-Thal and the Kulfeuser 
Thai. From Jlels to (851.) Wrisstannen (3271'; Alpenhof; Gamsli) there is anew 
carriage-road. Thence (with guide) through the S. ramification of the valley, 
past the chalets of the Alp Unier-Lartina (4289') and the Alp Val Tiisch (6043') 
in 4 hrs. to the highest point of the Heidtlpasx, between the Seezbe rg (8268') 
and IfeiJelxjiil: (8619'), whence a line view of the huge Sardona glacier, the 
Trinserhorn , the Hingelspitz, etc. is obtained. From this to the Tamina 
bridge near Si. Martin (4133') 2 hrs., to Vattis (p. 307) 2 hrs. more. — From 
Weisstannen to 11m in the Sera filial bv the f'oo I'ass. or Ra/nin Furklen, 
see p. 328. 

At (64 M.) Sargans (" 1 T>9 1 ' ; Hotel Notional, near the station; 
Riissli and l.l'nve in the town) the train reaches the valley of the 
Rhine, and the Rorschach and Coire line The little town (1608 ft.), 
rebuilt since a tire in 1SI1, is picturesquely situated at the foot 
of the Gonzen(W\V\. : V 4 M. from the station, on the watershed be- 
tween the Rhine and the Wallensee, with a castle frowning above it. 

Railway from S.-irgan* by Roonlz to (SO M. ) Coire, see R. 69. 



49 
17. From Zurich by Zug to Lucerne. 

Comp. Maps, pp. 42, 54. 

(1) Railway Journey. 

37>/ 2 M. Railway in lVs-2'/4 hrs.; fares to Zug 4 fr. 25, 3 fr., 2 fr. 
15 c. ; to Lucerne 6 fr. 50, 4 fr. 55, 3 fr. 25 c. ; return-tickets at reduced rates. 

Immediately on leaving the station the train crosses the Sihl, 
and at (2 1 /;; M.) Altstetten diverges from the Bale line (E. 7). To 
the left rises the long Uetliberg (p. 35), which the line skirts in a 
wide curve. Near (5 J /'2 M.) Vrdorf we obtain a pleasant view of the 
valley. Near (8 M.J Birmensdorf the train passes through a tunnel 
under the Ettenberg. Stations Bonstetten, Hedingen, and (lbi/oM..^ 
Affoltern (Lowe), with a picturesquely situated church. To the 
left rises the Aeugster Berg ('2723'), at the foot of which (not 
visible from the line) lie the small Tiirler See, the village of 
Aeugst, and the Baths of Wengi. Stations Metimenstetten and 
Knonau. Near Zug the train crosses the Lorze and traverses the 
fertile Baarer Boden (p. 50). 

24 M. Zug (1384'; *Hirsch, R. from 2, L. 1/.,, B. I'/.,, A. 3/ 4) 
pension 6 fr. ; Zurcherhof, 11. from I'/j fr. ; Bellevue; Ochs ; 
Falk; Krone; *Lbwe, on the lake, It. 2, B. 1 , L. and A. 1 fr. ; 
Zum Jiahnhof, near the station ; Pension 1'ivoli, on the lake), 
with 4277 inhab. (230 Prot. ), six churches, and six chapels , is 
the capital of the smallest Swiss canton. The Church of the 
Capuchins contains an Entombment by Calvaert. In the Arsenal 
are preserved ancient weapons and flags captured by the Swiss, 
and the standard stained with the blood of its bearer Peter Col- 
lin , who fell at the battle of Arbedo (p. 394) in 1422. At the 
S. end of the town, on the lake, is the Hospital, erected in 
1854. Handsome new government-buildings in the Renaissance 
style. The i Platzwehr\ or quay, commands a good view of the 
mountains on the right and left of the Rigi. 

Steamboat from Zug to Immensee (omnibus thence to Kiissnacht, and" 
steamer from Kiissnacht to Lucerne) and Arih (Rigi Railway), see p. 70. — 
Diligence from Zug via Egeri to Sattel on the Schwyz and Einsiedeln road 
(p. 323) in 23/, hrs., fare 2 fr. 

On the W. slope of the Zuger Berg , 4 M. from Zug (carriage-road) 
are the ,s Kurhaus Felsenegg (3025'; R. 1-3, pension 5, L. and A. 1/2 fr.; 
omnibus from the Zug station at 11 and 6 o'clock, 2'/2 fr.) and the ad- 
jacent "Kurhaus Schonfels (R. l>/->-3, pension 4-8 fr.), with its pleasant 
grounds. This spot is recommended for a prolonged stay ; a beautiful view 
is enjoyed towards the W., and there are pleasant wood walks in the 
vicinity. The Uochwacht (3251'), the summit of the Zuger Berg, commands 
a view towards the E. also, embracing the Lake of Egeri and Morgarten 
(p. 322). — At Menzingen in the pretty valley of the Lorze, 4 M. to the W. 
of Zug, is the Kurhaus Schonbrunn, a well-conducted water-cure establish- 
ment. 

Leaving Zug, the train skirts the flat N. bank of the Lake of 
Zug (p. 70), again crosses the Lorze which descends from the Lake 
of Egeri to the Lake of Zug, and recrosses the same river as it 
emerges from the lake near stat. Cham (Rabe), a village with a 
zinc-covered church tower and a large manufactory of condensed 
Baedeker, Switzerland. 7ih E.i;t;n« A 



50 Route 17. SIHLBRUCKK. 

milk. Fine view of Zug to the left. Beyond ( '27 1/2 M) Rothkreuz 
the train enters the valley of the Reuss, the right bank of which it 
follows. 30 M. (Hslikon, or (iisikon. The covered bridge here 
(1348') was the scene of several sharp skirmishes during the war of 
the Separate League in 1847. 33 M. Ebikon; to the right rises the 
Hundsriicken. The train skirts the Rothsee (1388', l^M. in length), 
passes through a cutting and tunnel, and crosses the Reuss by a 
long iron bridge. The line now unites with the Swiss Central 
(p. 16) and the Lucerne and Bern line (p. 95), passes under the 
Gibraltar (p. 52), and stops at the Lucerne station 011 the left bank 
of the lake. 

37'/2 M. Lucerne, sec p. 51. 

( 2) From Zurich to Zug by Horgen. 

Railway from Zurich to tit 31.) Horgen in ',2 lir. (steamboat in 
P/i hr. , see p. 41). Post Omnibus once daily (8 a.m.) from Horgen to 
(13 M.) Zug in 2 hrs. ; carriage with one horse 10, with two horses 16 fr. 
To Horgen (1394'), see p. 42. The road ascends in windings, 
and at a finger-post (3 M. ) joins the road from Wadenswyl (p. 42). 
Several fine views are obtained of the lake, the Sentis, Speer, 
Churfirsten, and mountains of (ilarus. At the top of the hill, near 
(4'/ 2 M.) Himel, is the inn Zum Morgenthal (2244'). The road 
then descends gradually into the valley of the Sihl, which sep- 
arates the cantons of Zurich and Zug. The covered (6'/-2 M.) Sihl- 
brucke (1745') replaces one destroyed in 1847 during the war of 
the Separate League. On this side of the bridge (right bank) is 
the *Krone Inn (good wine). 

Pedestrians should chouse I he more direct road from Horgen by the 
Horger Egg to the Sihlbriicke (■!'/•_> 31.), which shortens the way by l'/i M., 
and affords far more beautiful views. Near (2 31.) Wydenbach rises the 
Zimmerberg (2536 ft.), '/i hr. from Ihc road to the right, which affords a 
beautiful view of the lake of Zurich, the sombre valley of the Sihl, the 
Lake of Zug, the Alps, and particularly the 31 y then, the Rigi, and Pilatus. 
About 3/i 31. beyond Wydenbach the road reaches the Hirzelhbhe (2415'; 
■Schiirer's Inn), ils highest point, whence another fine prospect is enjoyed. 
Near the Sihlbriicke this route unites with the high road. 

The road to Zug leads through an undulating tract, past the 
W. side of a wooded hill bearing the ruins of the Baarburg (2086'). 
Beyond the wood (2 M.) the road commands a view of Baar , the 
Lake of Zug, the Kigi, and Pilatus. Farther on, to the left, on 
the home, which the road now crosses, is a large cotton-factory 
with its colony of workmen. The Rigi and Pilatus now show them- 
selves in all their grandeur. At (10y 2 M . ) Baar (1453'; *IJndenhof; 
Sennhof; Krone; Rlissli) there is an extensive spinning mill. A 
curious custom, not unknown in other parts of Switzerland, pre- 
vails here. On the occasional opening of the graves the skulls of 
the deceased are conveyed by the surviving relatives to the charnel- 
house, where they are preserved in symmetrical piles. 
13 M. Zug, see p. 49. 




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LUCERNE. 18. Route. 51 

(3) From Zurich to Zug by the Albis. 

17'/2 M. No diligence since the opening of the railway. Carriage 
from Zurich to the Albis Inn in 2y 4 hrs., 10-12 fr. (Pedestrians, see below.) 

The Albis road quits the W. bank of the lake at WolUshofen (p. 41), 
ascends towards the S., and traverses a monotonous plain. Near Adlischwyl 
(1460') it crosses the Sihl by a covered wooden bridge, and then winds 
upwards from Unter-Albis to — 

8'/2 M. Ober-Albis (2602'), a solitary 'Inn at the highest point of the 
road. The "Hochwacht (2887'), with a pavilion, '/2 hr. to the S. of the Albis 
Inn , affords a beautiful and extensive prospect, embracing the entire Lake 
of Zurich; to the N. the volcanic heights of Swabia; to the W. and S. the 
Lake of Zug, the Rigi, Pilatus, part of the Lake of Lucerne, and the Alps from 
the Sentis to the Jungfrau. The Scheerhorn and Mythen are concealed 
by the wooded Burglen (1312'), the highest point of the Albis. 

The road descends gradually in long curves, passing the small Turler 
See (on the right; 2116') to Hausen (1978' ; "Lowe), a thriving village with 
handsome country-houses, near which, on a wooded height to the left of the 
road, is Albisbrunn, a hydropathic establishment chiefly frequented by French 
patients (pension 7'/2 fr.). The next village is Kappel (1890'), with the 
early Gothic church of a suppressed Cistercian monastery, containing some 
old stained glass. A battle took place here on 11th Oct. 1531, between 
the Rom. Cath. cantons united with Lucerne, and the reformers of Zurich, 
amongst whom was Zwingli. A metal plate inserted in the rock , and 
bearing a German and Latin inscription, on the road near Kappel , indi- 
cates the spot where a soldier of Unterwalden found Zwingli wounded; and, 
without knowing him, pierced him with his sword for refusing to invoke 
the Virgin and Saints. Near Baar (see above), 2 M. from Zug, the roads 
from the Albis and Horgen unite. 

17'/2 M. Zug, see p. 49. — As far as Baar, pedestrians may always 
avoid the high road and follow pleasant side - paths , which are easily 
found. The walk from Zurich by the Uetli, Albis - Hochwacht , Hausen, 
and Kappel, to Zug will then occupy about 8 hrs. (comp. p. 35). 



18. Lucerne. 

Comp. Map, p. 54. 

Hotels. - Schweizebhof (PI. a), a spacious hotel wilh two 'ddpendances', 
and "Lozebnee Hof (PI. b), both on the Schweizerhof-Quay , E. from 
3 fr., L. and A. 2 fr., B. I1/2, D. 4'/2-5 fr. ; "Hotel National, on the 
Kiissnacht road, R. from 4-5, L. and A. 2, D. 5 fr. -Hotel -Pension 
Beaueivage and "Hotel-Pension de l'Eueope, new, both on the 
Kiissnacht road; "Englischee Hof (Pl.c); "Schwan (PI. d), R. 3, L. and 
A. I1/2, B. l'/2, D- 4'/2 fr. ; "Hotel du Rigi (PI. e), adjoining the last; 
'Hotel dh Lac (PI. g), on the left bank of the Reuss, R. 21/2-372, B. iy«, 
D. 3'/2-4, L. and A. I1/4 fr. ; "Hotel du St. Gotthakd, with restaurant, R. 
3, B. l>/ 2 , D. 4, L. and A. V/ t fr. ; the two last near the station; "Wage 
(Balances, PI. f), R. 21/2, B. l'/i, D. 4, A. 3/4 fr. — Less expensive: "Engel, 
R. and A. l>/ 2 , D. 21/2, B. l'A fr. ; Adlee (PI. h), R- l'/s, «• 1, A. 1/2 fr- ; 
Rossli (Pl.i); "Hotel de la Poste (PI. k); Hotel des Alpes (PI. n), 
R. and A. 2V2-3 fr.; "Mohk ; Hiesch; "Kkone; Keeuz ; "Wildee Mann, 
R. l'/2-2, A. 1/2 fr. 

Pensions (comp. Plan), almost all well conducted. Worley, in the town, 
by the Peterscapelle; Morell; Schbneck; Fuller; Christen; M tiller ; Ge- 
segnete Matte; Tivoli (with restaurant and baths); "Belvedere; farther on, 
"Seeburg. All these are on the Kiissnacht road, close to the lake. Waldis, 
near the Lion monument; Chalet du Lion, in a shady situation, above the 
monument; Felsberg; Ranch, to the E. of the Hofkirche ; adjoining it, 
Bellevue and Schweizerhaus ; Musegg, by the town-wall ; "Pension Wallis 
on the Giitsch; Victoria, Gibraltar, and Suter on the hill of Gibraltar (sec 
below). Still higher, 1 hr. to the S. of Lucerne (beginning of route , see 

4* 



52 Route 18. LUCERNE. Bridges. 

PI. A, 3), Kurhaus Sonnenberg , on the hill of that name, with pleasant 
grounds and a fine view. Charges at all these 6-7 fr. a day and upwards. 

Cafes. Cafi Stadthof; Cafi du Lac, by the Protestant church ; H6tel des 
Alpes, on the quay; St. Oolthard (see above) and Cafi du Thidtre, both 
near the station ; Alpenclub , by the Reussbriicke. — Beer. Muth , at the 
Waggis Gate ; Kreuz (see above) ; Freienhof, by the theatre, near the 
Capellbriicke, on the left bank of the Reuss ; Lowengarten, near the Lion 
Monument. — Confectioner. Berger, near the Stadthof. 

Baths in the Reuss, below the town, with swimming-basin, and in the 
lake, near the Tivoli (see above; 1 fr. incl. towels).). Warm baths at 
the Lindenhof and Lowengarten. Turkish and vapour baths at the new 
establishment adjoining the Stadthof (see above). 

Picture Gallery of the Kunst-Oesellsc/w/t in the Rathhaus (p. 54), from 
1st June to 15th Oct. (9. 30 a.m. to 6 p.m.). 

Meyer's Diorama (PI. 15) , at the Waggis Gate , contains panoramas 
from the Rijri and Pilatus with different lights (adm. U/ 2 fr.). 

Railway Station (PI. E, 5) on the left bank of the lake. The steam- 
boats to Fliielen generally touch here after leaving the Schweizerhof-Quay ; 
those coming from Fliielen touch first at the station, and then at the quay. 

Post and Telegraph Offices on the left bank of the Reuss, by the Jesuiten- 
kirche. Branch Office on the Schweizerhof-Quay, adjoining the Engl. Hof, 
"where there is also a goods-agency and exchange office. 

Steamboats see pp. 55, 61, 71, 77. 

Cabs. For 1/4 hr., 1-2 pers. 60 c. , 3-4 pers. 1 fr. 20 c. ; for 1 hr., 

2 or 3 fr. ; 2 hrs. 3 fr. 60 or 5 fr. 40 c. ; each box 30 c. — To the Gutsch 

3 or 5 fr. ; Seeburg 1 fr. 20 or 1 fr. 80 c. ; Meggen 3 fr. or 4 fr. 20 c. ; 
Kussnacht 6 fr. or 8 fr. 40 c. ; Hergiswyl 4'/2 or 6 fr. — From 10 p. m. to 
6 a.m. double fares. 

Rowing Boats , according to tariff, 75 c. per hr. ; for each boatman 
75 c. ; to Waggis or Stansstad with two men 4'/s fr., 3 men 6 fr., 4 men 
7>/2 fr. ; Brunnen with 3 men 12 fr., with 4 men 15 fr., tic. 

Beyond the loveliness "f its situation , Thorvaldsen's celebrated monu- 
ment (p. 53), the (iletschergarten, and the Arsenal (p. 54), there is little at 
Lucerne to induce the traveller to make a prolonged stay. The following 
Walks are recommended : to the W. to the "Gutsch (Restaurant), from the 
Bale Gate a steep ascent of >/4 hr. , or to Gibraltar (pensions, see above) ; 
to the S. by the avenue to (Va hr.) Kriens ( a Pilatus), at the S. base of the 
Sonnenberg (see above) ; to the N. to Allenwinden , '/* hr. from the quay. 
The finest point in the environs is the "Drei Linden: we ascend by the 
Lion Monument to the right to the 0/4 hr.) Capuchin Monastery on the 
Wesemlin (the library of which contains some old MSS. and early typo- 
graphy), pass round the monastery to the right , and ascend by a path to 
the 'hill of the three limes 1 , which commands a beautiful view of Lucerne, 
its environs, and the distant mountain chain, with the snow-capped Titlis 
in the centre, and the Finster-Aarhorn and the Schreckhdrner in the ex- 
treme distance to the right. 

English Church and Presbyterian service during the summer months. 

Lucerne (1437'J, the capital of the canton, with 14.IV24 inhab. 
(1291 Prot. ) , is situated on the Reuss, at the point where it 
emerges from the lake. The well-preserved walls and watchtowers 
enclosing the town, which were erected in 1385, give the place 
an imposing appearance , while its amphitheatrical situation on the 
lake, between the Rigi and Pilatus, and facing the snow-clad Alps 
of Uri and Engelberg, invests it with a peculiar charm. 

The clear, emerald-green Reuss issues from the lake with the 
swiftness of a mountain-torrent. Its banks are connected by four 
bridges. The handsome New Bridge, the highest, a broad iron 
bridge paved with stone, close to the end of the lake, crosses from 
the town to the railway-station. The second, the Capellbrucke car- 



Lion. LUCERNE. 18. Route. 53 

lied obliquely across the stream, is covered with a roof, -which is 
decorated with 154 paintings, representing scenes from the lives 
of St. Leodegar and St. Mauritius, the patron saints of Lucerne, 
and events from Swiss history. Adjoining the bridge , in the 
middle of the river , rises the picturesque old Wasserthurm, 
which contains the admirably arranged Archives of the town. 
According to tradition , this building was once a lighthouse 
(lucerna) , and gave its name to the town. St. Peters Chapel 
(PI. 11), at the N. end of the bridge, possesses four modern 
* Altar-pieces by Deschwanden. 

The third bridge, the Reussbriicke, is constructed in a more 
modern style. The fourth, the Miihlen- or Spreuerbriicke, is roofed 
like the first, and adorned with paintings of the 'Dance of Death'. 

The *Schweizerhof-Quay, with its handsome hotels and fine 
avenue of chestnuts, now occupies what was once an arm of the 
lake (filled up in 1852). The semicircular stone indicator on the 
parapet points out the principal places in the environs. 

*View. To the left the beautiful Rigi Group ; the highest point to the 
left is the Ktilm with the hotels; on the ridge between the Kulm and the 
Rothslock is the Staffel Inn ; farther to the right the Schild , the Dossen, 
and the isolated Vitznaver Stock. To the left of the Rigi-group, above the 
hills by the lake, yses the peak of the Rossberg ; to the right of the Vitz- 
nauer Stock, in the distance, are the singularly indented peaks of the Ross- 
Stock chain ; then the Nieder-Bauen or Seelisberger Kulm , and the Ober- 
JBauen ; nearer is the dark Biirgenstock with its hotel , and the Buochser 
Horn; to the left and right of the latter, tower the snowy Engelberg Alps, the 
last and highest to the right being the Titlis ; farther to the right the Stanser- 
horn, the mountains of Kerns and Sachseln, and to the extreme right Pilatus. 

The Protestant Church (PL 10), at the back of the W. 'de'- 
pendance' of the Schweizerhof, is a Gothic edifice, completed in 1861. 

On a slight eminence at the E. end of the quay stands the 
*Hofkirche, or Stiftskirche (PI. 8), restored in the 17th cent., with 
two slender towers erected in 1506. This church contains a cele- 
brated organ (performance on weekdays from June to Sept. daily, 
6 , /2"7 1 /2 p.ni. ; adm. lfr.), a fine pulpit, carved stalls, several 
stained-glass windows, and two handsome side altars with reliefs 
in carved wood , of which that on the N. side dates from the 
15th cent., and represents the death of the Virgin. The Church- 
yard contains some good monuments. Frescoes in the S.W. ar- 
cades by Deschwanden. 

Not far from this church (footpath to the left, towards the N.), 
outside the (N.E.) "Waggis Gate, and '/4 M. from the Schweizer- 
hof, is the celebrated *Lion of Lucerne (PI. 14), executed in 
1821 to the memory of 26 officers and about 760 soldiers of the 
Swiss guard, who fell in the defence of the Tuileries on 10th 
Aug., 1792. The dying lion (28' in length), reclining in a 
grotto, transfixed by a broken lance, and sheltering the Bourbon 
lily with its paw , is hewn out of the natural sandstone rock 
after a model (exhibited gratis in the adjoining building) by the 
celebrated Danish sculptor Thorvaldsen. Inscription: Helvetiorum 



54 Route 18. LUCERNE. (Hetschergarten. 

fidei ac virtuti. Die X Aug., II et III Sept. 1792. Haec sunt nomina 
eorum, qui ne sacramenti fidem fallerent, fortissime pugnantes ce- 
ciderunt. Duces XXVI. Solerti amicorum cura cladi superfuerunt 
Duces XVI. The rock which bears the inscription and names 
of the officers is overhung with trees and creeping plants. A 
spring at the top flows down on one side and forms a dark pool 
at the base, surrounded by trees and shrubs. This work is ex- 
tremely impressive , and affords a proof that in true art the 
simplest idea carried out by a master-hand never fails in its 
effect. The neighbouring Chapel (inscription, Invictis Pax), con- 
tains the escutcheons of the deceased officers. 

To the left of the monument is the entrance to the *Gletscher- 
garten (adm. 1 fr.), which contains some very interesting remains 
of a glacier of the ice period, with eighteen 'Riesentopfe', or holes 
formed by whirlpools, of different sizes (the largest being 28ft. 
wide and 33 ft. deep), well-preserved 'Gletscherschliffe', or rocks 
worn by the action of the ice, etc., discovered in 1872. The 
various points of interest are connected by means of steps and 
bridges, and the garden is laid out in an Alpine style. A pavilion 
here contains Pfyffer's Relief of Central Switzerland on a scale of 
about 5'/3 inches to the mile, 22'/ 2 ft. long and 12'/2 ft- wide, and 
a relief of the Muottathal. Another building contains a small collec- 
tion of relics from lake dwellings. 

To the right of the Lion Monument is Stauffer's Museum 
(PI. 25; adm. 1 fr.), containing about 600 stuffed Alpine animals 
in groups. 

The *Arsenal (PI. 30), on the left bank of the Reuss, near the 
Miihlen-Brucke , is one of the most important in Switzerland (open 
9-1 o'clock ; fee 50 c. to 1 fr.). 

On the ground floor are cannons with their equipments; from the 
ceiling is suspended a long Turkish banner, captured at Tunis in 1640 
by a knight of the Maltese order. The two small Turkish flags near it 
were taken by soldiers of Lucerne in the battle of Lepanto (1571). The 
first floor contains modern weapons and some fine stained glass of the 
16th cent., including the escutcheons of the 13 ancient confederate towns. 
The upper floor contains a chamber with flags, armour, and weapons cap- 
tured at the battles of Sempach, Morat, Grandson, and others. 

The Jesuit Church (PI. 9), near the Post-office, is a good 
specimen of the style peculiar to the order. The second chapel to 
the right contains an altar-piece, representing St. Nikolaus von 
der Flue (p. 79), behind which is preserved the robe of the saint. 

The Rathhaus (PI. 1) is adorned with beautiful carved work, 
executed in 1605, and portraits of magistrates. On the ground- 
floor a gallery of ancient and modern pictures is exhibited from 1st 
June to 15th Oct. (p. 52). A fresco on the tower represents the 
death of the magistrate Gundolflngen at the Battle of Sempach. 
The Fountain in the Weinmarkt (PI. 14) dates from 1481. 



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55 



19. Lake of Lucerne. 



Steamboats 6-7 times daily from Lucerne to Fliielen (and back) in 
2 3 /4hrs., express in 2'/4 hrs. (to Waggis 40 min., Vitznau 55 min., Buochs 
l'/4, Beckenried l'/s, Gersau l 3 / 4 , Treib 2, Brunnen 2 hrs. 5 min., Tells- 
Platte 2!/ 2 hrs.; the steamers do not all touch at Buochs, Treib, and Tells- 
Platte). Fare to Fliielen 4 fr. or 2 fr. 30 c. ; return tickets available for 
three days at a fare and a half. The journey must not be broken. For 
the convenience of persons making a prolonged stay on the banks of the 
lake a kind of season ticket, available for a year, is issued at a reduc- 
tion of 40 per cent ; it costs 14 fr. and consists of 100 coupons, in return 
for a certain number of which the captain provides the holder with a 
ticket for the station to which he desires to be conveyed. Each passen- 
ger is allowed 60 lbs. of luggage ; over-weight 2 c. per lb. Luggage for- 
warded by post for the St. Gntthard route should be addressed to the 
principal office at Altorf, and not to Fliielen. All the steamers, except 
the early boat at 4.30 a.m., touch at the railway-station of Lucerne after 
leaving the quay (comp. p. 52). — Rowing or Hailing Boats are seldom used 
by travellers, being badly constructed and uncomfortable. A tariff of 
fares may be consulted at the inns on the lake. 

The wind sometimes changes with extraordinary rapidity, and the 
boatmen maintain that it blows from a different quarter as each promon- 
tory is rounded. The most violent is the Fffhn I S. wind), which sometimes 
renders the navigation of the S. bay of the lake (Lake of Uri, p. 59) im- 
practicable for sailing or rowing-boats, and dangerous even for steamboats. 
In fine weather the Bise (N. wind) usually prevails on the bay of Uri from 
10 a.m. to 4 p. m., and a gentle S. wind during the rest of the day. 

The **Lake of Lucerne (1434'; Vierwaldstatter-See, or 'Lake 
of the Four Forest Cantons), which is hounded by the cantons 
of Uri, Schivyz, Unterwalden, and Lucerne, is unsurpassed in 
Switzerland, and probably in Europe, in magnificence of scenery. 
Its beautiful banks are also intimately connected with many 
historical associations, of which Schiller has given an animated 
picture in his William Tell. The lake is nearly cruciform in 
shape, the bay of Lucerne forming the head, those of Kiissnacht 
and Alpnach the arms, and the bay of Buochs and Lake of Uri 
the foot. Length from Lucerne to Fliielen 27 M. , from Alpnach 
to Kiissnacht at the extremities of the arms about 14 M. ; width 1-3 
M. ; greatest depth 51 ft. 

Soon after quitting Lucerne , the steamboat affords a strikingly 
picturesque view of the town, with its towers and battlements. To 
the left rises the Rigi, to the right Pilatus, facing the traveller the 
Biirgenstock, the Buochser Horn, and the Stanser Horn ; to the left 
of Pilatus the Schreckhbrner, Monch, Eiger, andjungfrau gradually 
become visible, but the Finster-Aarhorn is hidden. The small 
promontory to the left, with a pinnacled villa, is the Meggenhorn. 
In front of it lies Altstad ('old shore' ) , a small island planted with 
poplars , so named because the bank of the lake formerly extended 
only thus far, both banks of the Reuss from this point to Lucerne 
being mere marshes. Fragments of the walls of an old custom- 
house are still standing on the island. 

Beyond the Meggenhorn , the lake of Kiissnacht opens to the 
left, and the bay of Stansstad to the right, and the central part 
(' Kreuztrlchter 1 ) of the cross formed by the lake is reached. In 



56 Route 19. WAGGIS. Lake of 

the distance to the left, Kiissnaeht (p. 71") is visible; in the fore- 
ground rises i\eu - Habsburg (p. 71). To the right towers the 
frowning, forest -dad Burgenbery, or Biirgenstock (3721'), rising 
abruptly from the water (see p. 77). From this part of the lake 
the appearance of Pilatus (p. 74) is very striking. Its barren and 
rugged peaks , seldom entirely free from cloud or mist (p. 76), 
frown grimly over the cheerful landscape, in marked contrast to 
the Rigi on the opposite side of the lake, the lower slopes of which 
are covered with gardens, fruit-trees, and houses, and the upper 
with woods and green pastures. 

Beyond the projecting Tanzenbery , in a small bay to the left, 
is situated the handsome ww * Pension Knbrr , on a promontory 
beyond which lie the ruins of the castle of Hertenstein embosomed 
in wood. Opposite the traveller, in the distance, peeps the Scheerhom 
with its two horns (p. 317). Stat. Hertenstein (*Pension Schloss-Her- 
tenstein). Stat. Waggis (Concordia, R. 2, B. l'/ 2 , D. 3, L. and 
A. 1, pension 6 fr. ; Lowe, same charges; *H6tel-Pens. Bellevue ; 
pensions of Geriy, Zimmermann-Schurch, Waldis, Herrenmatt, etc.), 
surrounded by fruit-trees (chestnuts, almonds, figs), a very shel- 
tered village, the garden of Lucerne, situated at the foot of the 
Rigi, and the usual landing-place for the ascent of the mountain 
on this side prior to the opening of the railway. 

Bowing Boat to Lucerne in 2 lirs., 7-8 fr. ; to Hergiswyl in 2 hrs., 
8-10 fr. 

Bond to the W., passing the fool of the Burg (1985', view), by Biiti- 
matl ('Pension Uigihlickl anrt (2M. ) O'l-eppen (p. 71) to (l'/2 31. ) Kiissnaeht 
(p. 71); another along the bank of the lake to the E. to (2'/ 2 81.) Vitsnau, 
a charming walk. 

As the steamer approaches Vitznau , we observe the railway 
bridge across the Schmirtobel (p. 64) half-way up the hill to the 
left, and high above it the Hotel Rigi-First (p. 69). Vitznau, or 
Fitznau (*H6tel Pfyffer, pension fi-7 fr. ; *H6tel Rigi ; *H6tel Riyibalm ; 
Pension Zimwcrnmnn ; Weisses Kreuz), prettily situated at the base 
of the Yitzminer Stnrk, is the terminus of the Rigi Railway (p. 63), 
the station of which is close to the landing-place of the steamboats. 
High above the village rises the precipitous Rothfluh , in which is 
situated the Waldishulm , a stalactite grotto 330 yds. in length, but 
difficult of access. 

Two promontories here extend far into the lake, apparently 
terminating it, the one a spur of the Rigi, the other a part of 
the Biirgenstock (p. 77). These are aptly called the Nasen (noses), 
and may possibly have been once united. Beyond the E. Nase the 
snow- clad pyramid of the Todi (p. 316) and the two peaks of the 
Pragel (p. 32")) become visible. Beyond this strait the lake takes 
the name of Luke of Buochs, from Buochs (*Kreuz), a village to the 
right, which was burned down by the French in 1798, affording 
a pleasant rustic retreat. Above the village rise the Buochser Horn 
and the Stunser Horn (ascent see p. SI). One-horse carr. from 
Buochs to Kngelb"'" ''' two-horse 20 fr. and fee (comp. p. 80). 



Lucerne. GERSAU. 19. Route. 57 

Beckenried (*Sonne; *Nidvaldn er Hof, prettily situated ; Mond, 
R. 1 '/ 2 , B. 1 fr. ; pension at all 4-6 l'r.), formerly the place of as- 
sembly for the delegates from the Four Forest Cantons. In front of 
the church rises a remarkably fine walnut-tree. 

From Beckenried to Stans diligence every afternoon in 1 hr., see p. 81; 
two-horse carriage to Brienz 50, one-horse 30 fr. ; one-horse carr. to Engel- 
bekg (p. 81) 15, two-horse 25-30 fr. ; there and back 35-40 fr. (charges 
lower before and after the season). 

Feom Beckenried to Seeliseerg (2'/2 hrs.). The carriage- road leads 
by Emmatten C Schonegg , a charmingly -situated water and whey-cure 
establishment, pension from 5 fr.), a pleasant walk as long as the lake 
remains in sight. It then leads through a grassy dale between the slopes 
of the Stutzberg on the left and the JSeelisberger Kulm on the right, and 
past the Seelisberger See to Sonnenberg (p. 58). — Ascent of the Seelisberger 
Kulm, see p. 58. 

On the opposite bank, on a narrow but fertile strip of land, 
lies the village of Gersau (*H6tel-Pension Muller, R. 2-4, B. l 1 /^, 
L. and A. l l / 4 , D. 3^2, pension excl. room 5 fr., L. per week 1, 
A. 2'/o-4. fr. ; Hof Gersau, new; Sonne; *Zur llge, unpretending) 
in the canton of Schwyz, completely enclosed by rocks. Its broad- 
roofed cottages, scattered along the slope of the mountain , and 
the surrounding orchards give it a very attractive appearance. 
The village, being protected from cold winds, is recommended as 
a spring or autumn residence for invalids. In the ravine behind 
it is a silk-spinning mill, and above, on the brow of the mountain, 
the inn on the Bigi-Scheideck (p. 70). 

During four centuries this diminutive corner of land, scarcely 8 so,. 
M. in extent, and with only 1000 inhab. (Gersau has now 2274), enclosed 
between the Viiznauer Stock (4570') and the Hochfiuh, boasted of being an 
independent state, the smallest in the world, till the French deprived it 
of its rights in 1708. The town-hall bears an inscription to the following 
effect: ^Received into the Confederacy 1315, purchased its freedom 1390, 
annexed to the Canton of Sch/ry: 1817''. On the anniversary of the con- 
secration of the church Gersau used to be a rendezvous of all the beggars 
of the surrounding country, who feasted here without restraint for three 
days, after which they dispersed to their accustomed avocations. (Path 
to the Kigi-Scheideck, see p. 70.) 

The chapel on the bank to the E. of Gersau is called Kind- 
limord (infanticide) from the story that a poor tiddler, returning 
from a wedding at Treib, killed his starving child here by dashing 
it against the rocks. The spot is indicated by a black cross. Pleas- 
ant walk from Gersau by Kindlimord to (6 M.) Brunnen by the 
new road (p. 60) along the bank of the lake. To the E. rise the 
barren peaks of the two Mythen (6244' and 5954'), at the base of 
which, 3 M. inland, lies Schwyz (p. 73); nearer rises the church of 
Jngenbohl, and in the distance to the right the Achselberg or Achslen- 
stock (7057'), with its crown of bare crags, resembling a ruined castle. 

The steamer now crosses the lake to Treib, a solitary house 
in the canton of Uri, formerly an excise station, now an inn, 
at the foot of the precipitous Sonnenberg, the landing-place for 
the village of Seelisberg (2628' ; * Hotel-Pension Hauser, 5fr. ; Zum 
Mythenstein, unpretending), situated 1 hr. above it, and reached by a 
carriage-road. 



58 Route 19. BRUNNEN. Lake of 

The Kurhaus Sonnenberg (2772'), situated near the Chapel of Maria- 
Sonnenberg , 20 min. above Seelisberg , which has recently been greatly 
enlarged (300 beds), is much frequented from June tci the end of Sep- 
tember for the sake of the pure mountain air and the whey-cure. (Pen- 
sion 6 fr., R. 3-4, A. '/ 2 fr. ; carr. with one horse from Treib 6 fr.) 
Beautiful view from the Kanzli , *,'* hr. (in the wood to the right), over 
the lake and the plain as far as 'the Weissenstein. About i/a hr. S. of 
the Kurhaus lies the picturesque little Seelisberger See, or 'SeelC ('little 
lake', 2471'), on the precipitous N. side of the Niederbauen , or "Seelisberger 
Kulm (6310'), which may be ascended from the Kurhaus (guide necessary, 
5 fr. and fee) in 3'/-2-i hrs., or from Kmmatten (see below) in 3'/a hrs. The 
path to Emmatfen is followed towards the N., passing the Seelisberg lake; 
after 1 /i hr. the route is to the left towards the base of the Bauen. The ascent 
is steep, and after rainy weather disagreeable. The narrow path leads part 
of the way through wood, descending for a short distance. None but good 
walkers should attempt the excursion. — The ascent, however, is easier 
from Emmatten (p. 57). By the church , we turn to the left and ascend 
the Kohlthal by a well-defined path as far as a gate near several chalets 
(lhr.). After2min. more we cross the bridge to the left, ascend the meadow 
straight on, and, bearing to the left, enter the wood (20 min.); 7 min., 
a bridge over a cleft; 10 min., a chalet, beyond which we pass (on the 
left) a hill with a cross. After a gentle ascent of 15 min., we reach a 
gate, where the summit of the Bauen is visible towards the E. ; 12 min., 
another chalet, beyond which we pass a stone fence on the hill to the 
left; 40 min., third chalet (poor refreshments), whence the top is reached 
in 40 min. more. The view of the Lake of Lucerne and the Uri-Roth- 
stock is particularly striking, but the distant view is inferior to that 
from the Rigl. Early in the morning almost the whole ascent from Em- 
matten lies in the shade. 

Those who intend to walk from Seelisberg to Bauen, situated on a 
hay of the Lake of Uri, and then cross the lake to Telfs Platte or Fliielen, 
turn towards the lake ',4 hr. beyond Seelisberg, where the rocks descend 
precipitously to the iake (the Sclav it nttijl nit and Teiifelsmiinster , see Schil- 
ler's Tell, Act iv, Sc. 1), and proceed thence by a narrow but safe path 
to Bauen (p. 60), a very attractive walk. — Path to the Riitli, see p. 59. 

Opposite Treib, on the E. bank of the lake, at the month of 
the Muotta, lies the large village of — 

Brunnen. — Waldstattek Hop, on the lake, R. 3-5, li. l'/a, D. 4, 
A. 1, pension (i fr. ; 'Adler, with a 'dependance 1 on the Axenstrasse, R. 
I 1 /'-', B. l>/«, L. and A. 1 fr. ; 'Rossli, pension G fr. ; "Pension Lattmann- 
Matzio, 6 fr. ; Pension Aufdekmaur, on the Outsell; 'Pension Inderbitzi, 
on the lake; TIirscii , R. 2, B. 1, 1>. 2 1 •_■ fr. ; Hotel-Pension Mtthen- 
stein, on the Axenstrasse, pension 7 fr. — Lake Baths, '/« fr. 

Brunnen, the port of the canton of Sehwyz , perhaps the most 
beautifully -situated place on the Lake of Lucerne, is a favourite 
resort of visitors, and suitable for a stay of some duration. The 
handsome old goods-magazine is decorated with frescoes. The 
boatmen and carriage -drivers of Brunnen are noted for the exor- 
bitance of their charges. Ferry to Treib Vj., fr. — Johunn Bau- 
mann is recommended as a boatman and guide. 

Fine view from the Giitsch (pension, see above), a slight eminence 
behind Brunnen, embracing the two arms of the lake and the lovely val- 
ley of Sehwyz. — Beautiful walk to (3/< hr.) Morachach (2156' ; Hotel Pension 
Frohnalp; Pension Degeitbulm , 10 min. farther up, moderate), to which a 
good carriage road leads from the Axenstrasse. In the vicinity is the 
extensive Kurhaus Axenstein {Hotel and Pension, It. 2-12, D. 4, pen- 
sion 7 fr., A. 3 fr. per week), situated on an eminence called the 'llrandli' 
with well-shaded pleasure grounds (to which guests of (be pension only 
are admitted), 1 hr. from Brunnen, and commanding a splendid survey 



Lucerne. L.AKE OF URI. 79. Route. 59 

of both arms of the lake. The road is destitute of shade , but the pen- 
sion is also reached in 3 /t hr. by a shady footpath, ascending to the left 
immediately beyond the Pension Aufdermaur. — On the Morschach road, 
about 5 min. lower down, is situated the large "Hotel Axenfels (R. 2-6, 
pension 6 fr.j , likewise commanding a beautiful view. Omnibuses run 
regularly from the steamboat pier at Brunnen to both these hotels (50 min.; 
2'/2 fr.). Carr. with one horse 5, with two horses 10 fr. — The Stoss 
(4242'), the N. spur of the Frohnalp, with a "Kurhaus (pension 5 fr.), 
is another point of view, reached from Brunnen in 3 hrs. by a good bridle- 
path (guide unnecessary) via. Degenbalm. From Schwyz to the Stoss by 
Ober-Schonenbuch 3y 2 hrs. — From the Trohnalpstock (6270'), 13/ 4 hr. S. 
of the Stoss, a magnificent view is enjoyed, embracing the entire Lake of 
Lucerne with a finer foreground than that seen from the Rigi (inn on the 
summit; panorama l'/2 fr.)- Near the top a small inn (2 beds). — Walk 
on the Axenstrasse (p. 60). — Other excursions ; to the Lake of Lowerz 
(p. 73) , by Wylen and back by Schwyz (p. 73) ; to the Muottathal (p. 324) 
as far as the fall of the Gstiibtbach near Ried ; to the Kindlimord Chapel 
(p. 57) and Gersau (p. 57) ; to the Riitli (see below) ; to Seelisberg, Bauen, etc. 
(see above); to Tell's Chapel (p. 60); to the Mythen (p. 73). 

At Brunnen begins the S. arm of the lake, called the *Lake 
of Uri. The banks approach each other, and the mountains rise 
almost perpendicularly from the lake. Lofty snow -clad peaks, 
often partially veiled with clouds, are visible through the gorges 
which open at intervals. 

Opposite the sharp angle of rock which juts into the lake 
here, near the W. bank, rises the Wytenstein , or Mytenstein, 
a pyramid of rock, 80' in height, bearing an inscription to 
the memory of Schiller, the 'Bard of Tell', in colossal gilt let- 
ters. The rock bears a second inscription to a young Swiss 
officer, who accidentally lost his life at this spot some years ago. 
About 1 M. farther, below Seelisberg (p. 58), and 5 min. 
from its N. landing-place, are the three springs of the Riitli, or 
Griitli , which trickle from an artificially planted rock , sur- 
rounded by pretty grounds. This plateau, with an *Inn built in 
1868, belongs to the Confederation. The spot is thus described 
by Walter Fiirst in Schiller s Tell: — 

"On the lake's left bank, 

As we sail hence to Brunnen, right against 

The Jlythenstein, deep hidden in the wood 

A meadow lies, by shepherds called the Rootli, 

Because the wood has been uprooted there. 

'Tis where our canton's boundaries verge on yours ; 

Thither by lonely by-paths let us wend 

At midnight and deliberate o'er our plans". 
At this romantic spot, on the memorable night of 7th Nov., 1307, thirty- 
three men, from Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden, assembled and hound them- 
selves by an oath to be faithful to each other, and not to rest until they 
had driven their oppressors from the soil. Tradition relates that on the 
spot where the three confederates, Werner Stauffaeher of Steinen in Schwyz, 
Erni (Arnold) of Melchthal in Unterwalden, and Walter Fiirst of Atting- 
hausen in Uri, stood when the oath was taken, three fountains sprang up, 
over which a hut was subsequently erected. — A new paths ascends in 
3 /4 hr. from the Riitli to the Kurhaus Sonnenberg (p. 58). 

About 20 min. later, the steamer passes Sisikon (Pension 
Uri-Rothstock, 4'/ 2 fr.) on the E. bank, where the rugged Achslen- 
stock (p. 57) is visible through a gorge. It next reaches stat. 



60 Route 19. TELL'S PLATTE. Lake of 

Tell's Platte (Restaurant), a ledge of rock at the base of the 
Axenfluh or Axenberg (3353'), where, shaded by overhanging trees 
and washed by the waters of the lake, stands the romantic TelVs 
Chapel, containing rude frescoes of scenes from the history of 
the famous Swiss patriot. It is said to have been erected 
by the Canton of Dri in 1388 on the spot where the Swiss 
liberator sprang out of Gessler's boat, but it is obviously of later 
date. In ascending from the landing-place the first path to the 
right descends to the chapel (boat from the landing-place 20 c. 
each person). On the Sunday after Ascension-day, mass is 
performed here, and a patriotic sermon preached, the service 
being attended by great numbers of the inhabitants of the neigh- 
bouring shores in boats gaily decorated for the occasion. A good 
path ascends from the landing-place in 8 min. to the * Hotel zur 
Tellsplatte (R. 1, B. 1, A. '/a f r -i pension 5 fr.), with pleasure 
grounds and a charming view (baths at the landing-place), sit- 
uated on the Axenstrasse. The peculiar, contorted formation 
of the calcareous strata of the Axenfluh attracts the attention 
even of the unscientific. The * Axenstrasse , leading from 
Gersau to Brunnen and Fliielen, and affording a succession of 
beautiful views, is also extremely interesting from its bold con- 
struction, and in several places penetrates the rock by means 
of tunnels (T 1 ^ M. from Brunnen to Fliielen). The finest part 
is between the Tell's Platte Inn and Fliielen (2'/ 2 M.), leading 
through the great *Axen- Tunnel, which pierces a projecting but- 
tress of the Axenberg high above the lake. 

As soon as the chapel is passed, Fliielen becomes visible , and 
is reached by steamer in 20 min. more. The scenery of this 
part of the lake is strikingly imposing. Opposite the 'Platte', on 
the W. bank, lies the hamlet x)f Baven , and, farther on, the 
solitary houses of Isleten, at the mouth of the Isenthal. 

The Isenthal, which is worthy of a visit, divides near the village 
12542') of that name ("Adler, rustic; the landlord Infanger is a good guide) 
into the Grosse Isenthal , to the W. , and the Kteine Isenthal, terminated 
by the Vri-Rothstock (9620'), to (he S. — Isenthal may be reached from Altorf 
(in font in 3 hrs. via Seedorf (see below), by a path skirting the lake and 
assending to the Frutt Chapel (IIZS,'), with a picturesque view, where the 
path turns to the left into the valley; or we may cross the lake from 
Fliielen ]>y rowing-boat or steamer (touching the \V. bank once daily) to 
Isleten, and ascend to the left tn the Fruit Chapel, where the two paths unite. 

Through the Grossthal , in which the Alpine, hamlet of St. Jakob 
is situated, the traveller may either proceed to the W. passing between the 
Ilohenbriesen (7894') and the Kaiserstock (7877'), over the Schonegg - Pass 
(6316', very steep on the farther side), and by Ober-Rirkenbach (2956') to 
(5>/2 hrs.) Wol/enschiessen (p. 81) ; or to the S.W., over the Rolhgratli (8419') 
to (10 hrs.) Engelberg (p. 82). — Through the Kt.einthal a rugged path 
leads to the Neieiialp and CI hrs.) Musenalp (1885'); then a fatiguing as- 
cent of 3-4 hrs. (for practised mountaineers only: guide 10 fr.) over steep 
strata of slate to the top <,f the Kessel , and "over the Mittelgratli , or 
round it towards the K. across the glacier and the E arete to the 
(lVs-2 hrs.) summit of the '■ TJri - Rothstock (9620'). An easier but con- 
siderably longer path leads through the Orossthal , passing St.' Jakob and 



Lucerne. FLUELEN. 19. Route. 61 

the iSchlossfelsen, to the (3 hrs.) Hangbaum-Alp (5659'), in a splendid situa- 
tion (line cascades) ; thence over pastures (Blilmli&alp) and slopes covered 
with debris, afterwards over snow, past the Blumlisalp-Glacier, and across 
disintegrated rocks to the summit. If the traveller wishes to reach the 
top early in the morning, he must spend the night in the chalet on the 
Hangbaum-Alp (bed of hay). From Engelberg (p. 82) the ascent may be 
made in 7-8 hrs. by the Blacken-Alp (p. 83) and Blackenstock Glacier 
(laborious). The Uri-Rothstock, like the Titlis, is almost perpendicular 
on the E. and S.E. sides, and is composed of gigantic and contorted limestone 
rocks, torn asunder and piled one on another in fantastic but magnificent 
confusion. The view from the summit is extremely imposing: to the S. 
the chain of the Alps, with the Sentis at their E. extremity ; immediately 
below lies the Lake of Lucerne at a depth of 8000'; to the N.E. and N. the 
view embraces the Rigi, Pilatus, and the Entlebuch mountains, the lower 
hills of N. Switzerland, and the plain. 

On the saddle between the two peaks of the Uri-Rothstock 
lies a glacier, distinctly visible from the lake ; adjoining it, on the 
left is the Gitschen (8333'), rising abruptly from the lake, with its 
summit resembling a castle. Between Fliielen and <Seedor/'(1447'), 
a village to the right, with a convent , the Reuss (see below) flows 
into the lake by an artificial channel. The Reussthal is closed 
by the huge pyramid of the Bristenstock (10,089'), adjoining which 
rise the Great (10,463') and Little Windgelle (9846'). 

25 M. Fluelen, Ital. Flora (1433' ; *Urnerhof, a large new hotel ; 
Fliielerhof; *Kreuz, R. 2, B. l«/ 4 , D. 3, L. and A. 1 fr. ; Adler or 
Post; *Tell; all near the quay; St. Gotthard; Stern; lake-baths on 
the Axenstrasse, '/ 2 M. from Fluelen; carriages, see p. 84) is the 
port of Uri. Beyond the church is the small chateau of Rudenz, 
which formerly belonged to the Attinghausen family. The Reuss has 
been 'canalised' here C/2 hr. walk, or ] / 4 hr. by boat to its influx). 
— From Fluelen to Altorf (on the St. Gotthard route), see p. 85. 



20. The Rigi. 

Steamboat from Lucerne 7 times daily to Waggis in '/2- 3 A hr., to Vitz- 
nau in 3 /4-l hr. , to Gersau in li/4-l 3 A hr. ; from Lucerne to Kiissnacht 
4 times daily in 1 hr., to Greppen in 3 /t hr. — From Zug to Immensee 
4 times daily in 3 /i hr., to Arth in 1 hr. (or direct in 50 min.). 

Rigi Railways (p. 63). I. From Vitznad to the Kulm in 1 hr. 25 min., 
fare 7 fr. (to the Kaltbad 4'/ 2 , to the Staffel 5 fr.); descent in the same 
time, fare3 ] / 2 fr. — II. From Arth to the Kulm in l'/a hr., fare 8 fr. (to 
the Klbsterli 5'/-2, to the Staffel 7 fr. 30 c), descent 4 fr. — III. From the 
Kaltbad to the Scheideck in 25 min., fare 2'/2 fr. — On each of these 
lines the passenger is allowed 10 lbs. of luggage, over-weight being 
charged for at the rate of 1 fr. per 100 lbs. (heavy luggage must sometimes 
be left to follow by a later train). From 1st July to 15th Sept. there are 
trains daily from Vitznau and Arth in correspondence with the steamers 
from Lucerne and Zug respectively. On the Vitznau line each train 
consists of one carriage, holding 54 persons, and not divided into classes, 
and , on the Arth line , of two carriages holding 40 persons each. (De- 
scription of these railways, see p. 63.) — Most travellers now-a-days 
prefer the rapid and convenient railway journey to the ascent on foot. 
Those who approach the Rigi from Lucerne will naturally ascend it by 
the Vitznau line, while persons coming from Zurich will generally take 
the Arth line. (From Lucerne to the Kulm by Vitznau in 2i/4-2 3 A hrs.; 
from Zurich to the Kulm by Zug and Arth in &/i-i, l /z hrs.) The Arth 



62 Route 20. RIGI. Hotels. 

railway ascends among; the depressions on the N, side of the mountain, 
affording no striking view until the magnificent panorama burst'-' on the 
gaze when the Rigi-Staffel is reached. The Vitznau line from the S., on 
the other hand, commands a succesion of beautiful views of the lake, and 
the mountain-panorama is more gradually disclosed. — An easy and beau- 
tiful excursion of one day from Zurich is the journey to the liigi-Kulm 
(dine), and thence to Lucerne by Vitznau. (Fares from Zurich to the Rigi- 
Kulm 13 fr. 75, 12 fr. 50, 11 fr. 5 c; circular tickets from Zurich to the 
Kulm by Arth, and back by Vitznau and Lucerne, available for three days, 
22 fr. 40, 19 fr. i5, 16 fr. 70 c.) Those who start from Lucerne may 
easily visit the Kulm, the Staffel (and Rothstnck) , the Kaltbad (and 
Kanzli), and the Scheideck, and return the same day. — In fine weather 
extra-trains ascend to the Kulm from the Klosterli (in 23 min.) and from 
the Staffel (in 7 min.) in time for sunrise and sunset. 

Pedestrians may ascend to the Kulm from Immensee, Kiissnacht, 
Waggis, or Vitznau in 3V4 hrs., from Arth or Greppen in 3'/2, from 
Goldau in 3 3 /4 , from Lowerz in 4 , or from Ger-au in 4 3 /4 hrs. — The 
most frequented of these routes before the days of the Eigi railways, and 
one still much used by persons descending the mountain , is that from 
Waggis. The views on this side are very beautiful , but, as already 
observed, the mountain-panorama is far more striking when suddenly 
revealed to the traveller ascending on the N. side. 

Hotels. On the Kulm, "Hotel Rigi-Kclm (p. 64), R. in the old house 
3-4, in the new 4-5 fr., L. */,, B. l'/ 2 . table d'hote 4-5, A. 1 fr. The rooms 
to the S. (generally with two beds) alone command a complete view of the 
Alps. "Hotel Scheeiber, R. 3-5, B. l>/ 2 , D. 4-5, L. and A. I 3 /, fr. — 
"Hotel Rigi-Staffel (p. 65), >h hr. below the Kulm, R. 2y 2 , B. l'/ 2 , D. 3'/k, 
L. and A. 1 fr., pension 7-8'/2 fr. (a good point for observing the Rigi 
traffic, the whole of which passes this way). -Hotel Staffel-Kulm, 
moderate. — The "Kukhaus Rigi-Kai.tbad (p. 64), '/« hr. to the W. of the 
Staffel, is a large establishment, with baths, comfortably fitted up and^ ex- 
pensive, where ordinary travellers rarely find accommodation. Hotel 
Bellevue, at stat. Kaltbad, moderate. — 'Hotel Kigi-Fikst, a large new 
house, situated on the Scheideck railway '/4 nr - from the Kaltbad (p. 69), 
pension including room from 10th July to 10th Sept. 10-15 fr. , earlier 
or later in the season 9-12 fr. — Schwebt and Sonne, near the Klosterli 
(p. 65), R. H/2-2, B. 1, D. 3, A. 1/2 fr- , pension 5-6 fr. — Hoticl Rigi- 
XJntekstetten, near stat. Unterstetten (p. 69). — 'Kuiihaus Uiui-Mcheiueck 
(p. 70), magnificent view , second only to that from the Kulm, R. 2-5, B. 
l'/zi D - 4; L. and A. l'/j fr. ; pension with room, in July and August 8-12, 
in June and Sept. 7-10 fr. ; whey, milk , or the chalybeate water of the 
Scheideck 20 c. per glass; cold bath 1 fr., warm bath l'/2 fr - 

In the height of the season travellers are recommended to telegraph 
O/2 fr.) from Zurich, Lucerne, Horgen, Wadenswyl, Zug, Schwyz, Altort, 
or Stans, if they wish to secure good accommodation at the Kulm. 

The **Rigi (5906', or 4472' above the Lake of Lucerne), a 
group of mountains, about 25 M. in circumference, lying between 
the lakes of Lucerne, Zug, and Lowerz, is chiefly composed of 
conglomerate (p. 72), while the N. and \V. sides belong to the 
meiocene formation. The N. side is precipitous, but the S. 
side consists of wide terraces and gentle slopes, planted with 
fig, chestnut, and almond trees, and covered with fresh green 
pastures which support upwards of 4000 head of cattle. The 
name Iiiyi, however, is usually applied to the N. peak only, 
which, owing to its isolated position, commands a singularly 
beautiful and striking panorama of 300 miles in circumference. 

It was formerly called Riyi-ifi'eid (pasturajie of the Rigi) by the 
natives of the district, but is now known as the Rigi only (i. e. 




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Railways. RIGI. 20. Route. 63 

'strata'). The cow-herds and the frequenters of the Kaltbad were 
at one time the only persons acquainted with the mountain. In 
1689 an inhabitant of Arth erected the chapel of Our Lady of the 
Snow (St. Maria zum Schnee) for the use of the herdsmen, and 
an image of the Virgin placed there in 1700 was soon revered as 
possessing miraculous virtue. Hence arose the custom of making 
pilgrimages to the spot, and as early as 1760 the inns which had 
gradually sprung up scarcely afforded sufficient accommodation for 
the pilgrims. After the restoration of peace in Europe in 1815, 
visitors to theKulm became more numerous, and in 1816 an insigni- 
ficant inn was erected on the summit by voluntary subscription. 
In 1848 that inn was displaced by the oldest of the present houses. 
During the following decades the popularity of the mountain rapidly 
increased, and of late years, in consequence of the great facilities 
afforded by the railways, the number of visitors has been immense. 
Several new hotels have recently sprung up, and the Rigi is now 
perhaps the most frequented spot in the whole of Switzerland. 

Rigi Railways. The oldest of the three lines now in use is the Vitznau 
Railway, constructed by the engineers Riggenbach, Kaeff, and Zschokke 
in 1869-71, and opened as far as stat. StaiFelhohe, on the frontier of 
Canton Lucerne, in the summer of 1871, whence it was completed to the 
Kulm in 1873. The latter part of the line, situated in Canton Schwyz, was 
constructed by the 'Arth-Rigi Eail. Co.*, by whose directions Messrs. 
Riggenbach and Zschokke, in 1873-75, constructed the Arth and Staffel 
line, which was opened in June 1875. The line from Vitznau to the 
Kulm is nearly 4 1 /:; M., and that from Arth to the Kulm nearly 7 31. in 
length. The former ascends 4472', the latter 4541'. The maximum gradient 
on the Vitznau line is V in 4', on the Arth line 1' in 5'. — Both lines 
are constructed on the same system. The gauge is that of ordinary rail- 
ways. Between the rails run two olhers, placed close together and pro- 
vided with teeth, on which a cog-wheel under the locomotive works. The 
locomotives (120 horse power), constructed by Herr Riggenbach, are on a 
new and peculiar system , with upright boilers. The train is propelled 
upwards by steam-power, while in its descent the speed is regulated by an 
ingenious mode of introducing atmospheric air into the cylinder. The 
passenger carriage is placed in both cases above the engine, with which 
it is unconnected by couplings, and in case of accident can be stopped 
almost, instantaneously. The speed scarcely exceeds 3 M. an hour , and 
no apprehension of danger need be entertained. — The Scheideck Railway 
(p. 69), about 4'/s M. in length, is nearly level, the greatest gradient being 
i' in 20', and i-< constructed like ordinary railways. The locomotives, on 
an improved system invented by Hr. Riggenbach, are specially adapted 
for the ascent of inclines. 

From Vitznau to the Rigi-Kulm. Vitznau, see p. 56; the 
railway station is close to the quay. The train ascends gradually 
through the village (1 : 15) and afterwards more rapidly (1 : 4), 
passing the precipitous slopes of the Dossen. A view of the lake 
is soon disclosed, and it becomes more imposing as the train as- 
cends. The dark Biirgenstock on the opposite bank first appears, 
then the Stanserhorn and Pilatus , and Lucerne towards the W. 
Farther up, the Alps of Uri, Engelberg, and the Bernese Oberland 
come in sight above the lower intervening mountains. 

About 20 min. after starting, the train penetrates a projecting 



64 Route 2<>. R1G1. Kaltbad. 

conglomerate nick by means of a tunnel 82 yds. in length, and 
crosses the Schnurtobel , a ravine 75 ft. in depth, by means of an 
iron bridge borne by two iron pillars. This is the most interesting 
point on the line. A few minutes later we reach a watering and 
passing station on the Freiberg, from which point to the Kulm the 
line is double. Beyond the Freiberg no great difficulty was ex- 
perienced in the construction of the line, the gradient of which 
now averages 1 : 5. Stat. Bomiti-Felsenthor (comp. p. 66) and 
(54 min. from Vitznau) — 

Stat. Kaltbad (4728'), to the left of which is the large Kurhaus 
(p. 62), situated on a plateau sheltered from the N. and E. winds. 

A path leads through a narrow opening in the rock, to the left of the 
hotel, to St. Michael's Chapel, the walls of which are hung with nu- 
merous votive tablets. One of these on the left side records that two pious 
sisters sought refuge here from the persecutions of a governor of the dis- 
trict in the time of King Albert, and built the chapel. The spring 
(42° Fahr.) which bubbles forth from the rock adjoining the chapel was 
formerly called the 'Schwesternborn 1 in memory of the two sisters. 

A path among the blocks of conglomerate near the chapel, and after- 
wards traversing park-like grounds, leads to the (10 min.) Kanzli (4770'), 
a pavilion on a projecting rock, commanding an admirable view of the 
range of snow-mountains and the plain towards the N. with its numerous 
lakes, similar to that from the Staft'el, but with a more picturesque fore- 
ground. — A path leads hence to the Staft'el in the same time as from 
the Kaltbad (40 min.), ascending to the right (not to the E.) as far as the 
point where the S. part of the Lake of Lucerne becomes visible, and 
then following the crest of the mountain until it unites with the path 
from the Kaltbad, about halfway up. Those therefore who visit the 
Kanzli from the Kaltbad need not return to the latter. 

Railway from the Kaltbad to the Scheideck, see p. 69. 

In 5 min. more the train reaches stat. Staff elhiihe , beyond 
which it runs to the left round the Rigi-Rothstock (see below ), as- 
cending in 9 min. more to stat. Rigi-Staffel (5210'), the junction 
of the Arth line (see below). The station is immediately above the 
hotel (p. 62). 

The Rigi-Rothstock (5150'), V> min. to the S.W., is worthy of a visit. 
The very picturesque prospect embraces the central part of the Lake of 
Lucerne, which is not visible from the Kulm. A clear view is moreover 
often enjoyed from this point while the Kulm is enveloped in dense fog. 
The sunset is sometimes said to be seen in greater perfection from the 
Rothstock than from the Kulm , but the sunrise should certainly be wit- 
nessed from the latter. 

The railway (a double line | ascends somewhat rapidly from the 
Staffel to the ( 3 / 4 hr. ) Kulm, skirting the precipitous rocks on the 
N. side of the mountain. 

Rigi-Kulm (p. 62). On the left is the Hotel Sehreiber; on the 
right, nearer the summit, the Hotel Rigi-Kulm (p. 62). 

From Arth to the Rigi-Kulm. Arth, see p. 71. The train 
ascends gradually to Obtr-Arlh, where the cog-wheel system begins, 
and beyond tin- >-hort MilhUjUih Tunnel, reaches Goldau (p. 72). 
to the left of which i- the Jintsbery. It now traverses part of the 
devastated tract of Loiverz (p. 7:1), erodes the S'hwyz road by a 
viaduct, and describes a wide curve to the W.; beyond which. 



Klosterli. RIGI. 20. Route. 65 

ascending more rapidly, it skirts the first mountain slope at the 
foot of the Soheideck and stops at the watering station Kriibel 
(2507'). Farther on, ascending 1' in 5', the train skirts the pre- 
cipitous Krabelwand , where the chief difficulties in the con- 
struction of the line were encountered , and affords a fine view of 
the valley and lake of Lowerz , with the island of Schwanau, the 
Mythen near Schwyz , and the Rossberg. We are next conveyed 
through a picturesque wooded valley , through the Rothenfluh 
Tunnel, and across the brook of that name ( waterfall from the rocks 
to the left; gorge 400' deep on the right), to the passing-station 
Fruttli (3780'). Continuing to ascend 1' in 5', the train traverses 
the Pfedernwald, crosses the Dossenbaeh (with a waterfall), passes 
through the Pfedernwald Tunnel, and beyond the Schildbaeh 
(1 '/ 4 hr. from Avth) reaches — 

Stat. Klosterli (4262'), which lies in a basin enclosed by the 
Rigi-Kulm, the Staffel, and the Rothstock, '/ 2 hr. below the Rigi- 
Staffel. The 'Klosterli' is a small Capuchin monastery and hospice, 
with the pilgrimage- chapel of Maria zum Schnee (p. 63), which was 
founded in 1689 , and the inns already mentioned (p. 62). The 
chapel is visited by numerous pilgrims, especially on 6th Aug. and 
6th Sept., and there is mass and a sermon on Sundays for the herds- 
men of the mountain. This spot is destitute of view, but is shel- 
tered from the wind, and is less exposed to fog than the Kulm, 
Staffel, and Scheideck. These are often shrouded in dense clouds, 
while the Klosterli is beautifully clear. Ascent from the Klosterli 
to the Kulm I1/4 hr., to the Stafiel, Rothstock, or Schild 3 / 4 , 
Dossen 1, Scheideck l 3 /4 hr. 

At stat. Rigi-Staffel (p. 64) a strikingly beautiful view is 
disclosed towards the W. and N. (comp. p. 6'2J. From this point 
to the Rigi-Kulm, see p. 64. 

Bridle Paths (comp. p. 62). Fkom Akth (1367'; p. 71), 3'/2 hrs to the 
top. The broad and well-trodden path cannot be mistaken. By the chapel 
of St. George, near the last house in the village, it turns to the left, and 
reaches the foot of the mountain in 12 min.; 12 min., a small waterfall, 
precipitated over the blocks of conglomerate in several leaps, but often 
dry in summer; 8 min., a meadow; 4 min., a large plateau of fern; 12 
min., the Kasgatterli, a store-house for cheese (avoid path to the right); 
20 min., waterfall ; 4 min., Unteres Ddchli (see below), where the path 
unites with the bridle-path from Goldau. 

From Goldau (I1/2 II. from Arth ; railway, see p. 64) 3 3 /4 hrs., an ex- 
cellent bridle-path , the best of the Kigi routes, and not to be mistaken. 
On the W. side of the village we cross the An, and proceed to the left of 
the brook through meadows, pine plantations, and rocky debris, ascending 
by means of steps in places. To the left rise the precipitous slopes of the 
Rothfluh (5233'). At the (1 hr.) Untere Dfichli (3084 1 ; Auberge du Rigi), 
where the footpath comes up to the right from Arth, a good view is obtained 
of the valley of Goldau, the scene of the landslip (p. 72), the lake of 
Lowerz, and the Mythen of Schwyz. By the cross adjoining the tavern 
begin the stations or oratories which lead to the chapel of Our Lady of 
the Snow. A path diverging to the left by the third station leads to the 
Scheideck (p. 70), but cannot easily be found without a guide. At the 
Obere Uiichli (refreshments), where there is a spring by the side of the 

Baedekfr, Switze rland. 7lh Edition. 5 



66 Route :>() RlOl. Kulm. 

path, the wnud is quitted; on the opposite side of the valley runs the 
railway. This point is about halfway to the top, the second half, however, 
is easier than the first. (A direct path leads hence to the Kulm in li/jhr., 
along the slope to the right, crossing the GriiiiJwU and Sv/iwandi Alps, 
and passing to the left of the pine wood.) 

The bridle-path (l3/ 4 hr. to the top) leads from the Obere I>achli to 
the left (in 10 min.) to the 8th station, called the Mahhus-C'apelle, where it 
is joined by the path from Lowerz (see below). Between this station and 
the Kliislerii a cross let into the rock indicates a shorter but steep foot- 
path to the Kulm ( 3 ,4 hr.) which cannot be recommended. At the (i/ 2 hr.) 
Kldsterli (p. 65) is the small church of Maria zum Schnee (thence to the 
Scheideck, see p. 70 ; to the Kaltbad over the First, 3 /« hr.). From the 
Klostcrli to the Rigi-Staffel (p. 64) is a walk of 40 min. more. 

From Lowerz (p. 73) an easy bridle-path, ascending more gradually 
than any of the others, leads in 4 hrs. to the Kulm. It diverges from the 
road at a cross with a finger-post, 3/ 4 jj. from the village, and ascends 
gently across meadows, passing some detached houses. At a (1 hr.) chalet 
with a cross the path divides ; that to the left leads to the Rigi-Scheideck. 
In f'4 hr. the path enters a beautiful wood; in 1 hr. it reaches the Rigi- 
thal, through which the railway runs, crosses the valley below the Malchus- 
capelle (see above), and on the opposite side unites with the Goldau route 
I see above). 

From KCssnacht (p. 71) bridle-path to the top in 3'/4 hrs. (or ',j hi. 
more if a digression be made to Tell's Chapel, p. 72). The path diverges 
to the right by a small shrine near the end of the village, skirting the 
brook, which it crosses near a large new house ; 1 fe hr., the ruins of a 
burned house; at the finger-post 'auf die Rigi 1 we turn to the left; 20 
min., Jtossweid, where the rock bears a cross to the memory of a man 
killed by lightning in 1738 (view over the N. part of the Lake of Zng; 
at the N. end rises the white church of Cham, p. 49); then through wood 
for 20 min. ; afterwards a tract of fern is traversed (view of the Lake of 
Sempach to the left, and of the Lake of Baldegg to the right). In '/» It. 
the Untere Seeboden-Alp (3372'; Ourhaus, poor) is reached, on which, at 
the Jfeiligkreuz, the paths from Immensee and Tell's Chapel unite with 
the Kiissnacht path; 18 min., the Obere Seeboden Alp. Then a steep zigzag 
ascent of l'A hr. to the Staffel (p. 64). 

From Immensee (p. 71) bridle-path in 3 1 ihrs. to the top. About ', 2 )I. 
from Immensee, the Kiissnacht and Arth road is reached at the inn ' Zur 
Eiche^ (p. 72), fifty paces to the left of which, by the inn i Zur Jlge', the 
Rigi path ascends to the right , reaching the I'ntcre Seeboden-Alp (see 
above) in PA hr. , where the paths from Immensee, Tell's Chapel, and 
Kiissnacht unite. 

From Greppen (p. 71), on the E. bank of the Kiissnacht branch of 
the Lake of Lucerne, a good bridle-path also ascends to the Kulm in 
3'/2 hrs. 

From Waugis (p. 56) a bridle-path which cannot possibly be missed 
(finger-post near the landing-place), ascends in 3', i hrs. to the Kulm. It 
winds at first through orchards, the produce of which is frequently offer- 
ed for sale, and then crosses the tract of a mud stream which descended 
from the mountain in 1795, taking a fortnight to reach the lake. Beyond 
the (|i/, hr. | 'lleiligkreu'.-Ciipelte the path skirls a precipitous rocky slope 
to the (i 2 hr.) JJocluteiii or t'elsenthor, sometimes called the Kasbistcn 
(Hotel Felsen-Thor), an arch formed of two huge masses of conglomerate, 
mi which rests a third block. (Slat. Jiomiti, a little higher up, see p. 61. 1 
The path ascends through this natural gateway, running parallel to the 
railway part of the, way, and next reaches the (3 , hr.) Kaltbad (p. 64). — 
This route commands a succession of beautiful views of the lake and 
mountains, and is especially recommended for the descent (comp. p. 62). 

The Kigi-Kulm (5906'), the loftiest and northernmost point of 
the Kigi, is covered with grass to the summit. Its N. side 
descends precipitously to the Lake of Zug, while on the S.W. side 



H:Heiglit above the sea-level inParis feet. EiBistance in a direct line in Swiss leases (ll:3eng.]tf) y j gjjy OF THE ALPS FROWTHE RIGI KULM. ^^^*%«^W/^^ ^«w,..W/ 'h*wn r ,„u 



,/'„ 



lake of Wallaiistaat 



East 



Jllonth.i'ra.gel'brtwZS cfe 31,34 Segnospaa; c.M) lanixerpassT) it 



HauiSM/before^. 



iucjuanier "b . 6V 



"o stwT.i * SO - Siiienaii (joithard 



South 



Srimsel 



IfcyimgeT 



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107 lllll 112 



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1m. Ct.AjipcazeU 
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Attmann .... 749S 
Jm Jbrarlbeiy bei FeldUrcA :: 
Iletkfepack . . 1 6027 |sc, 
ImCt.St GatlaijeaseitdtsHSdeiam 

Spccr* 6021 

SrhannisepBer^ 5401 
Li- is I ka iiim . . 6467 
KiirfirstoilSiiifibcuM* 7089 

Rndfirsl j 7428 

l*':dfrLinth:n..obern SM,rom 
Wd^iUuhuxhsckiiillen II l.ui I 
Grout ron Sctaryi mUGlanu: 

llir/.li. 5068 8 

AubrM.iler $rofNf 52+3 6 



£iipfenst. . . 

Tbierb. . . 

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KriinnclUl. . . 

Zindrlnsp. 

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Seheye<Wi«(>is> 

Mutrib.i Ruilclfii 

IliiKbri^ 

iimtfUteane, nr.(Har. a-StOallm . 
10'- 
12 

i 

3 V 
3'i 



5854 
6136 
6492 
6616 
6456 

7031 
6961 

7065 
6449 



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SpiUmeaen«9i 7712 
Im-Ct.Sctaryz, bis zurJfuotiu 
IK-tlistiickli 
Haken.Pavs . 
>fTthen . derHeme 



4790 
4288 
5587 



5858 
4910 
3663 
5470 
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Vordep Glamiscli 7176 
(ilirn'iMli . . . 
ulrciiclisdai'lli 8946 
b.derRuclu . . 8968 
t.Badiisl. . 8370 

Reiseltst/raulen) . 8635 
Pfamienst. 7960 

SUbeTen 7105 

karrrnalp 



38 



5723 
7634 



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Sthefenst(45> 

ft Ct.Giarus.zwStrnfl uZinth. 

KSppfsl | 8647 1 10", 

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mitteOaUen mWu.frauMindtm 
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flausst 9630 

SHl>saii!'li<iii-|>liuiii> 8760 
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7678 
7335 



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50 
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123J 54 

10 

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9*. 5 

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liddern 774-8 i 

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Axenb 6409 3s. 

Bannb-biijUtorl" 4% 
KtAridenkette zirfirnwbode/i . 
Sehuehnniti.a.. demMadcranerth: 



Klariden^ral 
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kl.WbubJelle 



10030 
10147 
9600 
9818 
9239 



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a.liiMM u.sli'iiiaiji 

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8665 
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jr. xum Maien - if. . Oadmenth., 87 
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8865 
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Kulm. RIGI. 20. Route. 67 

it is connected with the other part of the mountain which encloses 
the basin of the Klosterli. and extends to the Scheideck. At the 
top rises a wooden belvedere. The hotels stand about 130 paces 
below the summit, sheltered from the W. and N. winds. 

' :::: View. The first object which absorbs the attention of the spectator, 
is the stupendous range of the snow-clad Alps, 120 JI. in length (comp. 
the Panorama). The chain begins in the far E. with the Sentis in 
the Canton of Appenzell, over, or near which the first rays of the rising 
sun appear in summer. Somewhat nearer the Rigi rises the huge snowy 
crest of the Gliiraisch ; then the Todi , in front of which are the Cla- 
riden, and to the right the double peak of the Scheerhorn ; next, the broad 
Windgelle, immediately opposite, and the sharp pyramid of the Bristen- 
stock, at the foot of which the St. Gotthard road begins to ascend near 
Amsteg in the valley of the Reuss ; the Blackenstock and the Uri - Roth- 
stock, side by side, are both so near that the ice of their glaciers can be 
distinguished; then the serrated Spannbrter, and more to the right the 
Titlis, the highest of the TJnterwalden range, easily distinguished by its 
vast mantle <> t" snow. The eye next travels to the Bernese Alps, crowning 
the landscape with their magnificent peaks clad with perpetual snow. To 
the extreme left is the Finsteraarhorn , the loftiest of all, adjacent to it 
the Schreckhorner, the three white peaks of the Wetterhorn , the Monch, 
the Eiger with its perpendicular walls of dark rock on the N. side, 
and the Jungfrau. To the W. tower the jagged peaks of the sombre 
Pilatus, forming the extreme outpost of the Alps in this direction. — 
Towards the N. the entire Lake of Zug is visible, with the roads leading 
to Arth, and the villages of Zug and Cham. To the left of the Lake of 
Zug , at the foot of the Rigi, stands Tell's Chapel, midway between Im- 
mensee and Kiissnacht, a little to the left of a white house; then, se- 
parated from the Lake of Zug by a narrow strip of land , the Kiissnacht 
arm of the Lake of Lucerne; more to the W. Lucerne with its crown 
of battlements and towers, at the head of its bay. Beyond Lucerne is seen 
almost the entire canton of that name, with the Emme meandering through 
it like a silver thread; the Reuss is also visible at places. More distant 
are the Lake of Sempach, the W. side of which is skirted by the railway 
In Bale, and the lakes of Baldegg and Hallwyl. The W. and N.W. 
horizon is bounded by the Jura chain, above which peep some of the crests 
of the Vosges. — To the N., but to the left of the Lake of Zug, the hand- 
some buildings of the dissolved Abbey of Muri are visible, beyond which 
rises the castle of Habsburg ; in the distance the Black Forest with its 
highest peaks , the Feldberg (to the right) and the Belchen (to the left). 
Beyond the Lake of Zug is seen the crest of the Albis with the Uetliberg, 
which almost entirely conceals the Lake of Zurich; the long cantonal hos- 
pital and the cathedral in the town of Zurich are, however, visible. In the 
extreme distance rise the basaltic cones of Hohenhowen and Hohenstoffeln 
(close together) and the Hohentwiel in Swabia. Towards the E., behind the 
N. slope of the Rossberg, a glimpse is obtained of the Lake of Egeri, on the 
S. bank of which was fought the famous battle of Morgarten (p. 323). 
Beyond Arth, opposite the Kulm, is the Rossberg, the S. slope of whicli 
was the scene of the disastrous Goldau landslip. Between the Rossberg 
and the E. ramifications of the Rigi lies the Lake of Lowerz with its two 
little islands; beyond it, the town of Schwyz, at the foot of the barren 
heights of the Mythen, overtopped by the imposing Gliirnisch. To the 
right opens the Muottathal , celebrated in military annals. To the S. and 
S.E. the different summits of the Rigi form the foreground, viz. the 
Hochlluh (below it the Rothenfluh), Scheideck, Dossen, and Schild, at the 
foot of which lies the Klosterli. To the left of the Schild part of the Lake 
of Lucerne is seen near Beckenried, and to the right the hay called the Lake 
of Buochs, with the Buochser Horn above it; a little more to the right the 
Stanser Horn with Stans at its base ; nearer, the less elevated Biirgenstock 
and the Rigi-Rothstock. Beyond these heights, to the left, the lake of 
Sarnen , embosomed in forest, to the right the bay of Alpnach , connected 



68 Route 20. RIOI. Kulm. 

with the Lake of Lucerne by a narrow strait formed by the I.opperberg, a 
spur of Pilatus. 

From the middle of July to the middle of September, in 
fine weather, the hotel is crowded towards evening (precau- 
tions about securing accommodation, see p. ti'2). The concourse 
of strangers, composed of such various elements, is of itself a 
source of no little amusement to the observant spectator. Every 
grade of society is represented here , and all the languages of 
Europe combine to produce a very Babel of incongruous sounds. 
At sunset all are attracted to the summit by one common object. 
Loiterers arrive breathless at the point towards which they have 
been toiling so many hours, while an indifferent performer on the 
Alpine horn somewhat tries the temper by blowing the 'retreat' 
of the orb of day. When the sun has at length disappeared, 
the prosaic attractions of the supper-table become predominant, 
and the belvedere is soon deserted. 

Half an hour before sunrise , the Alpine horn sounds the 
reveille. All is again noise, bustle, and confusion. As the sun 
will wait for no man , eager expectants often indulge in im- 
promptu toilettes of the most startling description. A red Indian 
in his blanket would on these occasions be most appropriately 
dressed, and would doubtless rind many imitators but for the 
penalty imposed on visitors borrowing so tempting a covering 
from the hotel. The sleepy eye soon brightens, the limb stiff- 
ened by the exertions of the preceding day is lithe again in that 
exciting moment; the huge hotel is for the nonce without a 
tenant; and if the eager crowd are not, like the disciples of 
Zoroaster , ready with one accord to prostrate themselves before 
the great source of light and life, there are probably few whose 
thoughts do not turn in silent adoration towards that mighty hand 
which created 'the great light which rules the day'. 

A faint streak in the E., which pales by degrees the bright- 
ness of the stars, is the precursor of the birth of day. This in- 
sensibly changes to a band of gold in the extreme horizon ; each 
lofty peak is in succession tinged with a roseate blush; the 
shadows between the Rigi and the horizon gradually melt away; 
forests, lakes, hills, towns, and villages reveal themselves; all is 
at first grey and cold, until at length the sun suddenly bursts 
from behind the mountains, in all its majesty, flooding the whole 
of the superb landscape with light and warmth (comp. Panorama). 

Among the most picturesque points of this magnificent scene, 
embracing a circuit of nearly 300 miles, are the Lakes of Zug 
and Lucerne . which last branches off in so many directions as 
almost to bewilder the eye; and they approach so close to the 
foot of the Rigi, that it seems as if a stone might be thrown 
into them. Eleven other small lakes are also visible. 

For a quarter of an hour before and after sunrise the view 
is clearest; at a later tn.ur thf mists ri<e and condense into 



Kulm. RIGI. 20. Route. 69 

clouds, frequently concealing a great part of the landscape. The 
chamois-hunter in Schiller's Tell aptly observes : 

Through the parting clouds only 

The earth can be seen, 
Far down 'neath the vapour 

The meadows of green. 

But the mists themselves possess a certain charm, surging in 
the depths of the valleys , or veiling the Kulm , and struggling 
against the powerful rays of the sun. The different effects of 
light and shade, varying so often in the course of the day , are 
a source of constant admiration to the spectator. At a very 
early hour the Bernese Alps are seen to the best advantage ; 
and in the evening those to the E. of the Bristenstock. Those 
who have sufficient leisure will not repent devoting several days 
to the Iiigi. In the evening and morning the vast concourse of 
visitors is a great hindrance to the thoughtful study of the 
scene , while during the day the lover of nature can uninter- 
ruptedly contemplate the mighty prospect around him. When 
the view has been sufficiently surveyed, any leisure time will 
be well spent in visiting foil foot or by railway) the Staffel (p. 64), 
the Kaltbad (p. 64), the Klosterli (p. 65), or the Scheideck (p. 70), 
or in ascending the Rothstock (p. 64). 

As the temperature often varies 40-50° within the 24 hrs., 
overcoats and shawls should not be forgotten. During the prevalence 
of the S. wind (Fohn) the mountains seem to draw nearer, their 
jagged outlines become more definite, their tints warmer; and the 
same effect is produced by the W. wind on the Jura , but both 
these winds are generally the precursors of rain. 

A singular atmospheric phenomenon is sometimes witnessed on 
the Rigi, as on some other high mountains. When the vapours rise 
perpendicularly from the valleys, on the side opposite the sun, without 
enveloping the mountain itself, a kind of screen is formed, capable of ex- 
hibiting the outline of the mountain and any objects on it. In such a 
case persons standing on the summit of the Rigi have their shadows cast 
upon this misty screen in greatly enlarged proportions, encircled by a 
prismatic halo, which is sometimes double, if the fog is thick. 

From the Kaltbad to the Rigi-Scheideck. The Kaltbad, 
see p. 64. The railway (p. 61) skirts the W. slope of the Rigi, 
being hewn in the rock for the greater part of the distance, and 
ascends gradually to stat. Rigi-First (4747'), which commands a 
beautiful view of the Lake of Lucerne and the Bernese Alps (hotel, 
p. 62). The train runs hence to the N. side of the hill, and de- 
scribes a wide curve round the N. slopes of the Schild (p. 70), 
affording a pleasant view, towards the E., of the Mythen, the Glar- 
uisch, and the Alps of Appenzell. Wc next cross the bridge of 
Unterstetten (55 yds. long, 33 ft. high, ascending 1' in 20', and 
forming a curve with a radius of 132 yds.), pass through a tunnel 
55 yds. long near the Weisseneck (between the Dossen and Roth- 
fluh), cross the Dossentobel by a stone bridge 84' high , and reach 



70 Route 20. RIGI. Scheideck. 

the ridge which connects the Dossen with the Scheideck, where a 
view towards the ,S. is again disclosed. 

Stat. Bigi-Scheideck (5407') . with the *h'urhaus mentioned at 
p. (i^ , is a much frequented spot, and is recommended for a pro- 
longed stay. The view which it commands is less extensive than the 
view from the Kulm, but also embraces the entire chain of moun- 
tains, and some points not visible from the Kulm (see Panorama at 
the inn). The flat mountain-top, upwards of 1 M. in length, affords 
an airy promenade; the Dossen (see below) is only :, / 4 hr. distant. 

Routes to the Scheideck. From Gerbai; (p. 57) a bridle-path (3'/i 
hrs., descent 2 hrs.), steep at places, and unpleasant in descending. Be- 
yond the village we cross the brook and ascend by a paved path between 
orchards and farm-bouses; 40 min., Brand; '/^ hr., a saw-mill, where we 
again cross the brook; 10 min., Unter-0 schwand (tavern); 10 min., Ober- 
Gschwcind, where the path from Lowcrz is joined (see below). To the right 
rise the precipitous slopes of the Hoehfluh (5554'), with the small chapel 
of St. Joseph. On a sharp ridge, 20 min. below the Scheideck, a view is 
suddenly disclosed uf the lakes of Lower/ and Zug, the Rossberg, Ooldau, 
and Arth. 

From Lowerz (p. 73) a bridle-path (3 hrs., guide unnecessary), 
ascending towards the S. to the depression between the Hoehfluh and 
Twariberg, the E. spur of the Scheideck, and uniting with the Gersau 
route at Ober-Osehwdnd (see above). 

From the Klostf.rli (p. 65) a bridle-path (l 3 4 hr.), ascending 
from the Schwert inn and passing the Dossen (5515'), which may be 
visited by devoting ',4 hr. more to the walk. (We ascend the saddle to the 
right between the Schild and Dossen, > 2 hr. from the Klusterli, pass the 
slope above Vilznan commanding a fine view, and proceed thence straight 
to the summit of the Dossen, which affords an admirable survey of the 
whole of the Lake of Lucerne and the canton or t'nterwalden.) 

From the Stakkei, (p. 65) a good footpath |2 hrs.), which can hardly 
be mistaken (railway, see above). At the Staffel Hotel it diverges to the 
left from the path tip the Rolhstock and then skirts the brow of the 
mountain (to the right several views of the Lake of Lucerne, the Alp?, 
and the Klusterli in the valley to the left). Alter ' j hr., on the First 
(p. C9), it crosses the path from the Klosterli to the Kallbad, leads round 
the slopes of the Schild (501)5') to the saddle between the Schild and 
Dossen, skirts the latter, and then descends to the (2 1 . t hrs.) chalets in 
the Elend, a valley between the Dossen and Scheideck, where it joins the 
bridle-bath from the Klusterli. In (.'4 hr. more the (Jurhaus is reached. 
The ascent, of the Dossen may easily be combined with this route also. 



21. From Zug (or Lucerne) to Arth, Schwyz, and 

Brunnen. 

Comp. .\/ti/is, pp. r,4. c'2. 

a. From Zug to Arth. Lake of Zug. 

Steamboat from Zug to Immensee in 40 min. , to Arth in l',4 hr.: 
or direct to Arth (in conned ion with the Zurich and Lucerne and the 
Rigi railways) in 50 min. 

The Lake of Zug (13iiS'|. 9 .VI. long, :■{ M. wide, and 1320' 
deep, is very picturesque. Its richly wooded banks rise gently to 
a moderate height, while to the S., above the azure waters of the 
lake, towers the Kigi. visible here from base to summit. The broader 
N. end of the lake is skirted by theZug and Lucerne railway (p. 49). 



ARTH. 21. Route. 71 

Soon after the departure of the steamer from Zug , Pilatus 
appears on the S.W., and then to the S.E. the Ross-Stock and 
the Frohnalp. On a promontory on the W. bank stands the small 
chateau of Buonas; on the E. bank lie the village of Oberwyl 
and the houses of Otterschwyl and Eyelenegy. At the N.W. end 
of the lake the church-tower of Cham (p. 49) glitters across the 
plain. On the W. bank, farther on, the wooded promontory of 
Kiemen projects far into the lake. The steamer touches at stat. 
Walohwyl on the E. bank, near the prettily situated village of 
that name, and then crosses to Immensee (''Hotel Rigi), pleas- 
antly situated at the foot of the N. spur of the Rigi. Travellers 
to Lucerne disembark here (omnibus to Kiissnacht in 20 min., see 
below). Ascent of the Rigi, see p. 66. 

On the E. bank, in the distance, we observe St. Adrian, at the 
foot of the Rossberg (see p. 72), which on this side is wooded and 
sprinkled with chalets. As Arth is approached, one of the Mythen, 
near Schwyz (p. 73), peeps from behind the Rossberg. 

Arth (*Adler, with a garden on the lake; *H6tel du Rigi, R. 
2 1 /.,, A. •/•> fr. ; Schliissel) lies at the S. end of the lake, between 
the Rigi and the Rossberg , but not exposed to the landslips of the 
latter, the strata of which dip in another direction. The Church, 
erected in J 67 7, contains a silver cup and vase captured at Grand- 
son in 1476. 

Rim Railway (Arth to Ooldau and Rigi-Kulmj , see p. IU. Footpath 
up the Rigi, sec p. 05. — Front Arth to Srhwiiz and Brnmten , see p. 72 ; 
to Kiifisriarht and Lnr.erne, see below. 

b. From Lucerne to Kiissnacht and Arth. 

Steamboat from Lucerne to Kiissnacht in 50 min., and Diligence 
from Kiissnacht to Arth in 1 hr. — Or Omnibus from Kiissnacht to 
immensee in 20 min., and Steamboat thence to Arth in '/2 hr. 

Departure from Lucerne, see p. 55. The steamer steers round 
the promontory of Meygenltorn, passing the islet of Altstad (p. 55), 
and enters the Kiissnacht arm of the Lake of Lucerne. On a slight 
eminence to the left, near stat. Vorder-Meggen, stands the pictu- 
resque modern chateau of Neu-Habsburg, behind which rises the 
ancient tower of the castle of that name, once frequently occupied 
by Rudolph, Count ofHapsburg, and afterwards Kmperor of Germany, 
and destroyed by the Lucerners in 1352. The incident which in- 
duced Rudolph to present his horse to the priest is said to have 
occurred here (see Schiller's ballad, 'The Count of Hapsburg'). 

Stat. H inter- Meg yen (^'Pension Gotttieben, prettily situated 
l /i M. from the lake, and suitable for a prolonged stay, 5-7 fr. per 
day). The steamer now crosses the lake to the hamlet of Qreppen 
(path up the Rigi see p. 66) and soon reaches — 

Kiissnacht (1433'; *H6tel du Lac, R. 2-3, B. 1, D. 3, pension 
5-6 fr. : *Seliwarzer Adler ; Riissli ; Tell), a village prettily situated 



72 Route 1>1. (iOI.PAV. From Lucerne 

at the N. end of the N.K. arm of the lake (ascent of the Rigi, see 
p. 66). Omnibus to Immensee ( see above) from the landing-place. 

The Road kkom I.ixkrnk to Kussnacht (8 M.) at first skirts the N. 
hank of the lake, affording a view of the Bernese and Engelberg Alps, 
but beyond the Pension Seeburg (p. 511 proceeds inland in order to cut 
riff the angle which the buy of Lucerne forms with that of Kiissnacht. 
On the right, as the road again approaches the lake, rises the castle of 
Siu-IIabsburg , mentioned above. We then pass the villages of Meggeit 
(1513'; see above) and Morlischaehen (1457'). 

The road from Kiissnacht to Arth gradually ascends at the base 
of the Rigi. To the right of the road, on a wooded hill about 3 / 4 M. 
from Kiissnacht, are the scanty remains of Gessler's Castle, which 
is said to have been destroyed in 1303. The omnibus then passes 
through the 'Hohle Gasse 1 f'chemin creux', or 'hollow lane'; see 
Schiller's Tell), which has been partially filled up , the name being 
now appropriate at one point only, where the road passes through 
a kind of cutting shaded by overhanging trees. At the end of this 
part of the road, V/ 2 M. from Kussnacht, to the left, is situated 
Tell's Chapel (1584'), a modernised building, with a painting over 
the door representing Gessler's death, and an inscription. 

About 1/2 M. farther, by the inn Zur Eiche, the road divides, 
the branch to the left descending to ( 1/2 M.) Immensee (p. 71). 
The road to Arth leads round the extreme N. spur of the Rigi to 
Ober- Immensee, and skirts the W. bank of the Lake of Zug (p. 71 ). 
affording a beautiful view of the lake and the Rossberg, which rises 
opposite (see below). 

5 M. Arth (p. 71). 

c. From Arth to Schwyz and Brunnen. 

ll'/i }i, Diligkkck from Arth to Schwyz twice daily in l'/j hr.. to 
Brunnen in 2 hrs. (fare 3 fr. 80 c. I. An omnibus also run 1 ; eight times 
Hailv from Schwyz to Brunnen in '/■,• hr. Carriage with two horses from 
Arth to Brunnen, 18-20 fr. 

Arth, see p. 71. As far as Goldau, and a little be>ond it, the 
Schwyz road runs parallel with the Rigi Railway (p. 64). As we 
approach (l'/a ^'- ) — 

Goldau (1726': *Riissli), ue observe traces of the disastrous 
landslip of the Rossberg , which completely buried this large and 
prosperous village in 1806. Two tablets of black marble on the 
outside of the church (erected in 11S49, almost on the same site as 
the old edifice), record the names of some of the ill-fated villa- 
gers, and a brief notice of the catastrophe. 

Goldau Landslip. The Iinji, or Rossberg (5141'), which rises above the 
village of Ooldau, is composed, like the Rigi, of "N'ageltlue', a conglomerate 
consisting chiefly of rounded limestone and flint pebbles imbedded in a 
calcareous cement. This rock, itself extremely hard, is frequently inter- 
stratified with layers of sand, which are disintegrated by exposure to 
the weather, or eroded by subterranean waters, so that the solid superin- 
cumbent strata, being deprived of their support, are from time to time 
precipitated into the valley. The summer of 1806 had been very rainv. 
tin 2nd Sept., about 5 p.m. one of these strata, 2 M. in length, 1000' in 
breadth, and 100' in thickness, was precipitated from a height of 3000' 



to Schwyz. SCHWYZ. '21. Route. 73 

into the valley below, burying four villages with about 500 of their in- 
habitants, and converting the smiling landscape into a scene of desolation. 
It filled up about one-fourth of the Lake of Lowerz, the sudden rise of which 
occasioned new disasters. The anniversary of this event is commemorated 
by a religious ceremony at Arth. 

The high road traverses part of this scene of devastation, 
which extends from the summit of the Rossberg to the base of, 
and a considerable way up the Rigi. Time has covered the frag- 
ments of rock with moss and other vegetation, and pools of 
stagnant water have been formed between them at places. The 
track of the landslip may be distinctly traced on the side of the 
Rossberg, which is still entirely barren. 

The village of Lowerz (1476'; Rbssli; Adler), on the lake of 
that name, 4 1 / 2 M. from Arth, lost its church and some of its houses 
by the same catastrophe. Driven violently from its bed, the water 
rose like a wall to the height of 80', inundating the islands of 
Lowerz and Schwanuu , and sweeping away everything from the 
opposite bank of the lake. The ruined castle of Lowerz on the is- 
land of Schwanau is said to have been destroyed in 1308 by the 
burghers of Schwyz. 

The road skirts the rocky and precipitous S. bank. The boatmen 
at Lowerz or Seewen convey pedestrians across the lake for a 
moderate fare. The lake is 3 M. long, li/ 2 M. wide, 54' only in 
depth , and is entirely frozen over in winter. 

Path up the Rigi, see p. 66. As Schwyz is approached, the 
scenery becomes more attractive. Seewen (1512'; *Rossli; Stern), 
at the E. end of the lake, possesses a chalybeate spring which 
attracts visitors. 

Footpath to Rkcnnex (1 hr. ; pleasanter than the Schwyz road, and 
about l l /z M- shorter). We follow the brook, at first by a carriage-road on 
the right bank, then by a footpath on the left, and at length cross the 
.\ruutta by a long and narrow bridge of planks. At Ingcnbohl (see below) 
(he high-road is regained. 

8i/ 4 M. Schwyz (1686'; *Rossli, R, 1 1/ 2 fr., B. 1 fr. ; *H6tel 
Hediger, and*i?irsc/t, same charges; ^Pension Jiitz, ^ M- from the 
town, with pleasant view), a straggling town with 6153 inhab. (34 
Prot.), the capital of the canton , lies picturesquely at the base 
and on the slopes of the Little Mytlien (5954') with its two peaks, 
and the Great Mythen (6244'). The Mythen are, strictly speaking, 
peaks of the Hacken; but the latter name is generally applied to 
that part of the mountain only which slopes towards Steinen, and 
which is crossed by a path to (4 hrs.) Einsiedeln (p. 323). 

The ascent of the ''Great Mythen (6244') has been greatly facilitated by 
the construction of a good path to the summit. The view vies with those from 
Ihe Rigi and Pilatus. Guide unnecessary. Carriage-road from Schwyz to 
( l'/« M.) Rickenbach ("Hotel-Pens. Bellevue, moderate; fine view), whence 
a good bridle-path, which cannot be mistaken, ascends to the (I'/a hr. I 
Holzegg (5010'; small inn). Another and more direct path leads from 
Schwyz to the Holzegg via St. Joseph (guide desirable). — From Brunnen 
via Ibach and Rickenbach the Holzegg is reached in 2'/a-3 hrs., Schwyz 
remaining on the left. — Oood path from Einsiedeln by Alptlial to the 
Holzegg in 2 3 /4 hrs. — By tbe new path from the Holzegg, the summit of the 



74 Route 22. PILATUS. 

.Mylhen is attained in 1 «/i hr. Small inn at the lop. Good panorama by 
A. lleim. 

Apart from its picturesque situation , Sohwyz presents few- 
objects of interest. The Parish Church, completed in 1774, is 
considered one of the handsomest in Switzerland. The Town hall 
contains the portraits of 4o landammanns (magistrates) from 1534 
downwards. The ceiling of the council-chamber is adorned with 
some tine old carving (fee '/ 2 ?*•)■ ^ relief of the valley of 
Muotta is exhibited by Hr. Schindler, a dyer (fee !/■» ^ r j- 

The large building with the church on the height, originally 
destined to be a Jesuit monastery, is now a grammar-school. 
Near it is the ancient House of the Redings , with two red 
towers, adorned with the family escutcheon. 

Brunnen is 3 M. from Schv.yz. The road leads by Ibach, at the 
entrance to the Muottathal (R. 78), Ingenbohl, with a pilgrimage- 
church, and the nunnery of Mariahilf. founded in 1855. 

1 1 1 / 4 M. Brunnen, see p. 58. 



22. Pilatus. 

Routes. Pilatus is ascended from Ilergiswyl , from Alpnach-OesUul, or 
from Alpnach. Steamboat 3 times daily to Hergiswyl in 35 min. (fares 1 fr. 4U. 
80 e.|, to Alpnach-Gestad in I'/i hr. (lares 2 fr., 1 fr. 20 c). Description 
tif the route, see p. 77. Two-horse carr. from the railway - station at 
Lucerne to llergiswyl in 1 hr., 1-2 pers. 4'A;, 3 4 pers. 6 fr. 

From Herojswyl to the Hotel Klimsenhorn by the bridle-palh in 
'i'/^hrfi. (down in 2'/2 hrs.), whence the Klimsenhorn may be ascended on 
loot in 10 min.. the Tomlishorn in :! ;J hr. . and the Ksel also in s /4 hr. 

From Alpnach Gkstad (p. 78) to the Hotel Bellevne by the bridle- 
path in 4' -j-o hrs. (down in 3 hrs.): thence to the top of the K el in 8 min. 

From Alpnach (p. 78) to the Hotel Bellevne by the bridle path in 
4'/« hrs. (down in 3 hrs. J. 

Porter from Hergiswyl to the top 3, Horse (without luggage) 12 fr. ; 
Chahr-ii-ptirlrim 20 fr. ; from Alpnach-Gestad and from Alpnach same 
charges. <!nitlrs on both routes unnecessary. 

Hotels. Klimsenhorn, 10 min. from the top of the peak of that name, 
K. 3, B. I'/..., D. 3, pension (J fr. ; "Ukllkvue on the ridge between the 
Dhcrhaiipt and the Ksel, with an uninterrupted view towards the K., ft. 3, 
L. and A. 1, IJ. 4, B. li, a fr. 

*PilatUS, the lofty mountain to the S.W. of Lucerne, rises 
boldly in a rugged and imposing mass, almost isolated from the 
surrounding heights. The \V. and IS. portions belong to the can- 
ton of Lucerne, the K. and S. to I'nterwalden. The lower 
slopes are clothed with beautiful pastures and forests, while the 
upper part consists of wild and serrated cliffs from which its an- 
cient name Frarliis Moris (broken mountain) is derived. The 
names 'Fracmont', 'Krakmund', have in later times been occa- 
sionally applied to it, but the name Pilatus (nwns pileatus, the 
capped mountain ) came into general use about the close of last 
century. The names of the separate peaks from \\ . to E. are 
the Mittagyiipfi or Gnepfstein (C.'jtlrl'"), the Rothe-Totzen (6893'), 
the Widderfeld |(i«'Ji'. the most barren of tin- summits), the 



PILATUS. 22. Route. 75 

Tomlishorn (6998'), the Gemsmatlli (6732'), to the S. the Matt- 
horn (6693'), to the N. the Klimsenhorn (6266', which when seen 
from Lucerne appears the farthest to the W.), in the centre the 
Oberhaupt, then the Esel (6965', the most frequently ascended), 
and finally the Steigli-Egg (6486'). Pilatus, which was formerly 
one of the best-known of the Swiss mountains, was for many years 
almost entirely superplanted by the Rigi, but it has recently again 
become one of the most popular points of view in Switzerland. 

Ascent. From Hergiswyl (*R6ssli), a village at the E. base 
of Pilatus, the easy bridle-path constructed in 1855-58 cannot be 
mistaken (to the Hotel Klimsenhorn S'/o hrs.). In front of the 
church we take the broader path to the left, and after 3 min. turn 
to the right, at first traversing orchards and meadows, and afterwards 
wood. At (l J /4 hr. ) Brunni is a small inn ; 6 min. farther, a bench 
shaded by pines; '/ 4 hr., a second bench. After 12 min. the path 
leads through a gate to the Gschwandalp. where a third bench 
(6 min.) commands a fine view of the lake. Near a chalet (20 min.) 
we pass through another gate and ascend in steep zigzags to the 
left, at first passing through beautiful pine-wood, and then across 
slopes of grass and rubble. In l'/4 hr. more we reach the H6tel 
Klimsenhorn, situated on the Joch (5935', 29' higher than the 
Rigi-Kulm), which connects the Oberhaupt with the Klimsenhorn. 

From the hotel we may walk in 10 min. to the summit of the 
^Klimsenhorn (6266'), which affords an extensive and picturesque 
prospect towards the K., N., and W., from the mountains of Uri 
and the Lake of Lucerne to the vicinity of Freiburg and the Lake 
of Neuchatel. The view to the S. is hidden by the loftier peaks 
of Pilatus. — We may also ascend the *Tomlishorn (6998') from 
the hotel in 3 / 4 hr. by a new, but badly kept path , which at first 
descends to the rock-strewn Kustelenalp on the W. slope, and then 
mounts towards the S.W., where it is hewn in the solid rock at 
places. It finally leads through a steep gully by means of wooden 
steps to the ridge which connects the Tomlishorn with the Gems- 
mattli ( 6732'), and thence towards the \V . to the summit. The view 
is little inferior to that from the Esel , but those who intend to 
ascend one peak only will naturally prefer the latter as it com- 
mands a more complete panorama. 

A well-constructed zigzag path ascends in '/-i hr. from the Hotel 
Klimsenhorn, traversing the precipitous and stony slope of the 
Oberhaupt , to the Krisiloch , an aperture in the rock somewhat 
resembling a chimney, 20 feet in height, through which 41 wooden 
steps ascend to the ridge between the Oberhaupt and the Esel. A 
*view of the Bernese Alps is suddenly disclosed here. The path 
then leads in a few minutes to the Hotel Bellevue (6790'), to which 
the Alpnach route asoends, and thence in 8 min. more to the sum- 
mit of the *Esel(6965'). 

The "'View from this point resemhles that from the Rigi, but sur- 



76 Route -2-2. I'lLATFS. 

passes it in grandeur, I In- Bernese Alps being nearer and more conspicu- 
ous (from E. lo \V. the Finsteraarhorn. Sohrecklitirner, Wetterhbrner, 
IMonch, Eiger, an<i Jungfrau ; then the Tschingelhorn, Gspaltenhorn, 
llliimlisalp, Doldenhorn, and Balmhom). Towards the X. and E. the 
Lake of Lucerne is visible from Lucerne to Brunnen, flanked by the 
Rigi, Biirgenstock, and the Buochser and Stanser Horn, and its cruciform 
shape is distinctly traced. Immediately in the foreground are the wild 
and furrowed rocky pinnacles of Pilatus itself, below which are green 
pastures. The higher Tomlishorn intercepts the view towards the W. 
(A good panorama is sold by Schwegler at Lucerne.) 

From Ai,i>nach-Gestai> (p. 78"), a bridle-path (4'/ 2 -5 hrs.). By 
the chapel near the Rossli , 3 min. from the landing-place . it 
diverges to the right, crossing pastures, at first ascending gradually, 
and affording beautiful retrospects of the lake and the mountains 
of Unterwalden. Passing ('/ 2 hr.) a bench, we enter a wood, cross 
a bridge, and ascend in zigzags through a ravine (with several small 
waterfalls) to the (2 hrs.) Aemsiyenegg (4431'; refreshments). We 
then traverse the Aemsigenalp and Mattalp and reach (I'/g ' ir - ) 'he 
ridge (6132) between the Esel and Matthorn, where our path joins 
that from Alpnach. The Hotel Bellevuc (see above) is reached in 
"2 hr. more. 

From Alpnach (p. 78). The bridle-path (41/2 hrs.) which can- 
not be mistaken, crosses the Kleine Schliereribach, a little beyond the 
village, to Im Orund, and ascends through pastures (picturesque wa- 
terfall in the ravine to the right) and wood to the (2 hrs.) chalets 
of LiUholdsmntt (3769' ; refreshments). It turns to the E. here, 
leads past the chalets of Schwandi and Hinier-Frtikmiind, between 
the slopes of the Widderfeld and the Tomlishorn en the left and 
those of the Matthorn on the right, and finally ascends in zigzags 
across stony detritus to the Hotel Bellevuc. 

The Iiigi possesses a marked advantage over Pilatus in frequently 
enjoying clear and sunny weather while its rival is enveloped in fog. 
F.very storm Approaching from the N. or W. is attracted by the pin- 
nacles of Pilatus. an advanced outpost of the Alpine chain , and 
shrouds them in dense clouds. 

Pilatus is the popular and generally trustworthy barometer 
of the district. An old saying runs thus: — 

If l'ilatus wears his c;ip, serene will be the day; 

If his collar he puts on, you may venture on the way; 

But if his sword he wields, at home you'd better stay' 

If the summit is free from clouds and fog in the morning, 
I lie. weather cannot be depended on; but if shrouded in fog till 
midday, a fine afternoon may be expected. 

Many legends are connected with the Pilatus, especially with its caverns 
(the MoniUoch below the Tonilisalp. and the Duminikhohlc above the 
Briindlisalp) and its Lake (to (tie S.W. of the Klinisenhom). line of the 
oldest, and at the same time most groundless, is, that when Pontius Pilate 
was banished from Galilee, he lied hither, and in the bitterness of his 
remorse, precipitated himself into this lake. 



77 

23. From Lucerne over the Briinig to Brienz 
(and Meiringen). 

Comp. Maps, pp. 54, 102. 

36'/2 31. Steamboat from Lucerne to Alpnach-Gestad 4 times daily in 
i l /i hr. ^ Diligence from Alpnach-Gestad to Brienz 3 times daily in 6 hrs., 
and also to Meiringen once daily in 6 hrs. (passengers for Meiringen 
change carriages at Lungern). From Brienz travellers may at once proceed 
(steamboat corresponds with diligence) to Bonigen ( Interlaken) , and 
thence to Diirligen and Than , so that the journey from Zurich to Intei - 
laken, and from Lucerne to Bern may he accomplished in one day (railway, 
see p. 95). Tickets to Interlaken are obtained at the post-office (branch- 
office next door to the Engl. Hof) at Lucerne (in which case the coupe 
may be secured), or on board the steamboats : from Lucerne to Brienz 
10 fr. 50 c. , coupe 12 fr. ; to Interlaken 12 fr. 50 c, coupe 14 fr. ; from 
Alpnach-Gestad to Brienz 9 fr. 10 c. , coupe 10 fr. 60 c. ; 40 lbs. luggage 
free. — Seats are assigned to the diligence-passengers in the order in 
which their tickets have been issued. Late comers, who have failed to 
secure the coupe, will therefore be more likely to obtain a seat in one of 
the open supplementary carriages if they delay taking their tickets until 
shortly before the time of starting. Those who are first on the conductor's 
list are invariably consigned to the 'interieur,' from which little or no view 
is obtained. 

Carriages. With two horses , from Lucerne to Brienz or Meiringen 
45-50, to Interlaken 60 fr. From Stansslad to Sachseln one-horse 8, two- 
horse 15 fr. ; to Lungern 15 or 25 fr. From Alpnach-Gestad to Lungern one- 
horse 12 , two-horse 20 fr. ; to Brienz one-horse 25, two-horse 40 fr. ; the 
latter, for 4-5 persons, pleasanter and not dearer than the diligence. 

From Alpnach-Gestad to Vitznau (for the Kigi) through-tickets are 
issued, costing 1 fr. less than if the traveller books to Lucerne and thence 
to Vitznau. 

The Road from Lucerne to Alpnach-Gestad leads first along the 
impetuous Kriensbach, then by Horw (1673'), with its picturesquely situated 
church, to Wiiikel {'•'. Stern, unpretending), a village on a bay of the Lake 
of Lucerne, described below, and along its bank to Hergiswyl (see below). 
The road now skirts the base of the Lopper (see below) close by the lake, 
and at the Acherbriicke (see below) reaches the Lake of Alpnach , on the 
N.W. bank of which it leads to Alpnach-Gestad (see below). 

Beyond the central point of the lake (see p. 55), the steamer 
passes the pretty country-seat of Tribschen, the chateau of Stutz 
(now a pension) on an eminence, and the St. Niklauscapelle on 
a promontory, and enters the bay of Stansstad. At the foot of 
the steep Biirgenstock, to the left, lies the little village of Kehr- 
siten, high above which stands the new Kurhans (see below). To 
the right the promontory of Spisseneyg extends far into the lake, 
forming a bay on the W. side which extends to the N. to 
Winkel. The steamer steers to the S.W. to Hergiswyl (*Rossli, 
unpretending, R. 1, B. 1, D. 2 fr. ; ascent of Pilatus, see p. 75), 
and then to the E. to Stansstad (1444'; Hdtel Winkelried, pension 
6 fr . ; *Freienhof ; Rossli; Sehlussel). Stad, or Gestade, signifies 
a landing-place or harbour; Stansstad is therefore the 'harbour of 
Stans'. The square pinnacled tower called the Schnitz-Thurm 
was erected by the Swiss in 1308 for defence against the Austrian*, 
from whose yoke they had emancipated themselves. 

The Burgenstock (3721') may be ascended from Stans, Buochs, or 
Kehrsiten, but most easily from Stansstad. The new carriage-road (one- 
horse carr. 6, two-horse 12 fr. ) diverges from the Stans road, after »/* M.. 



78 Route 23. ALPNACH-GESTAD. From Lucerne 

to the left ( tinker-post), and ascends in windings on the wooded slopes 
of the Burgenstock. It then enters the valley of obbiirgen (leaving the 
chapel to the left, past which runs a short-cut) and reaches (3'/2 M.) the 
"Hdtel Biiryenslock (R. from 3, B. IV-;, D. 4 fr.), situated on the Trill 
12854'), the W. spur of the mountain, a favourite summer resort, with ex- 
tensive gn Hinds, and commanding a beautiful view of the lake and of the 
Alps (Glarnisch, mountains of Unterwalden , Wettcrhorn , and Jung- 
frau) in the opposite direction. — A good new path leads from the hotel 
to the t 3 /4 hr.) Hammetscltwand (3721'), the summit of the Biirgenstock, 
from which we obtain a striking view of the lake of Lucerne , lyin^ 
almost immediately at our feet, the Rigi, etc. 

The Lopper, the E. spur of Pilatus, which extends far into 
the lake, is skirted by the above-described road from Lucerne to 
Alpnach. The brook opposite, which falls into the lake at Stans- 
stad , has considerably narrowed the channel between the Lake 
of Lucerne and the Lake of Alpnach with it* alluvial deposits, 
and the strait is now crossed by an embankment and a bridge 
( Acherbriicke), which is raised to admit of the passage of the steam- 
boat (on the right the Inn 'Zur Acherbriicke'). Within the Bay of 
Alpnach rises the Rozberg (2214'; Roz, Ross, akin to Roche, rock), 
separated from the Plattiberg by the Kozloch, a narrow ravine, 
in which the Mehlbach forms several waterfalls and turns the water- 
wheels of a paper manufactory. The *H6tel and Pension BlatUer 
(R. 1 !/ 2 , B. 1 , pens. 5 fr.) is situated here on the lake, amidst, 
gardens and orchards. On the slope of the Rozberg, 1 /4 hr. to the 
E., is the *Pension Kenel-Christen. 

Walk from Stansstad to Sachseln. The path skirts the lake 
for a short distance, and then enters the Bo/.loch. At Allweg [2 Jl. from 
Stansstad), where there is a chapel in memory of Winkelried (pp. 16, 81) 
and an -Inn, our route joins the Stains and Sarnen Road (no diligence), 
which passes the \V. base of the Stanserliorn (p. 8t), and leads by Rohren 
to (2'/4 31.) SI. Jacob, a village with an old church (where the Mehlbach is 
crossed), and through the Kernwald to (3 31.) Kevns ('Krone; Hirsch ; 
Rossli), a pleasant village with a handsome church, and to (2'/4 M.) Sarnen. 
The direct road from Kerns to Sachseln does not pass through Sarnen, but 
crosses the entrance of the Melchthal (see p. 79), and is l'/s M. shorter. 

1 1 ' / 4 M . Alpnach-Gestad (*H6tel Pilate or Post, on the lake, 
R. 2. B. 1 fr. ; Stern; Rossli) is the harbour for the village of 
( 1 1/2 M l Alpnach (1529'; Schlussel; Sonne). The church of 
Alpnach with its slender spire was erected with the proceeds of 
the sale of timber from the forests of Pilatus, which were rendered 
accessible by a wooden slide, 8 M. long, and were cut down in 
1811-19. — Ascent of Pilatus. see p. 76/ 

The road to Sarnen follows the left bank of the Aa , which 
descends from the lake of Sarnen to that of Alpnach, and near 
Alpnach, Kaijiswyl, and Sarnen crosses its affluents by means 
of covered wooden bridges. 

LVV4 M. Sarnen (1(130'; Obwaldner Hof; Sarner llof ; Adkr, 
H. l'/ 2 ' IL l'/2 tr -; Xrhliissel; Post; Pensir,n Niederbenjer on the 
'Boll', 1/4 hr. to the K. '), with '1720 inhab. (81 Prot.), the capital 
of Obiratden, the W. part of the canton of Unterwalden, and the 
seat of government, lies at the confluence of the Melch-Aa and 



to Brienz. MELCHTHAL. 23. Route. 79 

the Sarner-Aa, and possesses a nunnery and Capuchin monas- 
tery. The Town Hall contains portraits of all the magistrates of 
Obwalden from the year 1381 to 1824, and one of St. Nikolaus 
von der Flue (see below), and a relief map of Unterwalden and 
Hasli. The church, on a hill, the cantonal hospital and the 
large poor-house at the S. end of the town, and the arsenal on 
the Landenberg (1667') are conspicuous objects; line view of the 
Sarnen and Melch valleys from the latter. The peasant women of 
Unterwalden interlace the plaits of their hair with white ribbon, 
fastening it up with a peculiar spoon-shaped silver buckle. 

At the head of the Schlieren-Thal, 3'/2 hrs. W. of Sarnen, lies the 
sequestered - Sohwendi - Kaltbad (4737'), with a chalyheate spring, and 
whey-cure. A road ascends the slope of the Schwendiberg , to the W. 
of Sarnen, as far as ( 3 /4 hr.) Stalden, situated high above the lake of 
Sarnen, whence a good path, partly through wood, leads to Schwendi. 

To the E. of Sarnen opens the Melchthal, a romantic valley, 15 II. in 
length, studded with numerous chalets, and enclosed by lofty mountains. 
At the upper end is the Melchsee (6427'), whose waters are lost in a cleft 
of the rock , and 3 M. below re-appear as the Melch - Aa. A good road 
leads by <S(. A'iklausen (see below) to the il'h 31.) village of Melchthal 
12933' •, good accommodation at the cure's) and the (2 31.) Balmmatt 
(3150') at the foot of the precipitous Bamisfiuh; thence to the Melchsee 
(see below) by a bridle-path in 2' ■■> hrs. From the village of Melchthal, 
there are several mountain-passes to Engelberg (p. 82) : one over the 
Juchli (7119') in 5-6 hrs.; another, less interesting, over the Storregg 
(5709') in 4','j hrs. From the Juchli the Niinalphorn ( Juchlislock , 7831'), 
commanding a fine view of the Titlis and the Bernese Alps, may be as- 
cended in 1 hr. The view is still more extensive from the Huistock (8789'), 
reached by active climbers from the Juchli in 2 hrs. — From the Melch- 
see (Hotel-Fens. Frutt, unpretending) an easy pass crosses the Tannenalp 
|681^') in :L 3 /4 hr. to the Engstlen-Alp (S. 134); another, more laborious, 
leads over the Laubergrat (8068') to (4'/» hrs.) Muring en (p. 129). 

At the entrance of the valley stands St. Niklausenfflbl'), or St. Klaus, the 
lirst Christian church erected in this district. The ancient tower adjoining 
it is called by the natives Heidenthiirm (Heathens 1 Tower). Nearly oppos- 
ite, 3 M. from Sarnen, is the Ranft (brow of the mountain), formerly a 
barren wilderness, with the hermitage of St. Nikolaus von der Flue, part 
of the woodwork of which, and of the stone which served him for a pillow, 
have been carried away by relic-hunters. The saint derived his name 
from the 'Flue* 1 , or rock, near which he lived. In his fiftieth year he 
is said to have left his family of ten children, retired from public life, 
and for the first 20 years of his seclusion to have subsisted solely on the. 
sacramental elements, of which he partook monthly. After the successful 
termination of the war against Charles the Bold of Burgundy in 1482, 
the Federal deputies assembled at Stans could not agree about the division 
of the spoil, but through the intervention of the venerable hermit the dis- 
pute was soon amicably settled. After his death (1487) he was canonised. 
His memory is still revered by the people, and there is scarcely a hut in 
the Forest Cantons of Unterwalden that does not possess a portrait of 
Brother Klaus. 

The Lake of Sarnen (1552'), 4 M. long, 3/ 4 -l M. broad, is 
well stocked with fish. Pedestrians save '/2 nr - by rowing to the 
other end of the lake (2fr.). The Valley of Sarnen, although pleas- 
ing and picturesque, has no pretension to Alpine grandeur. 

At Sachseln (1598'; *Kreuz; Engel; Rossli), a village on the 
E. bank of the lake, l 1 ^ M. from Sarnen, is a large church, erected 
in 1663, containing the bones of St. Nikolaus and other relics. 



80 Route 23. BRUNICr PARS. 

The village of (4M.) Giswyl (1801'; Krone, unpretending), 
situated between the lakes of Sarnen and l.ungern , was partly 
destroyed in 1629 by inundations of the Lavibuch. A lake was 
thus formed, and 130 years later was drained into the lake of 
Sarnen. Fine view from the churchyard. On the slope to the left 
are the ruins of a chateau of the von Rudenz family. 

The Brietizer Rolhhoru (p. I'M) may be ascended from (iiswyl in G hrs.; 
path for the first 3 hrs. good, afterwards steep and disagreeable. 

The road now ascends the Kaiserstuhl (2306'), and at (2'/4 M.J 
Biirglen reaches the Lake of Lungern (2162'). The three peaks 
of the \\ etterhom become visible to the S. The road skirts the E. 
bank of the lake ( 'i l /. 2 M.J , at a considerable height above it, and 
next reaches (l'/2 M.) the large village of — 

26 1/ 2 M. Lungern (2293'; Lowe, or Post, D. i fr. ; Hotel 
Briinig), entirely built of wood, situated in a basin at the foot 
of the Briinig and near the S. end of the lake, one-half of 
which was drained into the Sarner See in 1836. The DundeU- 
bach forms a picturesque fall on the W. side. 

The new post-road over the Briinig ascends to the left in long 
windings through wood, affording occasional views, enters Canton 
Bern, and reaches (3'/2M.) the summit of the Briinig Pass ( 3396'), 
beyond which is the Hotel Brunigkulm. 

Fine prospect from the Wi/ler Alp (4S0U'.), l','a hr. N.W. of the Briinig; 
more extensive view from the Wylerhorn f(j581'j, 3 hrs. from the pass. 

The road to (4'/2 M.) Meiringen diverges to the left about 
:i / 4 M. beyond the summit of the pass, leading through the hamlet 
of Briinigen. (A path , descending to the left near the inn, cuts off 
the angle formed by the roads.) The pleasant road to Brienz^ 1 /^ M) 
winds down the hill, occasionally under overhanging rocks. Oppos- 
ite to us the Engelhorner (p. 128) become visible. To the left we 
overlook the valley of Meiringen as far as the Kirchet (p. 13TJ, 
and Meiringen itself; at the foot of the mountain-range to the 
S., the lower fall of the Reichenbach (p. 129) is visible; oppos- 
ite is the fall of the Oltschibach (p. 130); below us the river 
Aare, and to the right a portion of the lake of Brienz. The road, 
the windings of which may be avoided by short-cuts, descends by 
Brienzwyler (Bar), a village situated among pastures and orchards, 
to the Bridge of Brienzwyler over the Aare (1890'), where it unites 
with the high road from Meiringen to Brienz. From this point to — 

•' Hi'/., M. Brienz, see p. 130. 

24. From Lucerne to Altorf by Stans and 
Engelberg. Surenen. 

Comp. Maps, pp. >4. &4. 

SikaMuoat four limes daily from Lucerne to Stanssiad in 411 min., fare 

1 li -in. or 80 c. (see p. 77|. — Diligf.m k from Ntansstad to (15 s /4 M.) 

tingeiherg twice daily in 3 hrs. 0O min., fare 4 fr. 50, coupe" 5 fr 20 c. 

Ilo Stan» eight *=-—<■ ■'-ii" :.. 'Iimin fare i •■ fr. I : . arriaEe with < me horse 



STANS. 24. Route. 81 

to Engelberg 15, with two hor3es 25 fr. (one-horse carr. from Beckenried 
to Engelberg 15 fr. and 2 fr. gratuity). — Walkers should dismiss their 
vehiele at (Jr.ifenort (9 M. distant, a drive of i 3 /t hr., one-horse carr. 
6 fr.), beyond which the road is so steep that passengers usually alight 
and proceed on foot. From Engelberg to Altorf over the Surenen, a pictu- 
resque route (bridle-path , 8'/2 hrs.; guide 12 fr. , but may be dispensed 
with in settled weather: persons coming from Altorf require a guide to 
the summit of the pass at farthest, 6 fr.). 

From Lucerne to Stansstad see p. 77. The road leads round 
the S. base of the Burgenstock (p. 77), traversing orchards and 
pastures, to - — 

2 1/ 4 M. Stans, or Stanz (1502'; *Krone, R. 1, B. 1 fr. ; *Engel; 
Rbssli; Pension Mettenweg), the capital of Nidwalden, the E. half of 
the canton of Unterwalden, with 2070 (Rom. Cath.) inhab., situated 
in a rich and fertile valley, on which from 11th Nov. to 2nd Febr. 
the sun shines for one hour only in the morning, between the Holte- 
Briesen (7894') and the Stanserhorn (see below). Adjacent to the 
handsome Parish Church is the *Monument of Arnold von Winkel- 
ried (p. 16), a fine group in marble by Schloth, but placed in an 
unpleasing niche. A tablet by the Burial Chapel in the churchyard 
on the N. side of the church bears an inscription in memory of a 
number of persons massacred here in 1798 by the French, who were 
exasperated by the obstinate resistance of the inhabitants of Unter- 
walden. The Town Hall contains portraits of all the mayors from 
the year 1521 ; below them is a collection of Unterwalden flags; also 
two French banners of 1798; a picture by the blind artist Wiirsch, 
who perished in 1798; another by Volmar, representing Brother 
Klaus taking leave of his family (p. 79). In the Arsenal is pre- 
served the coat of mail of Arnold von Winkelried. Fine vie . from 
the Knieri, above the Capuchin Monastery. 

The Stanser Horn (ti231') is ascended from Stans by the Blumattalp, or 
from Kerns (p. 78) via. Wpsserlen in 4-4'/2 hrs. ; guide not absolutely 
necessary. View remarkably fine. — The ascent of the Buochser Horn 
(5934'; 4 hrs.) is less interesting. 

The road to Engelberg (13'/2 M. from Stans) first traverses the 
valley of the Engelberger Aa, between the Stanser Horn on the right 
and the Buochserhorn on the left. In the background rises the Titlis 
(see below), with its fields of snow. Near Thalwyl, the church of 
which stands on a mound of detritus at the mouth of the Steinbach 
to the right, the road crosses the Aa, and next reaches (4'/^ M. ) 
Wolfenschiessen (1709'; Kreuz ; Eintracht). On the left, high 
above us, lie the chalets of Nieder-Rickenbach (3828'; Kurhaus, un- 
pretending). 

The hext village is (3 M.) Orafenort (1886'), which consists 
of a chapel, an *inn , and a farm belonging to the Abbey of Engel- 
berg. A little beyond Grafenort the road ascends through beautiful 
woods. To the right, below the road, flows the impetuous Aa. (The 
old road affords short-cuts to walkers.) Leaving the wood, we pass 
(3 3 / 4 M.) the small inn 'Im Griinen Wald', far below which, in the 
valley to the right, a brook descending from the Triibsee (p. 134) 

Bafokkku, Switzerland. 7th Edition. (J 



82 Route 24. ENGELBERO. From Lucerne 

falls into the Aa. After another slight ascent, the road turns to the 
left, and suddenly affords a view of the *Engelberyer Thai, a green 
Alpine valley, 6 M. in length and 1 M. in width, bounded on three 
sides by lofty, snow-clad mountains. The Titlis with its mantle of 
ice stands forth majestically, and to the left rise the Great (10,515') 
and Little Sptmnort (10,382'), the rocky pinnacles of which rise 
from amidst snow and ice. 

!5 3 / 4 M. Engelberg (3314'). — *Zum Titlis, pension 7-10 fr., and 
Engel. 5'/2-7 fr., belonging to the same proprietor; private apartments 
at Dr. Cattaiii's, adjacent, but without board; 'Hotel Sonnenberg, finely 
situated, 11. from 2>/ 2 , B. l'/ 2 , D. 4, L. and A. li/ 4 fr. ; "Pension Mullkk, 
4'/2-6fr.; Dr. Mailer's new pension adjacent; "Hotel Engelberg. Rooms 
may also be procured at several other houses; usual charges. R. l'/ 2 , B. 
1, I>. 2 fr. ; whey also procurable. 

Guides: the brothers Feierabend, Jos. Kuster, Amrein, Jn/anger, Hess, 
and the saddler Gallant. 

Engelberg, being prettily situated and sheltered from theN., is 
well adapted for a prolonged stay, and is much visited for the sake 
of its whey-cure and healthful air. At the upper end of the vil- 
lage rises the handsome Benedictine Abbey of that name, founded 
in the 12th cent., and named Mons Angelorum'by Pope Calixtus XI. 
The present building was erected after a fire in 1729. 

The "Church contains modern pictures by Deschwanden, Kaiser, and 
Wiirsch (p. 8t). High altar-piece an Assumption by Spiegler , 1734. In 
the chapter-house two transparent pictures by Kaiser, the Conception and 
the Nativity. The Library , which was pillaged by the French in 1798, 
contains a 'good relief of the Engelberg Valley. Permission to visit the 
monastery must be obtained from the abbot, to whom a visiting card is 
sent with a request that he will fix the hour. 

The school connected with the abbey is well attended. The 
farm-buildings , with the labourers' dwellings, are very extensive, 
and several thousand cheeses are frequently stored in the cheese 
magazine at one time. The revenues of the abbey, which formerly 
oxercised sovereign rights over the entire district, were considerably 
impaired by the French in 1798. — The talented wood-carver JVico- 
demus Custer resides at Engelberg. 

Numerous short excursions may be made in the neighbourhood. 
<M the longer, the following deserve mention : — 

Ascent (if the RigidaMock (8514'), 41/2 hrs., the last hour only laborious, 
tine panorama (guide 9 fr.) ; the Geissberg (8904'). 5 hrs. (guide 8 fr.) ; the 
Widderfeld (7723'), 4 hrs., less fatiguing (guide 8 fr.). To the Fiirrenalp 
(6073'), 2i/._. hrs. : the path ascends to the left, before reaching the Tatsch- 
hachfall, and then skirts the slope above (beautiful view of the Titlis). 
The Tatsdibachfall and HerrpnrilU, see below. 

The 'Titlis (10,627'), rising to the S.E., may be ascended (with guide, 
10 fr. and a gratuity) in 7-8 brs. from Engelberg' (or from the Engstlen-AIp 
in 6 1 ,'j hrs., see p. 134). It is advisable to proceed on the evening before the 
ascent to the (2Vs hrs.) Obere Trilbsee-Alp (riding feasible thus far), in 
order not to have the steep Pfajfenwand (p. 134) to ascend at first starting 
( Inn, see p. 134). From this point, it is usual to start next morning at 2 a.m., 
in order that the snow may he traversed before the beat of the day. Those 
who ascend from Engelberg direct frequently start at midnight with lanterns. 
On the Maud, above the Triibsee-Alp , the paths from Engelberg and the 
Kngstlen Alp (p. 134) unite. The path then ascends a steep slaty acclivity 



to Altorf. SURENEN PASS. -J 4. Route. 83 

in zigzags, and leads over rugged limestone rocks (Iiolhegg) to the glacier 
(3 hrs. from the Trubsee-Alp), the first part of which is covered with 
snow, and ascends gradually. At a slight depression, the route passes 
between long fissures , and then ascends more rapidly, steps being hewn 
if the 'Firn' is hard enough. Farther up , a broad gently-sloping field of 
snow is traversed. The large crevasse which it crosses presents no diffi- 
culty ; slate-rocks and snow are ne*t encountered, and after an ascent of 
2 hrs. more, over ice and snow, the summit is attained. The highest 
rounded point (room for 20 persons) is called the Kollen. The view, which 
is highly picturesque and imposing, embraces the entire Alpine chain 
from Savoy to the Tyrol , K. Switzerland, and S. Germany. The ascent 
of the Titlis, although requiring considerable perseverance, is perhaps the 
least difficult, of all glacier excursions of the kind. 

From Engelbekg to Eestfeld over the Schlossberg-Liicke (8635'), a 
fatiguing, but interesting walk of 10-12 hrs., suitable for experienced 
mountaineers only, with good guides. — To Wasen over the Grassen-Pass 
I Barengrube, 8917'), 10 hrs., laborious. — To the Steinalp over the Wen- 
den-Joch (8694'), 1041 hrs., fatiguing, but interesting. 

From Fngelberg over the Jocli Pass to Meiringen, see R. 29; over the 
tilorregg or the Juchli to the Melchthal, see p. 79. 

The path from Engelberg to the Surenen-Pass follows the right 
bank of the Aa, passing (40 min.) on the left the picturesque water- 
fall of the Tatschbach, which rises on the Hahnenberg or Engelberg ; 
25 min. farther, on the left bank of the Aa, is the chalet of Herren- 
riiti (3894' ; refreshments), belonging to the Abbey of Engelberg, 
to which excursions are frequently made (horse there and back 
5 fr.). Views are obtained here of the Firnalpeli and Orassen 
(Uaciers. In 25 min. we reach the frontier of Canton Uri at Nieder- 
Surenen (4134'), and after a moderate ascent the (V2 hr.) Stci/feli. 
A steep ascent next brings us to the (50 min.) *Stierenfall. The 
hest points for a closer survey of the waterfall are near its foot. 
Having reached the top of the hill, we cross (5 min.) the brook, and 
after 40 min. more recross it to the Blackenalp (5833'), where 
there is a chapel. The path then ascends gradually, leading in the 
early part of summer across patches of snow, which melt in July, 
to the summit of the (IV2 hr.) Surenen Pass, or Surenen Eck 
(7562'), on the S. side of the Blackenstock (9587'). 

The Titlis increases in grandeur as we ascend , and a long 
range of peaks and glaciers, particularly the Klein- and Oross- 
Spannort and the Schlossberg, extends as far as the Surejien. On 
the other side the prospect embraces the summits of the two moun- 
tain-ranges enclosing the Schachenthal, on the opposite side of the 
Reuss, the Windgelle being one of the most conspicuous. In the 
extreme distance the horizon is bounded by the snowy crest of the 
Olamisch. On the E. side of the Surenen the snow never entirely 
melts, but in the height of summer it is crossed in '/^ hr. We now 
descend a steep slope to the (lhr.) Waldnaeht-Alp (4754') which is 
visible from the height in the long valley below. At a stone bridge 
(10 min.) the road divides. The very steep path in a straight 
direction leads to (13/ 4 hr.) Altorf. That to the right, crossing 
the bridge leads to (2 hrs.) Erstfeld. By the latter, which is less 
precipitous, we reach the (5 min.) Boekitobel, containing the pic- 

6* 



84 Route 25. ST. GOTTHARD ROUTE. 

tines iiie falls of tlu' W<il<ln<ichtb<irh, descend through wood into the 
valley, traverse the pastures, and soon arrive at the village. Beyond 
it we cross the Reuss to h'lus, the post-station on the St. Gotthard 
road for Erstfeld (p. 86). 

25. From Lucerne to Bellinzona (and Milan) over 
the St. Gotthard. 

10? M. Through Service three times daily by steamer and diligence 
from Lucerne to Biasca (railway station) in lu'/a lira., tare 26 fr. 65 c. (coupe^ 
30 fr). Diligence from Fliielen to Andermatt in D'/n hrs. , fare 7 fr. 

75 c. (.coupe 8 fr. 95 c); to Airolo in 9 hrs., fare 14 fr. (coupe 16 fr. 10 c. ); 
to the Biasca station in 13 hrs., fare 22 fr. 15 c. (coupe 25 fr. 45 c). — 
Railway (St. Gotthard Live) from Biasca by Bellinzona to Locarno in 
l 3 /4 hr., fares 4 fr. 10, 2 fr. 90 c. (in connection with the steamboat to 
Arona, and the railway thence to Milan). — Diligence from Bellinzona 
to Lugano in 4 hrs., fare 4 fr. 90 c. (coupe 6fr.); Railway from Lugano 
to Milan in 4 hrs., fares 8 fr. 55, 7 fr. 10, 5 fr. 5c — Through-tickets 
may be procured at the branch post-office at Lucerne (Schweizerhof-Quay) 
or of the captains of the steamboats. Those who wish to secure the 
eonpe had better apply at the post-office, where through-tickets for lug- 
gage also may be obtained. Fare to Bellinzona 27 fr. 55 (coupe 31 fr. lOc.i; 
to Locarno 28 fr. 80 c. (coupe 32 fr. 95 c); to Lugano 32 fr. 35 c. (coupe 
37 fr. 10 c); to Milan 44 fr. 50, or 43 fr. 5 c; to Florence 86 fr. 65, 

76 fr. 10 c. ; to Genoa 55 fr. 35 , 49 fr. 5) c. ; to Naples 158 fr. 35, 125 fr. 
60 c; to Rome 127 fr. 75, 104 fr. 50 c. ; to Turin 50 fr. '.5, 46 fr. 40 c; 
to Venice 82 fr. 50, 70 fr. 70 c. — 'Extrapost' from Fliielen to Biasca 
with two horses 152 fr. 10, with three 212 fr. 50, with four 272 fr. 90 c. 

Carriages. The most recent tariff issued by the authorities of Can- 
ton Uri includes the following charges (exclusive of gratuities), which 
however are very apt to be exceeded by the drivers. Carriage and pair 
from Fliielen to Amsteg 20 fr., to Oeschenen 35 (and back 60), Andermatt 
00 (and back 80), St. Gotthard Hospice 70, Airolo 100, Faido 120, Biasca 150, 
Bellinzona 180, Lugano 220, to the Furca85fr. — The innkeepers will gener- 
ally provide good carriages with trustworthy drivers at the above fares, but 
extortionate demands are often made by the drivers themselves, especially 
on the Italian side, where a spurious printed tariff is even sometimes ex- 
hibited. In every contract the number of horses, duration of the jour- 
ney, stations for the night, amount of gratuity, etc., should be distimtU 
specified. The drivers are prohibited to change horses fcomp. Introd. IX |. 
The importunities of guides, drivers, and landlords, with which travellers 
used to be assailed at every step, and especially on board the steamers, 
have happily been put a stop to by the government. 

The St. Gotthard Route was the most, frequented of all the Alpine 
passes until the beginning of the present century, but as it was only a bridle- 
path, it was gradually deserted after the construction of the roads over the 
Simplon (R. 63), the Splugen (ill!.. 91, 92) and the Bernardino (R. 94). in 
1820 the governments of the cantons of Uri and Ticino began the present 
road, which is 19 ft. in width, and was completed in 1832. In convenience 
and utility it is second to none of the Alpine routes, while in magnificence 
of scenery the St. (jotthard pass is far superior to any of the others, 
especially on the S. side The SI. (iolthard and Bernardino roads arc usually 
practicable for carriages during four or five months, from the beginning 
of June (the Splugen generally a week earlier), but in the early summer 
large quantities of snow are often seen by the road-side. In winter tra- 
vellers are conveyed across the mountain in small one-horse sledges. After 
a heavy snow-storm, communication is sometimes broken off for a whole 
week. 

Those who desire to see the finest part of the St. Gotthard route on 
the X side only need not proceed beyond Andcruiatt. Walkers should 



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ALTOKF. 25. Route. 85 

drive as far as Amsteg, in order to avoid unnecessary fatigue before reach- 
ing the finest part of the route (from Amsteg to Andermatt). Luggage 
forwarded by post by travellers about to cross the St. Gotthard should 
be addressed to the head-office at Altorf, and not to Fliielen. 

St. Gotthard Railway. The St. Gotthard line now in course of con 
struction comprises the Lucerne, Kiissnachi, and Goldau, the Zug, Goldau, 
Fliielen, Geschenen, Airolo, Biasca, Bellinzona, and Locarno, the Bellinzona , 
Lugano, and Como , and the Bellinzona, Magadino , and Pino lines. The 
Biasca-Locarno and the Lugano-Coino portions of these lines were opened 
in 1875-76. The great St. Gotthard Tunnel will be 9 : A M. in length (i.e. 
about l 2 /3 31. longer than the Mont Cenis Tunnel), extending from Geschcnen 
(p. 87) on the N. side to Airolo (p. 92) on the S. side. From the central 
point of the tunnel (3779' above the sea-level , i.e. 610' lower than the 
highest point of the Mont Cenis tunnel) there will be a fall towards 
Geschenen of 6' per 1000', and towads Airolo of 1' per 1000'. This co- 
lossal work has been contracted for by M. Favre, and is to be completed 
in 1880, at a cost of about 50 million francs. The process of boring was 
begun in 1872, the machinery used being worked by means of compressed 
air, which also serves for the purpose of ventilation. Steam-engines, as 
well as the water-power afforded by the Reuss at Geschenen and the 
Ticino at Airolo, are also employed in the works. 

From Lucerne to (27 >T.) Fliielen, see 1!. 19. The road to 
('2 M.) Altorf traverses the broad lower part of the Reussthal. In 
the background rises the Bristenstock (p. 87), to the left of which 
are the two Windgellen. 

29 M. Altorf, or Altdorf(li&&'; *Adler or Post, II. li/,, B. 1, 
L. '/2 ft'- i *Schliissel; *Lowe; Krone; Tell, unpretending; beer 
at Reiser's; hotel - omnibus to or from Fliielen ^2 fr.), 2 M. 
from Fliielen , situated in a fertile valley surrounded by moun- 
tains, is the capital of Canton Uri , with 2724 inhab. (50Prot.). 
The church contains, over the S. entrance , a Nativity by Van 
Dyek; in the N. chapel an Entombment by Caracci, and a marble 
Madonna in relief, by H. Imhof of Rome. 

This pleasant little town (rebuilt after a great fire in 1799) is inter- 
esting as the traditional scene of the exploits of Tell , which resulted in 
the liberation of Switzerland from the Austrian yoke. A colossal Statue 
of Tell, in plaster, presented to Altorf in 1861 by the riflemen of Zurich, 
is said to occupy the spot whence ttie intrepid archer aimed at the apple 
placed on the head of his son at the command of the tyrant Gessler. At 
the base is an inscription from Schiller's Tell. About 150 paces from this 
stands a fountain, with a statue of Besler, a magistrate of the town (on 
one side of the banner is the head of a bull, the arms of the canton , on 
the other the arms of the town), erected by himself on the supposed site 
of the lime-tree by which Tell's child stood during the agonising mo- 
ment when he awaited the arrow of his father , and which is said to 
have flourished here till 1567. It is maintained by some that the lime- 
tree was thirty paces farther back, on the ground where the towv now 
stands; the latter is, however, known to have existed before the beginning 
of the 14th century. On its X. and W. sides are frescoes representing 
Tell's celebrated feat with his bow, his leap from the boat, and the death 
of Gessler. Below, the battle of Morgarten, 15th Nov., 1315 (see p. 323). 

The Capuchin Monastery above the church , which claims to 
be the oldest in Switzerland , and the neighbouring Pavilion 
Waldeck command beautiful views. (Ascent by the tower, or 
from below the statue of Tell.) Above the monastery lies the 
Bannwald, a 'sacred grove', in which the woodman's axe is pro- 



86 Route 2. r ,. AMSTKO. From Lucerne 

scribed, as it protects Altorf from falling rocks (see Schiller's 
Tell, Act iii. Scene 3). 

To the right, beyond the town, is a Nunnery, to the left the 
Arsenal; then to the left the village of Burglen (1804' ; *Tell, R. 
1-2, B. 1 fr., A. 30 c, suitable for a prolonged stay), picturesquely 
situated on a height at the entrance to the Schachenthal (p. 317), 
the traditional birthplace and home of Tell. The supposed site of 
hus house is occupied by a Chapel, erected in 1522, the walls of 
which are painted with scenes from his life. — Through the Srhii- 
chentlial and over the Klausen-Pass to Stachelberg, see R. 74. 

The road here crosses the rapid Schachenbach in its artificial 
bed, near its confluence with the Reuss. The large meadow on the 
right, near the bridge, is used annually on the first Sunday of .May as 
a place of assembly by the democratic estates of Canton L'ri. Among 
fruit-trees to the left peeps the church of Schaddorf. To the right, 
beyond the Reuss, the church-tower and ruined castle of Attiny- 
hausen next become visible. The Baron of Attinghausen mentioned 
in Schiller's Tell is said to have died in this castle in 1307. 
(Route to Engelberg by the Surenen-Pass, see R. 24.) 

Beyond (l'/ 4 M.) Bbtzlingen the background of the valley is 
formed by the pyramidal Bristenstock (p. 87). To the right rise the 
bold precipices of the Gitschen (p. 61) and the Bockli (680S'), 
to the left the Mittagstock(jo66S r ), Belmistock(7933'), Hohe Faulen 
(8212'), and lastly the two Windgellen (see below ). The church 
of (2'/o M.) Erstfeld (1542') is on the opposite bank of the Reuss. 
At (y 2 M.) Klus the road approaches nearer the river. To the left 
rise the Kleine Windgelle, or Sewelistock (9846'), and the Grosse 
Windgelle, or Kalkstock (10,463'). 

The Erstfelder Thai, on the left hank of the Beuss, opens near the 
parish church, and extends to the Schlossberg Glacier, a walk of 4 hrs. be- 
tween steep and lofty mountains. At the upper end of the valley are two 
Alpine lakes, the gloomy Faulensee (5408' ; >/a nr - from the glacier) and the 
Obersee (6463'), 3 /t hr. farther to the S. , at the base of the Kronlet or 
KrSnte (10,197'). The Faulenbach, which Hows out of the latter, forms a 
beautiful cascade. Difficult passes (10-12 hrs. ; experienced guides neces- 
sary) lead hence over the Sc/rfossberg-Lilcke (8635'j and over the SpannSrter- 
Jorh (9610') to Engelberg. — By the Surenen-Pass to Engelberg, see R. 24. 

On the road to (2'/ 2 M.) Silenen (1771') a beautiful view is 
obtained of the pyramid of the Bristenstock (10,089'), occupying 
the entire background, and visible from base to summit. Near 
the chapel of the Yierzehn Nothhelfer (_ 'fourteen saints who help 
in time of need') rises the tower of the old castle of Silenen. To 
the left in approaching (2 M. ) Amsteg, on a rocky hill, are seen 
some remains of a ruined castle, believed to be that of Zwing- 
Uri built by Gessler (inn on the top). 

371/2 -M. Amsteg (1759'; * -Stern, or Post; Kreuz; *Hirsch; in 
all, R. 2'/ 2 , B- 1 V2 . L - and A. 1 fr.; Lowe), a small, substan- 
tially built village, beautifully situated at the foot of the Bristen- 
stock and the Windgelle , at the mouth of the Maderaner That, 
through which the Kfirstelenbach descends to the Reuss. 



to Bellinzona. GESCHENEN. 25. Route. 87 

'Maderaner Thal (bridle-path in 3'/4 hrs. to the Hotel Alpenclub), 
see R. 75. — Over the Kreuzli-Pass or Brunni-Pass to Dissentis and over 
the Clariden-Pass to Stachelberg, see pp. 319, 333. 

The Bristenstock (10,089') , which may be ascended from Amsteg in 
7-8 hrs. (laborious, not without guide, 20 fr.), affords an admirable survey 
of the mountains of the Reuss and Maderaner vallevs. Descent to the 
Etzli-Thal or Felli-Thal difficult. 

Beyond Amsteg the road crosses the Reuss, and here the St. 
Gotthakd Route, properly so called, begins; on the left is the 
vast pyramid of the Bristenstock; below rushes the foaming Reuss 
through its ravine, forming a succession of waterfalls. (The old 
St. Gotthard road follows the right bank of the Reuss from Amsteg 
to the second bridge.) In the early summer huge masses of ava- 
lanche-snow, which present the appearance of earth or detritus, 
are seen in some of the gorges. Beyond — 

Inschi (2168'; Lamm, rustic), l 1 /o M. from Amsteg, a fall 
of the Inschi-Alpbach is passed. A picturesquely situated bridge 
carries the road back to the right bank of the Reuss. l'/o M- 
Meitschlingen, with a chapel. About '/-2 ^- farther the road crosses 
the Fellibach. (Through the narrow Felli-Thal or Fellenen-Thal, 
where crystals are often found, the Oberalp-See may be reached 
by the Felli-Lucke in 6 hrs. ; p. 335.) On the hill opposite stands 
the hamlet of Gurtnellen. Beyond the village of Wyler (3 M.) is a 
third bridge (2661'), the Pfaffensprung ('priest's leap', from the 
tradition that a monk once leaped across the stream here with a 
girl in his arms), by which the road recrosses to the left bank. 
Far below, the river is precipitated through a narrow gorge. View 
beautiful in both directions. The road crosses the impetuous 
Meienbach (Meien-Reuss), which rises on the Susten (p. 136), 
shortly before reaching — 

45 M. Wasen (2779'; *Hotel des Alpes; *Ochs, unpretending: 
*Krone, moderate), a considerable village with a loftily situated 
church (magnificent view from the terrace). The path ascending 
to the right, 50 yds. beyond the bridge, cuts off the windings of 
the road. 

Near ( 3 / 4 M.) Wattingen (2998') is the fourth bridge over the 
Reuss, above which, to the right, is a beautiful fall of the Rohr- 
bach. The village consists of a few roadside houses, one of which, 
with a rude representation of the Riitli conspiracy , is said to 
have been the ancestral dwelling of the Barons of Wattingen. 

The (3/ 4 M.) fifth bridge (Sehonibruck, 3212') crosses to the 
left bank of the Reuss. To the left of the road rises the Teufels- 
stein, a huge mass of rock. The next place is (1 M.) Geschenen. 
or Ooschenen (3488'; *H6tel Gbschenen, R. I^fa, L. and A. 1 fr.; 
*Ro8sli), at the mouth of the wild and beautiful Oeschenen-Thal, 
from which the Oeschenen-Reuss descends. 

Attractive walk hence to the (3 hrs.) Geschenen-Alp, near the bead 
of the valley. A good path leads by Abfrutt to (1\U hr.) Wieli (4350'), 
where the Voralp - Thai branches off to the right; from its narrow 
mouth (the Kaltbrutwen-Kehle) the Voralper Reuss is precipitated in a 



SS Route :'5. DEVILS BRIDGE. From Lucerne 

picturesque fall. The path in the main valley next leads by 67. Mcvlaus 
and the Brindlisiaffel (5043') to the (l»/< hr.) solitary chalets of the Ge- 
scheuen-Alp (604U'). To the W. descends the beautiful Dammajtrn glacier 
from the Winlerberg range (culminating in the Dammattoclc and Rhone- 
xlock); and 1 hr. farther up the valley the Geschenen-Reuss issues from 
the Kehlen- Glacier, which is imbedded between the Winterberg and 
Steinberg. — A moderately easy path (7 hrs., with guide) leads from the 
Gescbenen-Alp over the Alpiglen-Licke (9111'), between the Lochberg and 
Spilzberg (p. 143), to Realp (p. 143). The S. peak of the Lochberg (9400'), a 
line point of view, is easily ascended from the top of the pass. — Several 
passes lead from the Geschenen-Alp over the Winterberg range to the 
Rhone and Trift Glaciers ( Winterjoch, Dommapam, Maatplankjoch), but 
should not be attempted except by experienced mountaineers with good 
guides fcomp. p. 135). — Over the Si sten-Limsii to the Steinalp (p. 136). 
9 hrs.. laborious. — Over the Kehlen.toch (Thierberg-Limmi) to the Trift 
Glacier and Miihlestalden, 10 hrs., fatiguing but interesting. The track 
lies over the Kehlen-Glacier to the summit of the pass (about lO.SOO 1 ) 
between the Steinberg and Hinter- Thierberg ; it then passes through the 
gap between the Hinter and Vorder Thierberg ('Zwischen Thierbergeif ) 
and descends the steep Thierberg Glacier to the Trift Glacier unAWindegg- 
hut (p. 135). — Ascent of the Fleckistock ( Spilzliberg, 11,214') difficult. 
for thoroughly practised mountaineers only. The path ascends from St. 
Xicolaus (see above) by the Voralp-Thal to the Hornfeli-Alp and the highest 
chalet Avf den Fliihen (7874'), 4 hrs. from the Geschenen-Alp. whence 
the top is reached in 3-4 hrs. more. Magnificent view. 

Immediately below the Vordere, or Haderli-Brucke (3720'), 
the sixth bridge, is the N. end of the great St. Goithurd Tunnel 
(comp. pp. 85, 92), to which visitors are not admitted without 
special permission. At the entrance to the tunnel are the large 
workshops where the air is compressed as a motive power for the 
boring machinery (p. 85) by means of water-power. The iron 
tube which conveys the water of the Reuss to this point accompanies 
the road for '/2 M. as far as the tower in the Ueuss above the 'long 
bridge' (see below). Here, about ] /4 M. beyond Geschenen, begins 
the sombre rocky defile of the *SchoUenen (2>/2 M. long), bounded 
by lofty and almost perpendicular walls of granite, at the base of 
which dashes the impetuous Keuss. The road ascends by numerous 
windings, most of which may be cut off by footpaths or the old 
bridle-path. Beyond a few of these windings, the disused Lanye 
Briicke is passed (no saving is effected by crossing it), and the 
Sprenaibriick (4048'), the seventh bridge, crossed. The road in the 
Schollenen is much exposed to avalanches , and at one of the 
most dangerous spots is protected by a gallery, 60 yds. in length, 
at the farther end of which is the bull's head of I'ri. 

The *Devil's Bridge (4593'), Teufelsbrucke (the eighth), in 
the midst of a scene of wild desolation, is now reached (3'/-2 M. 
from Geschenen ). The Keuss here falls in a picturesque cascade 
into an abyss 100' below, while its spray bedews the bridge 
above. The wind (aptly called 'Uutschelm', or 'hat-rogue', by the 
natives) sometimes conies down the gorge in violent gusts, and 
endangers the hats of unwary travellers. The new bridge, con- 
structed of uranite in 1830, has a single arch of 2li' span. The 
old bridge. 20' below, is disused and overgrown with moss. 



to Bellinzona. ANDBKMATT. 25. Route. 89 

A battle between the Austrians and French took place here on 14th 
Aug., 1799. The former had taken up a strong position near the bridge, 
but were unable to withstand the impetuous attack of the French. They 
therefore blew up the small side-arch, in consequence of which hundreds 
of soldiers were precipitated into the abyss, and communication was cut 
off. The French then scaled the right bank of the Reuss , and compelled 
the Austrians to retire in the night. Their success, however, was of short 
duration. A month later Suwarow inarched over the St. Gotthard and 
pressed hard upon the French, who had filled the Urner Loch with masses 
of rock. The Russians removed the obstacles and re-opened the road, but 
near the ruins of the Teufelsbriicke they found themselves exposed to a 
murderous fire from the French. In spite of this, however, they forced 
a passage, and drove their enemy back as far as the Lake of Lucerne. 

Beyond the Devil's Bridge the road winds upwards past a 
chapel to the (5 min.) Timer Loch (4642'), a tunnel 70 yds. long, 
cut through the rock in 1707, originally only broad enough for 
pedestrians and horses, but now admitting two carriages abreast. 
Prior to 1707 a hanging chain-bridge, called the Staubende Brucke, 
conducted the traveller round the Teufelsstein, through a constant 
shower of spray. 

The Valley of TJri, or Urseren, which the road enters beyond 
the gloomy Urner Loch , presents a striking contrast to the wild 
region just traversed. This peaceful valley (p. 143), with its green 
pastures watered by the Reuss, is about 8 M. in length and 
'/a- 1 M. in breadth, and is surrounded by lofty and barren 
mountains partially covered with snow. Before the Reuss had 
forced a way for itself through the Schollenen , this valley was 
probably a lake. Corn grows here but scantily, and trees are 
scarce. Winter lasts nearly eight months, and during the short 
summer flres are often necessary. The 1400 inhabitants of the 
valley gain their livelihood by feeding cattle, and conveying tra- 
vellers and goods across the St. Gotthard. 

52 , / 2 M- Andermatt, or Urseren, Ital. Orsera (4738'; *Bellevue, 
a large hotel, well situated outside the village, R. 3-4, L. and A. 2, 
B. li/ 2 , D. 5 fr. ; *St. Ootthard, less expensive; *Drei Kbniye and 
*H6tel Oberalp, moderate; Krone, unpretending), l 1 /) M. from the 
Devil's Bridge, is the principal village (744 inhab.) in the valley. 
Adjoining the church, which is believed to date from the time of 
the Lombards, is a charnel-house adorned with skulls bearing in- 
scriptions (comp. p. 50). The Mariahilf chapel affords a good 
survey of the valley : to the W. rises the barren grey Bazberg, in 
the background the Furca with its inn, to the left the Mutthorn ; 
a few paces beyond the chapel , the Six-Madun , or Badus (see 
below), is visible; to the E. in long zigzags ascends the road over 
the Oberalp (R. 80). — The fine Collection of St. Ootthard Min- 
erals of the late chaplain Meyer has been purchased by the land- 
lord of the 'Three Kings', and is exhibited in a small house opposite. 
— F. J. Nager-Donazians sells minerals, etc. at moderate prices. 

From Andermatt by the Oberalp to C'vire, see R. 80. — From Ander- 
matt over the Furca to the Rhone Glacier in the Upper Valais, see R. 32. 



90 Route 2.5. HOSPENTHAL. From Lucerne 

The Six-Madun, or Badus (SG1G') , a vast pyramid nf rock forming the 
termination of the Oberland of the Orisons , is sometimes ascended (in 
4' ;-z-b hrs.) from Andermatt; guide necessary (ascent from Sedrun easier 
and shorter, p. 334). The traveller may descend lo the Toma-See (p. 334}, 
and thence to the valley of the Vorder- Khein. The summit, which 
consists of blocks of gneiss, commands a view of innumerable peaks of 
the Alps of the Orisons, Kern, and the Valais, with their snow-lields and 
glaciers , and of the whole of the Vorder-Kheinthal. — The Ourschenstock 
(9423'), and Gamsstock (9728'), both of which afford tine views, may he 
ascended from Andermatt in 4-4 1 /™ hrs. (guide necessary). — By the l'n- 
teralp-Pass to Airolo (8 hrs. J, see p. 92. 

On the way from Andermatt to Hospenthal the Glacier of 
St. Anna rises high above the brow of the mountain to the left. 

54i/ 4 M. Hospenthal (4800'; *Meyerhof, K. 3, P.. l'/ 2 , X>. ^, 
L. and A. l l / 2 fr. ; *Lowe, moderate), l 3 / 4 M. from Andermatt, 
derives its name from a hospice which formerly stood here. The 
tower on the hill is said to be the remains of a castle built by the 
Lombards. The magazine (Suat) at the end of the village is now 
disused. The Furca road diverges here to the right (R. 32). 

The St. Gotthard road now ascends in numerous windings 
through a desolate valley, on the left bank of that branch of the 
Keuss which flows from the Lake of Lucendro and below Hospen- 
thal unites with the Realper Reuss (p. 143). A footpath diverg- 
ing to the left by the second house beyond the bridge over the 
Reuss cuts off the first windings of the road. Pleasant retrospects 
of the Ursern-Thal and the jagged peaks of the Spitzberg (p. 143), 
as far as the Galenstock to the W. To the left of the bleak (2y. 2 M.) 
Gamsboden opens the precipitous Guspis-Thal, at the head of 
which are the small Guspis-Glacier and the Pizzo Centrale (see 
below). At a great bend in the road, i/o M. farther, stands the 
first Cantoniera (5876') ; to the right rise the slopes of the Winter- 
horn, or Piz Orsino (8747'). The road now enters the canton of 
Ticino and crosses the Reuss for the last time near its source in the 
Lake of Lucendro (not visible), by the (2'/ 2 M.) Rodont Bridge 
(6621'), i/ 4 M. above the second Cantoniera. 

A visit to the 'Lake of Lucendro (6834') forms an easy digression of 
'/« hr. only. The path diverges below the Rodont Bridge (left bank), leads 
over masses of rock to the (10 min.) beautiful green lake, environed with 
snow-peaks and glaciers, and then skirts its N. bank. To the S. rises 
the imposing Piz Lucendro (9708'), to the \V. the YtcerberliSrner (9265'), 
the Piz dell Uomo (8819'), etc — The path crosses the Reuss at its exit 
from the lake, and finally rejoins the St. Ootthard road near the summit 
of the pass. 

On the (1 M.) Pass of St. Gotthard (6936') the road passes 
between several small lakes. 

The remark is sometimes made, that the St. Gotthard, although 
frequently mentioned, is never seen. This is to some extent true, 
inasmuch as the name is applied, not to a single peak, but to an 
extensive mountain-group. The peaks to the W. are the Fibbia 
(8996'), and the Pizzo di Vinei, or Lucendro (9708'); to the N. 
the Winterhorn, or Piz Orsino (8747'); to the E., immediately 
above the summit of the pass, the Sasso di San Gottardo (823f)'); 



to Bellinzonn. ST. GOTTHARD. 2/5. Route. 91 

beyond it Monte Prosa (8983'j and the Pizzo Centrale, or Trilthorn 
(9849'), and farther S. the Schipsius (7907'). 

6*27-2 M. Albergo del S. Gottardo (6867'), i/ 4 M. to the S. of 
the culminating point, a large, gloomy Italian inn. Opposite to 
it is the * Hotel du Mont Prosa (R. 3 , L. and A. I 1 /., fr.), the 
post and telegraph office. Adjoining it is the Hospice, erected by 
Canton Ticino, containing 15 beds for poor travellers , who are re- 
ceived gratuitously. Newfoundland dogs of a superior race may be 
purchased here at prices varying from 75 to 400 fr. ; also St. Gott- 
hard minerals at fixed prices. A little to the S. of the hotel, on 
the old road , is the Mortuary Chapel , which is now rarely used. 

The ascent of the Pizzo Centrale, or Tritlhorn (9849'), an admirable 
point of view, has been more frequently undertaken of late, the path 
having been improved by the landlord of the Mt. Prosa Hotel (3'/s hrs., 
no difficulty ; guide advisable, 7 fr. and a gratuity of 1 fr.). Beyond the 
hospice we cross the brook to the left and ascend the slope of the Sasso 
San Gottardo through a dreary expanse of detritus to the entrance of the 
Sella valley, through which the route leads. The Prosa (see below) soon 
becomes visible to the left, above; farther on, the Sella Lake is seen far 
below. A snow-field is finally crossed to the base of the highest peak, 
which consists of crumbling hornblende. The space on the summit is 
very limited. The - View is one of striking magnificence, embracing 
almost all the highest mountains in Switzerland (excellent panorama by 
Heim). — The Monte Prosa (8983') may also be ascended from the hotel 
without much difficulty in 2>/2 hrs. (guide 5 fr.). By the hut above the 
Sella Lake (l'/i hr.) we diverge to the left from the path to the Pizzo 
Centrale , and ascend across poor pastures and patches of snow to the 
saddle ('/ 2 hr.) between the Prosa and Blauberg. We then turn to the 
left again and traverse the arete, and finally pick our way laboriously 
over sharp rocks to O/2 hr.) the summit. The W. peak, 41 ft. higher 
than the E., is separated from it by a chasm about 20 ft. deep. The view 
is inferior to that from the Centrale. 

The Fibbia (8996 1 ), a gigantic rock which commands the St. Gotthard 
road on the W. side and rises precipitously above the Val Tremola, may 
also be easily ascended from the hotel in 2V2 hrs. (guide desirable). The 
summit affords an excellent survey of the St. Gotthard group, the valley 
of the Ticino , &c. — The ascent of the Pizzo Lucendro (9708') and the 
Leckihorn (10,069') presents no unusual difficulty ; the Pizzo Rotondo 
(10,489'), the highest peak of the St. Gotthard (p. 144), is more difficult, 
and should be attempted by none but practised climbers. 

The ascent of the Sorescia, or Scara Orell (7349'), forms a pleasant 
short excursion (1 hr.). We descend the road towards the S. as far as the 
Ticino bridge, and beyond it ascend by a narrow path to the left. Fine view, 
especially of the Alps of Ticino, the Cristallina, Campo Tencia, Basodino, 
etc. Descent to the Sella valley not recommended, as there is no bridge 
over the Ticino, which is here of considerable breadth. 

Lake of Lucendro, see above. — By the Orsino-Pass to Realp (4 hrs.), 
interesting (guide unnecessary for practised mountaineers). The track as- 
cends N.W. from the Lucendro lake over grass slopes, past the Ortirora 
Lake (8058') to the summit of the pass (8530 1 ), on the W. side of the Piz- 
zo Orsino (see above). It commands a striking view towards the S. of the 
St. Gotthard range from the Furka to the Fibbia, of the Finsteraarhorn and 
Agassizhorn to the N.W., and the range of the Galenstock and Damma- 
stock as far as the Sustenhiirner and Titlis to the N. The descent to 
Realp across pastures and brushwood cannot be mistaken. 

From the Hospice to Airolo is a walk of l 1 ^ hr. (by short 
cuts); in the reverse direction 2^2 hrs., while the diligence 
takes fi hrs. In winter and spring the snow is often piled up 



92 Route l'5. AIROLO. From Lucerne 

on tlin road-side in heaps 30 -40' high, and sometimes remains 
unmelted throughout the suiunier (couip. p. 84"). Snow - storms 
and avalanches are most prevalent on the S. side. 

About '/ 2 M. to the S.K., below the hospice, the road crosses 
the branch of the Ticino , which flows from the Sella Lake (see 
above). A little farther on, near a large mass of rock lying by 
the road-side, an inscription on the rock near the old bridle-path 
commemorates the events of 1799 (p. 89). The words ' Suwarow 
Victor' only are now legible. 

Near the first house of refuge , the Cantoniera S. Antonio 
(6375'), the road enters the Val Tremola, a dismal valley l 1 /, M. 
long, into which avalanches are frequently precipitated, and de- 
scends in numerous windings, which are avoided by the old 
bridle-path at the bottom of the valley, following the telegraph- 
wires, to the second refuge, the Cantoniera S. Giuseppe (6010'). 
At the third refuge, the Cantoniera di Val Tremola (5564'). the 
Val Tremola terminates, and the Val Leventina (p. 93) begins. 
and a fine *view of the latter as far as Quinto is obtained. To 
the right opens the Val Bedretto (p. 145), from which the main 
branch of the Ticino descends to the St. Gotthard branch. Before 
Airolo is reached, to the right below the road is the S. end of the 
St. Gotthard Tunnel (p. 88). 

70% M. Airolo (3868'; *Posta, moderate; Hotel Airolo, new), 
the first village where Italian is spoken, on the Ticino, affords good 
head-quarters for excursions on the S. slopes of the St. Gotthard. 

Bridle-path through the Val Bedretto over the Nvfinen-Pass to Oher- 
gestelen in the Valais in 8 hrs., see p. 144; or from AlV Acqua over the 
>i. Giacomo-Pass (7572') to the Falls of the Tosa in the Val Formazza, in 
7 hrs., see p. 148. — Through the Val Magrjia to Locarno (14-16 hrs.). 
see p. 399. — Through the Val Canaria over the .Vera- Pan and the Unler- 
alp to Andermatt (7 hrs.), fatiguing, and very steep on the S. side. 

From Airolo to Dissentis bi the Val Piora (10 hrs. , guide mi- 
necessary). Descending the St. Gotthard road for 'Ai hr., we diverge t<> 
the left, cross the Canaria brook, and ascend to (20 min.) Madrono (4109'). 
After '/) ir. more the path ascends the si pe to the left to (20 min.) Bru- 
ynasco (4548'). It then runs on nearly at the same level, commanding 
picturesque views of the Val Ticino and afterwards passing through 
wood. At (3/ 4 hr.) Altanca (4567') we turn to the left and ascend in zig- 
zags past a small chapel to (40 min. I Valle , where there is a spring by 
the wayside. (The rock below hears a very ancient inscription.) In the 
gorge to the right are several picturesque waterfalls. Fine retrospect of 
the Alps of Ticino. We next cross a rocky saddle to the ('/jhr.) se- 
questered Lake Ritom (6001'; Hotel Piora , nrw), and pass round it to 
the left. By the (20 min.) Ritom Chalets we ascend hv a narrow path 
(in the slope to the left to the ( 25 min. I chapel of is. Carlo. Cross- 
ing the brook, and passing a cross on the right (having the small lake 
ot ' Cadagno, with its summer village, to the left), we reach (Vs hr.) Piora, 
a poor hamlet, and (20 min.l Mnrinasdo, a group of huts. The path, in- 
dicated by crosses, leads for >, ., hr. in a straight direction, and then 
ascends to the left. Farther on it always bears to the left. (The last 
huts of Piano de' Porci lie to the right .,' lielow us. Person* bound for 
Olivone may from this point cross a pass between the Pi: Seai and Piz 
Coluiabe, and thus reach the Casaccia hospice by a shorter route; p. 336.) 
We now ascend the deserted Val Termini:, with the PU dell' Conw (9022') ris- 



to Bellimona. FAIDO. 2f>. Route. 93 

ing on the loft, to the summit of the ('A lip.) TJomo Pass (7257'), with its 
abandoned hut (10 min. before reaching which we pass a good spring 
hy a heap of stones). The path descending on the other side is marshy 
at places. Before us to the right rises the Scopi, to the left in the dis- 
tance the Todi chain. The (l'/j hr.) Hospice of 8t. Maria, see p. 336. 
Thence to Dissentis, see R. 81. 

Below Airolo opens the geologically interesting Val Canaria. The 
road enters the Stretto (defile) di Stalvedro, which in 1799 was de- 
fended by 600 French grenadiers against 3000 Russians for 12 hrs. 
(comp. p. 89). The French afterwards retired by the Nufenen Pass 
into the Valais. The ruins of a marble tower of Lombard origin 
(Casa dei Pagani) command the mouth of this picturesque ravine 
on the right. On the left bank of the Ticino four parallel ridges of 
rock descend to the river, through which four openings have been 
out for the road. About 1 M. beyond the defile, on the right bank, 
is the beautiful cascade of the Calcaccia. 

The road, now nearly level, next passes (3 M.) Piotta, (l 1 /^ M.) 
Ambri (to the right the Piz Massari, 9062'), opposite Quinto, then 
(13/ 4 M.) Fiesso and the hamlet of (3/ 4 M.) Dazio Grande (3110'). 
Immediately beyond the inn (very poor) the mouth of a second 
rocky *ravine is reached. The Ticino has here forced a passage 
for itself through the Monte Piottino, or Platifer, and precipitates 
itself in a succession of cataracts through the gloomy gorge. 
The road descends the defile close to these *waterfalls, and 
crosses the river several times. To the right , near Faido , the 
Piumogna precipitates itself by a picturesque fall into the Ticino. 

81 1/2 M. Faido, Ger. Pfaid (2365' ; *Angelo, R. 2'/ 2 , B. i l /-i, 
h. and A. 1 fr. ; *Prince of Wales; Hotel Vella), the capital of the 
Leventina, is a village of thoroughly Italian character. 

The Leventina (Vallis Lepontinu), or Valley of the Ticino, formerly 
belonged to the canton of Uri, and was governed in the most despotic 
manner by bailiffs , who purchased their appointment from the Lands- 
gemeinde, as was the custom in almost all the democratic cantons, as well 
as in the republics of antiquity. A revolt broke out in 1705, but was sup- 
pressed with the aid of the Swiss troops ; the leaders were executed, and 
their heads suspended from the chestnut trees. The French effected a 
change in the mode of government in 1798. The canton of Uri endeav- 
oured to re-establish the original constitution in 1814, but the Congress 
of Vienna decided that the Leventina and the other seven Italian baili- 
wicks belonging to the twelve Swiss cantons should together constitute the 
new canton of Tessin, or Ticino. 

The road passes through beautiful scenery ; the numerous 
campanili in the Italian style, crowning the summits of the hills, 
have a very picturesque effect. To the right and left several cas- 
cades precipitate themselves over the cliffs, that of the *Cribiasca, 
resembling a veil, being the finest. Huge masses of rock lie 
scattered about , between which handsome chestnut trees have 
taken root. Vines and mulberry trees be^in to appear. At the 
point where the road descends in windings to the bottom of the 
valley , the Ticino forms another beautiful fall , spanned by a 
bridge over which the road passes. 



94 Route I'S. BELLINZONA. 

88 l / 2 M. Giornico, Gor. Jrnis (132;")'; Verm; Vurvna), the capi- 
tal of the district, is noteworthy on account of its antiquities and 
picturesque situation. The former consist of a lofty old tower, re- 
mains of a Gallic or Lombard fortification (near the church of <S. Ma- 
ria di Vastello), and the church of S. Niccolb da Mira, in the ear- 
liest Romanesque style, supposed to occupy the site of a heathen 
temple. Beyond Giornico, to the right, is the picturesque waterfall 
of the Vramosina. 

91 M. Bodio (1086'; Posta; Aquila). Beyond Polleggio (978') 
the Brenno descends from the Vol Blegno (p. 337). The valley of the 
Ticino now expands and takes the name of the Riviera down to the 
mouth of the Moesa. Luxuriant vines, chestnuts, walnuts, mulberries, 
and fig-trees now remind the traveller of his proximity to 'the gar- 
den of the Earth, fair Italy'. The vines extend their dense foliage over 
wooden trellis-work supported by stone pillars, 6-10' in height. 

94 M. Biasca (*Grand Hotel Biasca, R. 2, L. and A. 1 fr. ; 
Unione, tolerable), with an old Romanesque church on an eminence 
(1112'), is at present the terminus of the St. Gotthard Railway. The 
station is about 1 M. to the S. of the village. A series of chapels 
leads to the Petronella-Chapel, a good point of view. The cellars 
in the neighbouring rocks are used by the wine-merchants of Bellin- 
zona. — Diligence from Biasca to Olivone, and bridle-path over the 
Lukmanier to Dhsentis, see R. 81. 

The Railway runs close to the base of the rich E. slopes en- 
closing the valley of the Ticino, which is very hot and dusty in 
summer. 

472 M. (from Biasca) Osognu (964') lies at the foot of an abrupt 
rocky hill with a rounded summit. Near Cresciano (886'), to 
the left, are some picturesque waterfalls. — 7'/ 2 M. Claro (1027'), 
at the base of the mountain (8921') of that name, which is one 
of the most beautiful and fertile in Switzerland, with the mon- 
astery of S. Maria (2074'j halfway up. Beyond (10 M.) stat. 
(.'iistione the train passes the mouth of the Val Mesocco (p. 394) 
and crosses the Moesa, which descends from the Bernardino (p. 393). 
Arbedo (p. 394) lies to the left. We now approach Bellinzona. From 
a distance , the appearance of the town with its lofty walls and 
turrets, which formerly extended into the valley, its three castles, 
and the extensive barracks at the N. gate, is very striking. 

13 M. (from Biasca, 107 M. from Lucerne) Bellinzona, Gcr. 
Bellenz (761' ; *Po.«ta, outside thcN. gate. R. 2>/ 2 , A. 1/2 > 1{ - [, h iT - ! 
Hotel de la Ville, outside the S. gate, same charges; Angelo, near 
the S. gate, in the town, Italian style, R. 2, D. 4fr.), on the Ticino, 
one of the three capitals of the canton of Ticino, with 2361 inhab., 
presents all the characteristics of an Italian town. It was strongly 
fortified in the middle ages, and regarded as the key to the 
route from Lombardy to Germany. The fortifications have been 
partly restored of late. It was the scene of frequent conflicts 



WOHLHAUSEN. 26. Route. 95 

between the Swiss and the Milanese, but from the beginning of 
the 16th to the end of the 18th cent, the former remained in 
undisturbed possession. The Abbey-Church adjoining the post- 
office is a fine building in the Italian style of the 16th cent. 

The three picturesque Castles were the residences of the three Swiss 
Bailiff's (comp. p. 93), in whom the judicial and executive authority was 
vested. Each castle possessed a small garrison and a few cannons. The 
largest, the Castello Grande, on an isolated eminence to the W., belonged 
to Uri ; it is now used as a prison and arsenal *, visitors readily admitted 
(gratuity to guide). Of the other two, towards the E., the lower, the 
Castello di Mezzo, belonged to Schwyz ; the upper, the Castello Corbario or 
Corbt (1502'), now in ruins, to TJnterwalden. The view from the Castello 
Grande is striking and beautiful; that from the loftily-situated pilgrimage- 
chapel of S. Maria delta Salute not less so. 

A bridge of fourteen arches, 200 yds. long, here crosses the 
Ticino , which in summer is so low that most of the arches are 
dry. The banks are protected from inundations by a strong em- 
bankment, 766 yds. long. 

From Bellinzona to Lugano^and Como, see R. 95; to Locarno, 
see R. 96. 



26. From Lucerne to Bern. Entlebuch. Emmenthal. 

59 M. Railway (Jura-Bern-Lucerne Line) in 3-4 hrs. ; fares 10 fr., 
7 fr., 5 fr. 

Lucerne, see p. 51. The train passes under the Uiitsoh, 
diverges, near the bridge over the Reuss, to the left from the Zurich 
line (p. 50), and enters a tunnel under the Zimmeregg, 1248 yds. in 
length. Beyond this we enter a broad, grassy valley, watered by the 
of Kleine Emme (see below). Stations (3 M.) Littau, at the base 
the wooded Sonnenberg (p. 52), and (7V 2 M-) Matters (1693'). 

A good road leads hence to (3 31.) Schwarzenberg (2759'; ' Weisses 
Kreuz; Pension Burri), a favourite summer resort, situated on the hill to 
the S. 

From Scliac/ieii (see below), Ufa 31. to the W. of JIalters , the old 
Bhamf.gu Road leads past the (2 M.) Farnbiihler Bad, an unpretending 
sanitary establishment, and over the Brameag (3366') to (5 M.) Entlebuch 
(see below). 

Above Schachen the valley contracts. The train approaches the 
Emme, and crosses it near Wertlienstein (on the left"), with its 
handsome suppressed monastery, now a deaf and dumb asylum. 
Beyond a short tunnel we reach ( l'J'/a M.) Wohlhausen (1873'; 
Rbsdi; Kreuz), a considerable village, divided by the Emme into 
two parts (Wohlhausen-Wiggern on the left bank, and Wohlhausen- 
Markt opposite). — About 6 M. to the AV., at the foot of the Napf 
(see below), are the baths of Menzberg (3314'). 

We now enter the Entlebuch, a pretty valley, 15 M. in length, 
with rich pastures, and enclosed by wooded mountains. The in- 
habitants, who are both physically and mentally superior to many 
of their compatriots, are chiefly engaged in the cattle-trade and in 
cheese-making. The train recrosses the Emme , passes through a 
tunnel ("Wohlhausen-Markt lying on the riirlit. see above), and 



96 Route •>(!. LANGNAU. 

abends the E. side of the valley , passing over embankments and 
through three short tunnels (where considerable engineering diffi- 
culties had to be overcome). Beyond a longer tunnel we observe 
the impetuous Emme , flowing through a rocky gorge on the right. 

17 M. Entlehuch (2224'; *Hotel du Port; Drei h'oniye), a 
well-built and picturesquely situated village. 

The "Napf (4619'), to the W. of Entlehuch, commanding a magnificent 
view, is frequently ascended (3 lirs.) from Entlehuch, or better from 
Trubschachen (see below), passing the village of Trub (-Inn), 40 min. to 
the X.E., to which there is a carriage-road. 

The train crosses the impetuous Entlenbach , which here falls 
into the Emme, passes the village of Hasle, prettily situated on 
the left, and next stops at — 

22 M. Schiipfheim (2388'; Adler ; Rbssli), the capital of the 
valley, rebuilt after a fire in 1829. Near it, l'/ 4 hr. to the K., 
is the sanitary establishment of Heiligkreuz ( 3701 ), witli a rustic 
inn and fine view. 

A road (diligence t.vice daily) leads from Schiipfheim to the S. 
through the narrow and rocky upper part of the valley of the Kleine 
Emme, by the prettily situated village of Flilhli (Inn), t.ii (10 H.i Sih-m- 
berg (3812'; 'Inn), which lies in the highest part of the Emmenthal, or 
Marienthal. Guide thence to the (4</2 hrs.) summit of the Brienzer Roth- 
horn (p. 130), whence a bridle-path descends to (2 hrs.) Brienz. <'<unp. 
p. 131. 

Above Schiipfheim the train crosses the Kleine Emme, which 
rises on the Brienzer Rothhorn, and ascends the wooded valley 
of the Weisse Emme to — 

26 M. Escholzmatt (2Slo'; *LiJwe; Krone}, a scattered village, 
situated on the watershed between the Entlehuch and Emmenthal. 
The train now descends to stat. Wiggen (2601'; Kossli) and follows 
the right bank of the Jlfis , traversing a pleasant valley with pic- 
turesque groups of rocks. We next reach (32M.) Trubschachen 
(2396'), the first village in Canton Bern, situated at the confluence 
of the Trubbach and lifts. (Ascent of the Napf, see above.) On 
the right, farther on, we observe the hospital of Biirau. a very large 
old wooden building. 

257-2 -VI. Langnau ('2244'; * Hotel Emmenthal; *Hirscli ; Hotel 
Buhnhof; L'Owe), a thriving village with 6214 inhab., the capital 
of the Emmenthal, a valley about 30 M. long, 12-15 A1. wide, 
watered by the lifts and the (Irotse Emme , and one of the most 
fertile in Switzerland. It is famous for its wooden houses, which 
aTe sometimes exported , and for its cheese. The carefully kept 
meadows, fine breed of cattle, and comfortable dwellings with their 
pretty gardens, all bear testimony to the industry and prosperity 
of the Emmenthalers. A monument at Langnau was erected in 1849 
to the Bernese who fell in the war of the Separate League in 1H4T. 

Soon after leaving Langnau. the train crosses the litis and the 
I'.mme. Stations (38 M.) Emmtnmntt, (40 M.) Sit/nan (Bar), and 
I 4-3 1 /._> M ) '/.ihiwyl . thriving: villages It then skirts the Flbrnbery 



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BERN. 27. Route. 97 

in a wide curve. Stations Konolfingen , Tagertschi, (51 M.) Worb 
(Sonne; Lowe), a wealthy place, with an old Schloss. Pleasing 
view of the Stockhorn chain to the left. From (54 M.) stat. Oum- 
lingen (Hotel Mattenhof) on the Bern and Thun line (change car- 
riages for Thun, p. 103) to (59 M.) Bern, see below. 

27. Bern. 

Hotels. "Berner Hof (PI. a), adjoining the Federal Council Hall, 
R. 3 t'r. and upwards, B. I'/a, I>. 4-5, L. and A. 2 fr. ; "Hotel Bellevue 
(PI. m), adjoining the Mint, less expensive; both these hotels command 
a full view of the Alps. Schweizerhof (PI. b), near the station, R. 3, B. 
I'/*, D. 4-5, L. and A. I1/4 fr. ; "Faucon (PI. d) , in the town, R. and L. 3'/u, 
B. l'/j, D. 4, A. 1 fr. ; "Schanzli-Victoria , see p. 101. — "Boulevard 
(1-1. n), R. 3, D. 3, B. I1/2, A. s/ 4 fr. ; Hotel de France (PI. 0), R. 2>/a, 
B. l'/s, L- and A. 1 fr. ; Hotel do Jura, adjoining the Bank, new; Hirsch ; 
these four near the station. — In the town : "Pfistern (Abbaye des Boulangers, 
PI. e), near the clock-tower; "Storch (PI. k); Hour (PI. f); Affe (PI. g); 
Schmieden (Marichaux, PI. h); "Webern and Zimmerleutf.n, both in the 
Marktgasse ; these seven last are all moderate. — Unpretending : Schlussel 
(PI. 1) ; Bar ; 'Wilder Mann (PI. p) , in the Aarberger Str. , R. 2 , B. 1, 
1). 2 fr. — -Pension Zimmerwald (p. 102). 

Restaurants. Railway-Restaurant. Near the station the "Restaurant du 
Boulevard (see above) ; ! Cafi du Nord, at the exit from the station ; at the 
Schweizerhof (see above) ; Cafi Casino near the Town - hall , terrace with 
complete view of the Alps. At the pavilion on the Milnster-Terrasse (p. 99), 
coffee , tea , ices O/4 and '/a fr.) , may be obtained after 1 p. m. (Sundays 
after 4 p. m.) ; concerts occasionally in the evening. — Outside the town : 
"Cafi Schiinzli (p. 101), beyond the railway bridge ('/a M.) on the lofty right 
bank of the Aare, to the E. near the new Botanic Garden, magnificent 
view (concert or summer-theatre daily); 'Cafe in the Enge (p. 102), 1 M. 
beyond the Aarberg Gate. — Beer. "Kbnig and Hahnen, Barenplatz ; Jucker, 
Kramgasse ; Cafi du Commerce and Cafi Krone, Gerechtigkeits-Gasse. 

Bootmaker for mountaineers , Riesen , Spitalgasse. 

Zahnd's Museum of Alpine animals, Untere Alpenegg 223 d (to the 
left of the railway-bridge on the way to the Enge). 

Baths. Sioimming-Bath at the Holzplatz, below the Bernerhof. River* 
Baths below the Unter-Thor Bridge, near the ' Pelikan \ The water of the 
Aare is very cold. — Warm Baths (Turkish, etc.) at Biichler's, Laupen-Str., 
outside the Murteuer Thor. 

Cabs. One-horse, drive of >/« hr. 1-2 pers. 80c, 3-4 pers. 1 fr. 20c, 
every additional '/< hr. 40 or 60 c. — Two-horse , at the same fares as for 
3-4 pers. with one horse. Each box 20 c, small articles free. From 10 p. m. 
to 6 a.m., double fares. For the whole day, i. e. over 6 hrs., 1-2 pers 12fr 
3-4 pers. 18 fr. 

Post and Telegraph Office (PI. 21), a little to the K. of the station. 
Branch-office in the Kramgasse, above the 1 Mohren\ 

English Church Service in the chapel of the Burgerspital (PI. 23). 

Principal Attractions. If time is limited , first visit the Cathedral 
Terrace (Zahringer monument); Munster-Platz (Erlach monument), Miinz- 
Terrasse (PI. 19), Casino Terrace and Council Hall, new promenades on 
the 'Kleine Schanze', the 'Grosse Schanze' (great bastion), and proceed thence 
to the Cafe at the Enge ; then cross the Railway Bridge (p. 101) past 
the Botanical Garden , to the 'Schanzli 1 . Up to this point the views gra- 
dually become more extensive and beautiful. Then return by the Railway 
Bridge, walk through the town to the E. as far as the Nydeck Bridge 
(p. 101), and cross this to the Bears' Den. — If this walk be too fatiguing, 
proceed at once from the great bjstion across the railway bridge to the 
Schiinzli, the finest of all the points of view. 

Baedeker, Switzerland. 7th Edition. 7 



98 Route 27. BERN. Cathedral. 

Bern (1765'), the capital of the canton of that name, contains 
39,000 inhab. (2644 Rom. Cath. ), including its extensive suburbs. 
Bern joined the Confederacy in 1353, and is still the most important 
of the Swiss cantons , though it has lost Argovie (Aargau) and 
Vaud, which became independent in 1798. The city is built on 
a peninsula of sandstone-rock, formed by the windings of the Aare, 
which flows 100 feet below. Most of the streets run from E. to W. 
The busiest and most frequented is nearly 1 M. in length , ex- 
tending from the Ober-Thor to the Nydeck Bridge, under the 
names of Spitalgasse, Marktgasse, Kramgasse, and Gereehtigkeits- 
gasse. The houses in the principal parts of the old town are 
partly built over arcades (Lauben), under which the pavement for 
foot-passengers runs. Of the larger towns of Switzerland Bern 
has best preserved its characteristic features. 

Most of the numerous fountains are adorned with statues. 
The most singular is the Kindlifresser-Brurmen (Fountain of 
the Ogre, PI. 7), in the Kornhaus - Platz, near the clock -tower. 
It is surmounted by a grotesque figure in the act of devour- 
ing a child , while several others , doomed to the same fate, 
protrude from his pocket and girdle ; below is a troop of armed 
bears. The bear, the heraldic emblem of Bern, is a constantly 
recurring object. Bruin appears on the neighbouring Baren- 
brunnen, equipped with shield, sword, banner, and helmet. 

Two gigantic bears, tolerably executed in granite, keep guard 
over the pillars of the (W.) Obere Thor ; others support a shield 
in the pediment of the Corn-Hall (PI. 17), a handsome building, 
which down to 1830 always contained a store of corn to be used 
in case of famine. The large wine-cellar under it is much fre- 
quented, and is not unlike the famous Rathskeller at Bremen. 
A whole troop of bears go through a performance at the E. side 
of the Clock-Tower (PI. 29). two minutes before every hour. 

At 3 mill, before the hour a wooden cock gives the signal by 
clapping its wings and crowing; the hears then march round a seated 
figure, and a harlequin indicates the number of the hour by striking 
a hell. The cock then repeals his signal, and when the hour strikes, the 
seated figure, an old man with a beard, turns an hour-glass and counts 
the hour by raising his sceptre and opening his mouth; while the bear 
on his right does the same by inclinations of his head; at the same time a 
stone figure in the tower above strikes the hour on a bell with a hammer. 
The cock concludes the performance by crowing for the third time. This 
spectacle always attracts a number of admirers. The Cluck-tower is now 
almost in (he centre of the town, but. at. the lime of its erection it 
was at the E. end, and served as u watch-tower (inscription, ' Bertholdut 
V. dux Zaerinrjiw , rt-t-t. Buryund., tirbis condilor titnim et porlam fecit 
u. Clu: 1131, reitoe. 1770'). The Kaflythium (PI. Si, a similar tower 
farther W in the same street, is now used as a prison. 

The 'Cathedral (PI. 13), a line (iothic structure, 93 yds. 
long, 37 yds. broad, 7(1' high, begun in 1421, completed in 
1573, and restored in 1850, is remarkable for its beautiful de- 
corations and the open Balustrade of the roof, the design of which 



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Cathedral Terrace. BERN. 27. Route. 99 

varies between each pair of pillars. The W. Portal is partic- 
ularly line ; the sculptures represent the Last Judgment ; the 
upper figures at the sides are the Prophets, the lower the Apostles 
and the Wise and Foolish Virgins. The unfinished Tower, 134' 
high, is covered with a clumsy tiled roof. The entrance to the 
tower is by the side-door in the W. portal. The visitor ascends 
223 steps to the lodge of the tower-keeper and a gallery command- 
ing a beautiful view. The tower-keeper ('/ 2 fr-) shows the relative 
proportions of all the large bells in the world. 

Intekiok (adm. 30 c.). The Choir contains some curious Stained 
Glass of the 15th cent. , one window representing the dogma of Transub- 
stantiation, another the Life of Christ. The Choir- Stalls (1512) on one 
side are adorned with Apostles , on the other with Prophets. The rest 
of the church is almost destitute of ornament. The organ rivals the 
celebrated instrument at Freiburg ("performance almost every evening in 
summer at dusk, adm. 1 fr. , families 2 fr.). The cathedral contains two 
Monuments only : one to Berthold von Zdhriitgeit , the founder of Bern (see 
pp. 98, 165), erected by the city in 1600; the other lo the magistrate 
Friedrich von Sleiger, surrounded by six slabs of black marble bearing 
the names of the 702 Bernese who fell on 5th March, 1798, at the Grau- 
holz, near the Zollikofen station (p. 15), 6 M. lo the N. of Bern, in an 
engagement with the French. In front of this is a Pietas in white marble, 
by Tscharner (1870). 

The open space in front (W.) of the cathedral is adorned with 
a bronze Statue of Rudolph von Erlach (PI. 11), the victor at 
Laupen (p. 164), erected in 1848, with bears at the corners and 
inscriptions and trophies on the pedestal. 

The *Cathedral Terrace ( Munster - Terrasse) , 110' above the 
Aare, formerly the churchyard, is now a shady promenade with 
seats , adorned with a bronze statue of Berthold von Zahringen 
(PI. 12), the founder of Bern; the bronze reliefs on the pedes- 
tal have reference to the foundation of the city. A bronze bear 
acts as helmet-bearer. The jutting pavilions at the corners of the 
terrace are used as cafe's (p. 97). 

Views. Alpgliihen. The great attraction of Bern is the view it com- 
mands of the snow-clad Alps of the Bernese Oberland , which in clear 
weather are visible from every open space (the Cathedral and Cathedral 
terrace, the Miinz-Terrasse, Federal Hall, new promenades on the 'Kleine 
Schanz', Cafe Schanzli, Enge outside the Aarherg gate). By varying the 
point of view , the following mountains become visible in addition to 
those represented in the annexed panorama : to the right of the Doldenhorn, 
the Balmhorn (12,100') with the Altels (11,922', 37 M. distant), and over 
the Gurten, the bell-shaped summit of the Stockhorn (7195', 1811.); also 
to the left of the Schratten the peaks of the Spaniiorler (10,515', 53 M.) and 
the ScMossberg ( 10,279', 54 11.) , both in the canton of Uri ; the crest of 
the Bduchlen near Escholzmatt (5810', 24 M.), and the Feuerstein above 
the Entlebuch (6700', 30 31.). Nothing can surpass the sublimity of these 
mountains at sunset in fine weather, especially when the W. horizon is 
partially veiled with thin clouds , and the phenomenon called the Alp- 
gliihen ('Glow of the Alps'), or Nachgliihen ('after-glow') is produced. Long 
after the shadows of evening have fallen upon the valleys, and the linger- 
ing rays of the evening sun have faded from the snowy peaks themselves, 
the mountains begin to glow from their bases upwards, as if illumined by 
a bright internal fire. 

The Museum (PI. 20; Tues. and Thurs. 3-5, and Sund. 11-12, 

7* 



100 Route 27. BERN. Museum. 

gratis) is open to strangers daily (adm. i /- 2 fr.). In the Museum 
of Natural History (in the upper story) the bear of course occupies 
a prominent position. The St. Bernard dog 'Barry', which is said 
to have saved the lives of fifteen persons , is also exhibited. The 
collection is the largest in Switzerland, and contains specimens of 
all the indigenous animals which will interest the scientific: The 
Mineralogical Museum (on the ground-floor, to the left in the court) 
contains some fine specimens of crystal, found at the Tiefen- 
gletscher (p. 143) in 1868, one of them being 290 lbs. in weight, 
several others exceeding 200 lbs. Small portfolios of dried Alpine 
plants may be purchased for 6 to 50 fr. each. — The *Antiquarium, 
which is also on the ground-floor, contains a large and interesting 
collection of antiquities, chiefly from the ancient Swiss lake-villages, 
Roman vases from Nola and Pompeii, the fleld-altar of Charles the 
Bold, and other relics of the booty of Grandson and Morat, etc. 

Adjoining the museum, on the S., is the University (PI 30, 
364 students), founded in 1834 ; on the N. side the Library (PL 3), 
containing numerous histories of Switzerland. 

On the N side of the town is the new Rom. Cath. Church 

fPl 161 in the Gothic style, designed by Deperthes of Rheims. 

On the E. side of it is the Rathhaus (PI. 22), dating from UOb, 

restored in 1868, with a large covered staircase in front, and the 

rms of the Bernese districts above. 

The Arsenal, a new building in the Beundenfeld, outside the 
town near the Schanzli (p. 101), was despoiled of its chief treas- 
ures by the French in 1798, but still contains several objects of 

"^Tfthe upper (S.W.) end of the town stands the *Federal 
Council Hall (Bundes-Kathhaus, PI. 8), a handsome edifice in 
the Florentine style, completed in 1857 (porter on the right of the 
principal entrance, 1 fr. for 1-3 pers.). The sessions o the 
two great national Councils (see Introd. XII), usually held in 
July are open to the public. The debates which are sometimes 
very animated, are in German, French, or Italian. Rulings ot 
the president, motions, resolutions, etc, are always announced 
both in French and German. The visitor should not tail to ascend 
to the platform on the roof, as it commands the most extensive 
*view in Bern, embracing the beautifully and peculiarly situated 
town, its environs, and the Alps. 

The Kunstsaal , or Hall of Art, on the upper floor (open from 
1st May to 1st Oct. 8-0 o'clock, in winter 9-4, adm. 50 c ; on 
Tues and Sund., U-t'2, gratis), contains some good pictures, 
chiefly modern. (Their positions are often changed ) 

T Room U-fU 1. Albano , Fli^l.t into K-ypt-, 2;.. L. (!,»>■ Jan.. Holy 
F.,mi'lv 3 BoW«, Landscape U3, tit, «!>. School of M. N.-I.iin, Baptism ot 
rSriit faints etc. ; 43 rJ,»«Y, llattlc of Mon-arten, 3. <l„r,-r,»o Madonna. 
Suinture W, Miriam: Dover, Denigi. lor a tomosto,,,; Chaponntere, 
David ■ OT.'/«W, »»via, S3-86. r,,*„w, Models for tUe Zahnnger 



Nydeekbriirke. BERN. 27. Route. 101 

monument. — II. Room. Reiiihardl, Thirty pictures of Swiss costumes; 
94. Meyer, Matterhorn; 104. Corrodi, Roman landscape; 99. Lory, Devil's 
Bridge; 101 Juillerat , Scheideck ; 107. Mind, Group of cats. — III. Room. 
143. Veillon, Spring morning on the Lake of Geneva; 135. Girardet, Battle 
of Morat; 129. Volmar, The Giessbach; 133. Pixis, Huss taking leave of 
his friends; 146. Poller, Italian landscape; 147. Rillmeyer, Eaves-dropping; 
148. Ritz , Engineers among the mountains; 144. Meuron, Negress; 121. 
Walthard, Battle of the Grauholz. Sculptures : "153. Imhof, Eve ; 150. Imhof, 
Hagar and Ishmaol. — IV. Room. 154. Snell, The Schmadribach; 164. 
Meuron, The dying husband; 181, 182. Anker , Examination of a, school, 
The little friend ; 179. George, Landscape near Geneva ; 176. Guigon , The 
Canal Grande; "167, 168. Calame , Scene near the Handeck, Waterfall 
near Meiringen ; 162. Diday, Alpine chalet in the Bernese Oberland ; 186. 
Vautier, Saying grace ; 163. Meuron, Chamois hunter ; 163. Diday, Valley 
of Lauterbrunnen ; 190. Humbert, Cattle crossing a stream; 191. Kappis, 
Tyrolese village scene. Sculpture: Imhof, Rebecca. — The remaining 
rooms contain casts from the antique and several modern sculptures. 

In front of the Bundes-Rathhaus stands a fountain figure of 
Berna, in bronze, on a pedestal adorned with figures. Opposite to it 
is situated the new Museums- Gebdude, a club containing concert and 
reading-rooms, etc., to which strangers may be introduced by a 
member. On the facade are eight statues of celebrated Bernese, 
by Dorer of Dresden. 

On the E. side of Bern the Aare is crossed by the handsome 
Nydeckbrucke , a bridge of three arches, completed in 1844. The 
centre arch has a span of 158', and is 100' above the river. The 
bridge is about 100 yds. long, and is prolonged on the town side 
by a viaduct. On the right bank of the Aare, close to the bridge, 
to the right, is the Bears' Den (Barengraben, PI. 2), constructed 
in 1857, the old den near the Aarberg Gate having been removed 
to make room for the railway. The ancient Egyptians had not a 
greater veneration for the Ibis, than the modern Bernese have for 
the Bear, which would almost seem to be the tutelary deity, as 
well as the heraldic emblem, of the canton. Here Bruin in propria, 
persona, is maintained, according to immemorial usage, at the 
expense of the municipality, and the public are prohibited from 
making him any offerings except bread or fruit. In 1861 an 
English officer fell into one of the dens, and was torn in pieces 
after a desperate struggle. 

Bern is famed for its Charitable Institutions. It possesses two 
Orphan Asylums, a Lunatic Asylum, a Foundling Hospital (Jenner's), three 
handsome and spacious hospitals, the Inselspilal (l'l. 24) near the Casino, 
the Burgerspital (PI. 23) near the station, with the inscription, '■Christo 
in pauperibus^ , and the new Maternity Hospital on the Great Bastion. The 
Burgerspital was once the largest building in the town, but is now rivalled 
by the Penitentiary (Zuchthaus), at the Aarberg Gate (fitted up for 400 
prisoners), and the Council Hall. The extensive Lunatic Asylum of Waldau 
near Bolligen, 2 M. to the N.E. of the town, receives 200 patients. 

Crossing the Railway Bridge (see p. 15), at the N.W. end 
of the town, we pass the Botanical Garden (PI. 5), laid out on the 
sunny right bank of the Aare, and reach ( ( / 2 M.) the *Schanzli 
(PI. E, 2; *H6tel-Pension Victoria, pension from 8 fr.J, with a 
pleasant terrace and grounds commanding the finest view in the 



1 02 Route 97. BERN. 

environs of Bern. In the foreground lies the city in its entire 
extent ; above it is the wooded Gurten (see below ), to the left of 
which rise the Bernese Alps and to the right the Stockhorn chain ; 
to the extreme W. the Mole'son. About 1 M. from the Aarberg 
Gate, to the N., on the left bank of the Aare, is the *Enge, a 
large peninsula almost entirely surrounded by the Aare , several 
hundred feet above the river. This is another admirable point 
of view. Opposite the N. extremity of the Enge is the chateau of 
Reichenbaeh (p. 15), 3 l / 2 M. from Bern. 

The view from the Gurten (2825'), a long hill to the S. of Bern, is 
similar to that from the city, but more extensive. It embraces not only 
the mountains of the Oberland (p. 99), but also the entire Stockhorn chain, 
the Freiburg Alps, the Jura mountains for a distance of upwards of 100 M. 
with parts of the Lake of Neuchatel ; to the left of the High Alps, the 
mountains of Unterwald and Lucerne as far as Pilatus. I At the top a 
new "Inn.) The carriage - road from Bern to the Gurten, 4 M. to the top, 
leads from the Aarberger Thor to (l'/ 2 M.) Wabern , whence several 
paths ascend through a wood to the summit. On the hill near the vil- 
lage are the Bachtelen and Victoria asylums for deserted children. 

Longer excursion to (6M.) Zimmerwald (2854'; Hotel - Pension Beau- 
Sejour), charmingly situated, and (4y 2 M. farther) nais.-hele.-l- (3471'), with 
an extensive view. The fielpberg, sec p. 104. 

28. The Bernese Oberland. 

Time. Travellers whose time is limited may obtain a glimpse at 
the surpassing beauties of the Bernese Oberland in four days, but so 
rapid a survey is hardly compatible with true enjoyment of the scenery. 
(Suitable places for passing the night are indicated by flalirx). 1st Kay. 
From Bern by railway in 1 hr. to the steamboat-station at Thun, steam- 
boat to Darligen in l'/j hr. , railway to Interlaken in 10 min. — 2nd Day. 
Drive in ly. hr. to Lauterbrunnen, walk over the Wengernalp and Little 
Scheideck to Grindelwald (G hrs.). — 3rd Day. Walk over the Great 
Scheideck to Meiringen (<!»/« hrs.). — 4th Day. Drive to Brienz (l'/ 2 hr.), 
take steamboat to the Giessbach , and return to Interlaken and Bern. — 
Most travellers, however, will proceed from Meiringen over the Brumg 
to Lucerne, or over the Grimsel to the Rhone Glacier, etc. (Those who 
come from Lucerne generally cross the Briinig to Meiringen and proceed 
thence to Grindelwald, Lauterbrunnen, and Interlaken.) In any case the 
Giessbach merits a visit (excursion of an afternoon from Interlaken). 
Another day or two may be very pleasantly spent in visiting Murren, or 
in ascending the Schynige Platte and particularly the Faulhorn. — Those 
who object to walking or riding mav drive from Interlaken to Grindel- 
wald (p. 119). Thence to Meiringen' and the Grimsel there is a bridle 
path only. 

Tariff of 25th March, 1873, a copy of which every landlord and driver is 
bound to possess. One-horse can 1 , per day 15, two-horse 30 fr. From Infer- 
lukin to Zwciliitschinen 7 or 12 fr. ; In Lauterbrunnen and back, with 2 
hrs. halt, 11 or 20 fr. , or with a longer stay 15 or 30 fr.; to Grindelwald 
and back in one day IG or 30 fr. , in two 'days 30 or 50 f r. ; to Lauter- 
brunnen and Grindelwald and I pack in one day 20 or 35 fr., in two days 
30 or 50 fr. ; to Grindelwald via Lauterbrunnen and the Wengernalp, the 
horses being ridden by the travellers over the latter, for two days 35 or 
60 fr. ; 5 or 10 fr. are also charged for conveying the carriage from 
Lauterbrunnen to Grindelwald (or 3 or fr., in the reverse direction) ; to 
Lauterbrunnen, Murren , and Grindelwald and back in two days 35 or 
bTj fr. , in (line days including the Wengernalp and Grindelwald 45 or 
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back 15 or 25 fr. ; to Wimmis 15 or 28 fr. Charges for other excursions 
are mentioned in the respective routes. 

Horse or Mole per day, incl. attendant, 15 fr. From Interlaken : Faul- 
horn and back in two days 35 fr. ; Abendberg and back 15 fr. — From 
Lauterbrunnen: over the Wengernalp to Grindelwald (or vice versa) 20 fr. ; 
Miirren 12 fr. ; Trachsellauinen and back 12 fr. — From Grindelwald: Faul- 
horn and back 17 (if a night be spent on the summit 25) fr. ; to the Lower 
Glacier 6, to the Upper 8 fr. ; to the Mer de Glace 10 fr. ; Little Scheideck 
12 fr. ; Mannlichen and back 15 fr. ; Meiringen 25 fr. — From Meiringen : 
Rosenlaui and back 12 fr. ; Scheideck 15 fr. ; Faulhorn 25 fr. ; to Grindel- 
wald 25 , to Lauterbrunnen 45 fr. 3G , over the Faulhorn to Grindelwald 
35 fr., to Lauterbrunnen 45 fr. ; Handeck and back in one day 15, in two 
days 20 fr. ; Grimsel 25, Rhone Glacier 32 fr. — Beyond these charges no 
addition for return -journey can be demanded, except where a horse is 
employed for a number of consecutive days and dismissed at a distance 
from the place of hiring. 

Guides (see Introd. VIII) 7-9 fr. per day of 8 hours, return 6 fr. ; porter 
the same. For the usual route by Lauterbrunnen, Grindelwald, the Schei- 
deck, Meiringen, the Grimsel, the Furca, and Andermatt, no guide is 
necessary. On fine days the route is much frequented and cannot be 
mistaken. Boys to show the way are satisfied with 3-4 fr. per day and no 
return - payment. They are to be met with at the principal places on the 
route, at the Grimsel Hospice, at Brienz, or at Grindelwald. 

The traveller in the Bernese Oberland should possess a considerable 
fund of patience and of the smallest coin of the realm. Contributions are 
levied upon him under every possible pretence. He is assailed by vendors 
of strawberries, flowers, and crystals, and he has no sooner escaped their 
importunities than he becomes a victim to the questionable attractions of a 
chamois or a marmot. His admiration must not be engrossed by a cas- 
cade , be it ever so beautiful , or by a glacier, be it ever so magnificent ; 
the urchin who persists in standing on his head , or turning somersaults 
for the tourist's amusement, must have his share of attention. Again, if 
the route happens to pass an echo , a pistol shot is made to reverberate 
in one's ears , and payment is of course expected. Swiss damsels, neither 
young nor pretty, next appear on the scene, and the ebbing patience of 
the traveller is again sorely tried by the national melodies of these 
ruthless songsters. Then there is the Alpine horn and the Rana des 
Vaches, which, although musical when heard at a distance, are excruciat- 
ing when performed close to the ear. The fact is, the original simplicity 
and morality of the natives of these once sequestered regions has been 
sadly corrupted by modern invasion. These abuses had become so crying, 
that the attention of Government was directed to them, and commis- 
sioners were sent to inquire into the matter. Their advice is, ' Give to 
nobody ; and the remedy therefore lies principally with travellers 
themselves. 

a. From Bern to Thun. 

19'/s M. Railway in 1 hr. ; fares 3 fr. 15, 2 fr. 20, 1 fr. GOc. — In order 
to see the Alps, sit on the right as far as Munsingen , and thence to 
Uttigen on the left. — Those who wish to travel to Darligen (Interlaken) 
direct should take through - tickets at Bern. In this case they proceed 
to the Srlierzligen terminus (see below), '/'-' M. beyond Thun, where they 
embark without detention. 

The train crosses the Aare bridge (p. 101, beautiful glimpse of 
the Alpine chain on the right), and passes the grounds of the Bo- 
tanic Garden and the Schiinzli (p. 101). In the Wyler Feld the 
line from Bern to Herzogenbuchsee (p. 15) diverges to the S.E. 
Beautiful view of Bern and the Alps on the right. Stations Oster- 
mundingen, Oiimlingen (Hotel Mattenhof; junction for Lucerne, 
p. 97) , Rubigen, (10 M.) Munsingen (*Pension Montandon-Bal- 



104 Route 28. THUN. Bernese 

siger). On the right the Stockhorn chain and Niesen (p. 106), the 
extreme spurs of the High Alps , and to the left the Monch, Jung- 
frau, and Bliimlisalp. 

From Munsingen to the Bei.pberu, the only eminence between the 
Aare and the Oiirbe. On leaving the railway station, we take the road to 
the right, leading to the ( 3 ,U M.) ' Schutzenfahre', a ferry by which the 
Aare is crossed; the path (partly cut in steps) then ascends (l>/< hr.) to 
the Harzern Spitze (2936'), the highest point, which commands a fine survey 
of the valley of the Aare as far as Bern and the Jura chain, the mountains 
of the Emmenthal, Thun and its lake, with the Alps from Pilatus to the 
Niesen and the Stockhorn chain. We may now descend to the S.E. by the 
village (3 M. ) of Oerzensee (rustic inn), picturesquely situated on a small 
lake, to the railway station (3 M.) Kiesen. 

14'/ 2 M. Stat. Kiesen. Near stat. Uttigen the train crosses the 
Aare, and reaches the Thun station, on the left bank of the Aare, 
near the lower bridge, !/'2 M. from the steamboat quay; passengers 
proceeding direct to Interlaken keep their seats until they reach 
the Scherzligen terminus and steamboat-station. 

19'/2 M. Thun. — Hotels. 'ThunekHof, a large new hotel, beauti- 
fully situated on the Aare, R. from 3, B. IV2, L. and A. 2, D. 4-5 fr. ; 
•Bellevue, also beautifully situated, with extensive grounds, R. 2'/-'. L 
and A 1, B. ly 2 , D. 4-5, pension 7-9 fr. — Freienhof; 'Kkeuz, R. 'J 1 /*, 
B. li/i, A. '/z fr. ; Hotel -Pension Bacmgarten, R. from 2, pension from 
6 fr.; 'Krone, adjoining the Town Hall, unpretending; Falke. — Pensions. 
Pension Eiehbiihl , near the castle of Hiinegg, 1 M. from Thun; Men, on 
the Amsoldingen road, well spoken of (5 fr.). 

Cafes. Freienhof, on the ground-floor of the hotel (see above). Cafi 
tlu Casino, on the way to the Bellevue. Best beer at the Steinbock oppos- 
ite the Kreuz (see above) and at the Cafi dtt Pont, on the way to the 
railway station. 

Telegraph Office opposite the Post-office. 

Honey Changer. A. Knechlenhofer. 

Baths in the lake C/jfr.), near the Bellevue. 

Rowing-boat on the lake, according to tariff at the Bellevue, 3 fr. per 
hour, 2 hrs. 5 fr., 3 hrs. 7, 1/2 day 8, whole day 10 fr. ; the terms of the 
boatmen themselves are less exorbitant. — Fiacre 40 c. per drive. — Carved 
Wood at Kehrli-filerehi's near the Bellevue. 

English Chapel in the grounds of the Bellevue. 

Thun (1844'), with 4623 inhab. (200 Rom. Cath.), charmingly 
situated on the Aare, 3 / 4 M. below its efflux from the lake, 
forms a fitting introduction to the beauties of the Oberland. 
The principal street is curious. In front of the houses projects 
a row of magazines and cellars, about 10' in height, on the flat 
roofs of which is the pavement for foot passengers, flanked 
with the shops. Thun is the centre of the trade of the Ober- 
land. Near the bridge a covered -way of 218 steps (farther up 
there is another road without steps) leads to the Church, erected 
in 1738. *View from the churchyard, embracing the old-fashioned 
town, the two arms of the rapid river, the fertile and well-culti- 
vated plain, and the Niesen , beyond which the snow-flelds of the 
Uliimlisalp are visible. — Near the churchyard rises the large 
square tower of the old Castle of Zahringen-Kybury with a turret 
at each corner, and within the walls of the castle the Amts-Schloss, 
or residence of the bailiffs, erected in 1429. The descendants of 



Oberlavd. THUN. I'.v. Route. 105 

the barons of Thun have emigrated, and the Austrian counts of 
the name are said to belong to the same family. 

Thun is the seat of the Federal Military School for officers and 
sergeants, chiefly of artillery and engineers. 

Walks. Above the town on the right bank of the Aare, through the 
Bellevue grounds (admission free), to the Pavilion St. Jacques (2388'), 
which commands an extensive "view of the lake , the Alps , Tliun , and 
the valley of the Aare; the 'Pavilion Bellevue', the path to which is 
indicated at the first pavilion, is 5 rain, higher, but the view from it 
only embraces Thun and the valley of the Aare. 

Another walk is by the road on the right (N.) bank of the lake 
across the Bachimatt to the (20 min.) Chartreuse (the property of M. de 
Parpart). Here we turn to the left, passing the Bdchiholzh , cross (10 min.) 
the Hiinibach, and follow a new path through the picturesque "Kohleren- 
schluclil, where the brook forms several small falls. This leads us up 
into the Griisisberger Wald (see below) and to the Goldiwyl road O/shr.), 
by which we may return to Thun (see below ; after a few minutes a 
finger-post indicates the way to the Pavilion St. Jacques to the left). Or 
we may continue our excursion (1 hr.) by Eidihvh and Ileiligenschwendi 
to the "Haltenegg (3287'), which commands a magnificent view of the lake 
and the Alps. 

A charming walk may also be taken on the new Goldiwyl Road, which 
diverges to the right from the Steffisburg road, at the 'ffiibelf, a few 
hundred yards to the U. of the town. The beautifully wooded 'Griisis- 
berg, on the slope of which the road ascends, is intersected with good 
paths, furnished with finger-posts. The finest points of view are the 
Rabenfluh (3844') and the Brdndlisberg. The village of Goldiwyl (Zysset's 
Inn) is about 3'/2 M. from Thun. The most picturesque way back is 
through the Kohleren Ravine (are above); or we may ascend the Blume 
(p. 108), and return by Sigriswyl and Gonlen (p. 108). 

The handsomest of the villas on the lake is Schadau (the property 
of M. de Rougemont), a modern Gothic building, charmingly situated 
between the left bank of the Aare and the lake. The sculptures in 
sandstone with which it is decorated deserve inspection. On Sundays 
the garden is open to the public. — Farther distant, on the right bank , 
is the chateau of Hiinegg , in the French Renaissance style, the property 
of M. de Parpart. 

Longer Excursions. Thieracliern (1867'; *L6we, pension 3'/a to 5 fr., 
beautiful view), 3 M. to the W. ; 3 M. farther W., Bad Blvmenstein and the 
Fallback; thence in 2'/:2 hrs. to the Gurnigel (5069'), on the K.W. slope 
of which, 3 /4 hr. below the summit, are the much frequented Baths (3783') 
of the same name ( R. 2 ] /'2-6 fr. ). Burgistein (2690') , a village and castle 
with fine view, 911. N.W. of Thun. Amsoldingen (Roman tombstones), 3>/vM. 
S.W., and the ancient tower of Strdltligen (p. 157), 3>/ 2 M. S. of Thun. The 
undulating district between the Stockenthal and Thun abounds with walks 
and pleasing mountain landscapes. 

To Fef.ibueg (27 M.) a direct road leads through (9 M.) Riggisberg 
(2503'; *Hirsch), beyond which a fine view of the Stockhorn, the Niesen, 
and the snow-peaks of the Bernese Oberland is enjoyed ; then crossing the 
Schwarzwasser to (7i/ 2 M.) Scliwarzenbvrg , and crossing the Sense, which 
separates the cantons of Bern and Freiburg, to (IOV2 M.) Freiburg. 

To Saanen through the valley of the Sirnme, see R. 37. 

b. The Niesen. 

Comp. Map, p. 102. 

Three good bridle-paths, which cannot be mistaken, lead to the summit: 
(1st) on the K. side from Wnuinis in 5 (down in 3) hrs. ; (2nd) on the K., from 
the Heustrich-Bad, 3 /4 M. from Miihlenen (p. 151) , in the same time ; (3rd) 
on the S. side, from Frutigen (p. 151) in 5-6 hrs. 

From Thun to Wimmis by the road !>/■• M. (one-horse carr. in l'/i hr. 



106 Route 2«. NIESEN. Bernese 

8 fr. ; diligence as far as Brotliausi, see p. 157). Steamboat to Spiez (p. 108); 
thence by Spiezwyler to Wimmis 3 3 /< M- (one horse carriage 4 fr. , to the 
Heustrich-Bad 6 fr.). — Omnibus from Thun to the Heustrich-Bad daily 
at 4 p.m. (i'/a fr. ; from the Heustrich-Bad at 9 a.m.); one-horse carr. in 
l'/2 hr., S fr. — Diligence from Spiez to the Heustrich-Bad and Frutigen 
twice daily in 2'/s hrs. 

Horse to the top of the Niesen, and back on the same day, from 
Wimmis, Frutigen, or the Heustrich-Bad 17 fr. ; if a night be spent on 
the summit, 25 fr. From Frutigen to Wimmis or the Heustrich-Bad over 
the Niesen in one day 30, two days 35 fr. — (luicle (unnecessary) G, if kept 
till next day, 8 fr. Chair porters 10, if kept till next day, 12 fr. 

From the post-station Brotliausi (p. 157) a footpath descends 
to the left, to the deep, stony bed of the Simme, crosses it by a 
wooden bridge, and ascends to Wimmis. The carriage-road de- 
scribes a circuit of t M. 

Wimmis (2080' ; *Liiwe) is pleasantly situated in a fertile 
district at the SI. base of the Burgfluh (507'2'j, and overlooked 
by a castle, now occupied by a school and the district-authori- 
ties. The church is said to have been founded by King Ru- 
dolph II. of Burgundy in 933. 

From Wimmis to the Niesen. The path ascends on the S. side 
of the Burgfluh. At the village fountain it leads in a straight direction; 
after 25 min. it turns to the left by agate; the (12 min.) Staldenbarh is 
then crossed, beyond which there can be no mistake. The N. slopes of 
the Rettfluh are next ascended. Refreshments at the first inhabited chalet 
on the 'BerglT. About, halfway, by the chalets of Untentalden, the path 
crosses to the right bank of the Staldenbach, and winds up the sunny slopes 
of the Niesen, past the chalets of Oberstalden. The prospect first unfolds 
itself beyond the Stnldenegg, a sharp ridge connecting the Bett/fuh (7924', 
also called Fromberghom or lliitter-Niescn) with the Niesen, and the vast 
snow-fields of the Bliimlisalp and Doldenhorn become visible. 

From the Heustrich-Bad (p. 150). This is the best route. The bridle- 
path ascends in windings for 1 hr. to the W., through beautiful beech- 
woods, then for •/« hr. to the S. to the '■Sehlerhleamaldegg' ( superb view); 
finally 2'/2 hrs. towards the N. to the summit of the Niesen. The path 
is provided with benches, on which the distances and heights are given. 
Numerous and diversified views on this route. (Drinking water scarce.) 

From Fkhtioen (p. 150) to the summit of the Niesen 5 hrs. (guide 
unnecessary). The bridle-path diverges to the left near the end of the 
village, and crosses the meadows to WhiMn ( '/a hr.), from which it as- 
cends in windings through the wood for i/ a hr. Then a gentle ascent 
across meadows to the Senligrahru (l'^hr.), to the Xirsrnrgg (20 min.) 
and the Niesrn-Chalet C/ 4 hr.). The path unites on the Slaldenegg (1 hr.) 
with that from Wimmis. This route in the reverse direction affords a 
beautiful view of the Kanderthal and the Alps. 

Inn, 5 min. from the summit, K. 3, B. 2, D. or S. 3'/4, b- and A. 1 fr. ; 
40 c. charged for lire in the dining-room. 

The *Niesen (77fi:i'; Rigi . r .'IU(}' ; Faulhom 8803'), the con- 
spicuous N. outpost of a ramification of the Wildstrubel , and 
like Pilatus considered an infallible barometer (see p. 76), rises 
in the form of a gently sloping pyramid. The rocks at the 
base are clay-slate, those of the upper part sandstone-conglo- 
merate. The summit consists of a narrow crest, terminated by 
two small peaks, below one of which the inn is situated; the 
odor. ,'!(I0 paces from the inn, is a little higher, and com- 
mands an uninterrupted prospect. The Alps are seen to greater 



Oberland. LAKE OF THUN. 28. Route. 107 

advantage than from the Rigi ; indeed, the view is scarcely inferior 
to that from the Faulhorn. As the group of the Wetterhorner, etc. 
forms the foreground of the view from the latter, so the Niesen 
commands an unimpeded prospect of the broad snow-fields of the 
Blumlisalp, rising at the extremity of the Kienthal. 

View. The moat conspicuous of the snow-mountains are the following : 
in the distance to the E. the Titlis ; nearer, the Wetterhorner and Schreck- 
horner, the Eiger, Monch, Jungfrau, Gletscherhorn, Ebnefluh, Mittaghorn, 
Grosshorn, Breithorn, and Tschingelhorn ; towards the S. the Frau or 
Blumlisalp, the Doldenhorn, Balmhorn, and Altels; to the W. , the Wild- 
horn, appearing between two black peaks ; to the left of these the pinnacles 
of the Mont Blanc group ; finally the two peaks of the Dent du Midi, form- 
ing the last snow - group towards the W. The entire lake of Thun is vi- 
sible , and part of that of Brienz. The thickly peopled valleys of the 
Simme , Engstligenbach , and Kander, and the Kienthal may he traced for 
a considerable distance. Towards the N. the course of the Aare, and the 
hilly country of Bern, as far as the Jura, complete the prospect (comp. 
Dill's excellent Panorama at the inn). The most favourable light is towards 
sunset. During the day the plains alone are seen to advantage. 

c. From Thun to Inter laken. Lake of Thun. 

Comp. Map, p. 102. 
Steamboat 4-5 times daily in l l /t hr. from Thun (Scherzligen; comp. 
p. 104) to Darligen (stations Oberhofen , Qonten, Spiez, Faulensee, Leissigen, 
the last not always touched at). — Railway from Darligen to Interlaken in 
connection with the steamboats in lOmin. , fare 80 or 40 c. (1st class fare from 
Thun to Interlaken 2 fr. 80 c.) ; from Interlaken to Bonigen (p. 131) in 12 min., 
fare 80 or 40 c. — Road on the S. bank to Interlaken (18 M.), a pleasant 
drive ; on the N. bank there is a road to (9 M.) Merligen (p. 108), from which 
a path leads to Interlaken in 2 hrs., and another to Beatenberg in l 3 /4 hr. 

The Lake of Thun (1837') is 10 1/2 M. long, and 2 M. 
broad ; its greatest depth is 1844'. The banks are at first 
studded with picturesque villas and gardens , but further on, 
the N. bank becomes precipitous. 

The steamboat starts from the quay near the Bellevue hotel 
p. 104), and ascending the Aare, stops at Scherzligen, the railway- 
terminus (see p. 104). To the left lies the picturesque Chartreuse 
(p. 105); to the right, where the Aare emerges from the lake, 
Schloss Schadau (p. 105). The Stockhorn (7195'), with its conical 
summit, and the pyramid of the Niesen (7763') rise on the right 
and left of the entrance to the valleys of the Kander and Simme 
(p. 157). On the left of the Niesen the three peaks of the Blumlis- 
alp; on the right, in the background of the Kanderthal, the Freun- 
denhorn , Doldenhorn, Balmhorn with the Altels, and the Rinder- 
horn gradually become visible (from left to right). In the direction 
of Interlaken appear successively (from right to left) the Jungfrau, 
Monch, Eiger, Schreckhorn, and Wetterhorn. 

The steamer skirts the N.E. bank, which is clothed with 
vineyards , and higher up with woods, and passes the pleasant 
village of Hillerfingen (Pension des Alpes) ; to the left the chateau 
of Hilnegg (p. 105). It touches at Oberhofen (Pensions *Moy, 
Zimmermann, Oberhofen, and Beaurivage), which possesses a pic- 



108 Routt in. Sl'lEZ. Bcrnexe 

turesque chateau of Count Pourtales, onre ttie seat of Walther von 
Eschenbaeh, and recently restored, and a hospital founded by the 
Pourtales family; then atGonten ( Weisses Kreuz ; Pension da Lac; 
Pension Schonberg, higher up the hill). 

A new road ascends from (ionten to ( 3 / 4 M.) Sigriswyl (2621': Pension 
Bar, rustic), a prettily situated village, which attracts a few visitors in 
summer. The Blume (4577'), which is ascended hence in 2 hrs., is worthy 
of a visit for the sake of the magnificent view it commands. Another 
good point of view is the Jiergli, a peak of the Ralligstocke (pee below). 
On the slope of the hill, about 1 31. from Sigriswyl, in the direction of 
the Jvstistlial, is the Schafloch, a cavern 330 yds. long, with a deposit of ice 
in the interior. The ascent of the Sigriswyler Rot/i/wru (6738'; 3>l-i hrs., 
with guide) is fatiguing; magnificent view. 

The steamer now crosses the lake at the broadest part, and 
steers towards the IS. to Spiez (*Spiezer Hof, at the landing-place, 
with garden on the lake, pension 7 fr. ; *Pension Schiinegg, '/ 2 M. 
from the landing place, pension 6-7 fr.), a small village on a pro- 
montory on the S. bank, with a picturesque old chateau, which for 
300 years has belonged to the Von Erlach family. (Ascent of the Nie- 
sen, p. 106; diligence toFrutigen, p. 150, toZweisininien, p. 157.) 
From the neighbourhood of Spiez, two black peaks are visible for 
a short time towards the E. , above the 8. bank of the lake of 
Brienz ; that to the right is the Faulhorn, the broader to the left 
the Schwarzhorn. 

The next station is Faulensee ; on the hill, 20 min. above the 
village, is the new Faulensee-Bad , will a mineral spring, well 
litted up, and commanding a beautiful view (pension 7'^ fr.). 

On the left, as the steamboat proceeds towards Darligen, rises 
the abrupt Sigriswyler Orat, from which tower the bold Ralligstocke 
(5453') and the Sigriswyler Rothhom (li738'). Beyond Merligen 
(Lowe), at the mouth of the Justisthal, a rocky headland called the 
JVose stretches into the lake. A little further, on the N. side, rises 
the Beatenberg, with the Cavern of St. Beatus (Beatenhohle, '27 rV2' ; 
p. 113). The stream which rises in the cavern frequently in- 
creases rapidly, rills it, and bursts forth from it with a roar like 
thunder. St. Beatus, the first preacher of Christianity in this 
district, is said to have dwelt in the cave. Farther on, the ravine 
of the Sundgraben opens upon the lake, above which we observe 
the village of St. Beatenberg (p. 112; a somewhat steep bridle-path 
ascends from Merligen in l 3 / 4 hr. to the Kurhaus). 

The next place on the S. bank is Krattiyen- then Leissigen 
(Steinbock), at the base of the Morgenberghorn (p. 114), pleasantly 
situated among fruit-trees. The steamboat stops at Darligen 
(Hirsch), the terminus of the 'Bodeli Railway,' by which passen- 
gers are conveyed to Interlaken in 10 min. Opposite to it, on the 
N. bank, lies Neuhaus, the old landing-place of the steamers. 

The railway skirts the lake for a short distance. To the left, at 
the influx of the Aare, is the ruin of Weissenau (p. 112). To the 
right, farther on, a picturesque view of the Monch, Eiger, and 



Oberland. INTERLAKEN. 28. Route. 109 

Jungfrau is obtained. The station for Interlaken is at the village 
of Aarmiihle, !/ 4 M. from the beginning of the Heheweg. 

d. Interlaken and its Environs. 

Hotels and Pensions. On the Hoheweg at Interlaken (in the direc- 
tion from the railway-station to the Lake of Brienz) : "Hotel Ritschard 
(PI. 1), R. from 3, B. 13/ 4 , L. and A. 2, D. 5, pension 8-10 fr. ; Victoria 
(PI. 2) ; beyond it the small Pension Voltz (PI. 12) ; 'Jungfrau (PI. 3), 
a new and spacious edifice, R. from 3, B. li/ 2 , D. 4'/2, A. 1 fr. ; "Schwei- 
zekhof (PI. 4); "Belvedere (PI. 5), by the Kursaal, R. from 3, D. 5 fr. ; 
Hotel oes Alpes (PI. 6); "Casino (PI. 7), R. 3, I>. 4>/2 fr. ; "Hotel Inter- 
laken (PI. 8); "Hotel Beaurivage (PI. 9), handsomely fitted up, with 
river and shower baths, garden, and fine view, R. from 4, B. l>/2, D. 4-5, 
L. and A. I1/2 fr. ; "Hotel du Lac (PI. 10), R. 21/2, L. 1/2, B. V/-i fr. — 
These handsome hotels , situated on the so-called 'Hoheweg' (p. 110) and 
erected within the last 30-40 years , were originally fitted up as 'Pensions 1 
only. — At the village of Aarmiihle: "Hotel Oberland (PI. 15), R. 2, 
D. 3 , B. l'/2, L. and A. 1 fr. 5 opposite to it, Rossli (PI. 14) ; Weisses 
Kreuz (PL 13); "Hotel Elmer (PI. 11), with restaurant; all these 
are second-class. Hotel de la Gare , opposite the railway station. — 
Near the lower bridge over the Aare : 'Bellevue (PI. 16), pension 5V2- 
6'/« fr. — On the small island of Spielmatten in the Aare : "Hotel du 
Pont, or Alte Post (PL 17), R. 3, B. I1/2, L. and A. 1 fr. — At Unter- 
seen: "Hotel Unterseen (PI. 18); "Beau -Site (PL 19), pension 6-7 fr. 
— On the road from Aarmiihle to Matten (Gsteig, Grindelwald , Lauter- 
brunuen, etc.): "Deutsoher Hop (PL 23), R. 2'/s, B. I1/4, D. 31/2, pension 
6 fr.; "Hotel Wydek (PL 21); "Hotel Reber (PL 22), small, pension 6 
fr. ; "Hotel Ober , or the 'Schlosschen' (PL 24); "Hotel .Iungfraublick 
(PL 25), situated on a spur of the wooded Kleine Rugen (p. Ill), and com- 
manding an unbroken view, with pleasant grounds, and comfortably fitted 
up ; baths, whey, etc. ; pension before 1st July and after 15th Sept. only, 
71/2-9 fr. , R. from 4, B. 2, D. 5, L. and A. 2, omnibus l'/ 2 fr. ; "Hotel- 
Pens. Mattenhof, pens. inul. R. 6V2 fr. — Farther from Interlaken, 
beyond the bridge which crosses the Aare near the Hotel du Lac, and on 
the road to Brienz, is the P/4 31.) Pension Felsenegg, 5 l /s fr- a day, also a 
cafe. — Fournished rooms at the Villa Bischofberger (near the Hotel Ober) 
and in several other houses. — At Bbnigen on the S. bank of the Lake 
of Brienz, H/2 M- E- of Interlaken: "Pension Vogel , "Pension Bonigen, 
and Chalet du Lac. — At Beatrnberg (p. 112): "Kurhaus St. Beatenberg, 
new ; "Hotel des Alpes, pension 5-6 fr. ; Bellevue, with beautiful view, 
pension 6-7 fr. ; "Alpenuose (4-5 fr. ) ; 'Pension of the cure (previous appli- 
cation necessary). — At Gsteigwyler (p. 113): "Pension Schonfels, moderate. 

Kursaal on the Hoheweg, with reading, concert, and ball-rooms etc.; 
music daily 7-8 a. m., and 4-5 and 8-10 p. m. ; whey-cure 7-8 a. m. — The 
hotel-keepers, at whose expense this establishment is kept up, charge V2 fr. 
per day in their bills for its use. 

Restaurants, fndermiihle, adjoining the Hotel Beaurivage ; Berger, at 
the railway-station. — Confectioner: Vogel-Spiegelberg , near the Hotel 
Beaurivage. 

Honey Changers. IMsconto-Casse, near the Kursaal; Ebersold, near the 
railway-station. — Druggist: Seewer. 

Carriages, Horses, Guides, see p. 102. Donkeys, l l /-2 fr. per hr. 

Post and Telegraph Office at Aarmiihle, by the Oberlander Hof. 

English Church Service in the old Convent Church. 

The low land between the lakes of Thun and Brienz, which 
are 2 M. apart, is called the 'BadeH.' These lakes probably 
once formed a single sheet of water only , but were gradually 
separated by the deposits of the Lutsohlne (p. 115) flowing into 



110 Route 28. INTBRLAKEN. Bernese 

the Lake of Brienz, and the Lombach into the Lake of Ttaun. These 
accumulations, first descending from the S., out of the valley of 
Lauterbrunnen , and then from the N. out of the Habkeren valley, 
account for the curve which the Aare has been compelled to de- 
scribe. On this piece of land, 'between the lakes', lies Interlaken 
(1863'), which with the adjacent village of Aarmiilde and the 
small town of Unterseen extends nearly as far as the Lake of 
Brienz. 

The principal resort of visitors is the *Hohewkg, a handsome 
avenue of walnuts, extending from the village of Aarmiihle to 
the Upper bridge over the Aare , and flanked with large hotels and 
tempting shops. From the centre of the avenue, which is open 
towards the S., a beautiful view of the Lauterbrunnen-Thal and the 
Jnngfrau is obtained. On the N. side is the Kursaal, a building 
in the Swiss style, with garden, reading-room, verandah, etc., the 
entrance to which is between the Schweizerhof and Belvedere 
hotels (music, see above). A little farther, on the S. side, rise the 
old religious houses of Interlaken, founded in 1130, and suppressed 
in 1528, surrounded by beautiful walnut-trees. The K. wing of 
the monastery is used as a hospital for the poor; the rest of the 
building, with the >Schloss added in 1750, is occupied by govern- 
ment-offices. The nunnery has been converted into a prison. 
The only remaining parts of the church are the tower and the 
choir. The latter is fitted up as an Enylish Chapel. The old 
English chapel is now a Rom. Oath, place of worship, where a 
French sermon is preached every Sunday. To the left, at the upper 
end of the Hoheweg , the road to Brienz crosses the Aare by a 
handsome new bridge ; to the right, 5 min. farther on, is the Zoll- 
haus station of the Bodeli Railway (p. 131). 

The continuation of the Hoheweg towards the W. is formed 
by the busy street which leads through the village of Aarmiihle 
(containing with Interlaken 189(i inhab.), and past the Post Office 
(see above), to the not far distant station of the Biideli Railway. 
To the right are two bridges (view) crossing the island of Spiel- 
matten to the small town of Unterseen (188(1 inhab.), which con- 
sists chiefly of wooden houses darkened with age, with a large 
square and a wooden church. At Aarmuhle and Unterseen there 
are extensive manufactories of parcjueterie. 

Interlaken attracts numerous visitors in summer, chiefly 
(iernian, English, and American, and is noted for its mild and 
equable temperature. The whey-cure is an inducement to some, 
while many select it as a resting-place on account of the mag- 
nificent scenery by which it is surrounded. To those who have 
ample time at their disposal it is particularly recommended as 
head-quarters for excursions among the mountains and valleys 
of the (iberland, in the intervals between which they may recruit 
their strength and enjoy repose. 



Oberland, 



INTERLAKEN. 



28. Route. Ill 



Walks. To the *Kleine Bugen (2424'), 3 / 4 hr. A broad path 
(from the Jungfraublick to the right at a circular bench), provided 
with benches and direction boards , ascends gradually , affording 
varying views of the Bodeli and the lakes of Thun and Brienz , to 
the Trinkhalle (Restaurant), a long covered building with a terrace. 
This point commands a fine view of the Jungfrau , Monch , and 




tcM'saniM 



Gco£ravh-An.&talt \ 



~ V^ncr; SoWf.VipsTg 



valley of Lauterbrunnen. The path then continues its circuit of thq 
hill, and at a circular plateau turns to the right. The ascent towards 
the right affords the finest succession of views. From this walk nu^ 
merous shady and pleasant by-paths diverge, leading to different 
points of view and resting-places. The summit of the hill (2424') 
also affords a view. About the beginning of the century the hill was 
planted with specimens of all the trees which grow in Switzerland. 
The ruined castle of Unspunnen (2 M.), which commands a. 



112 Route 2S. INTERLAKEN. Bernese 

view of the Lauterbrunnen valley, the Jungfrau, and Monch, is 
reached by a path diverging to the right from the Lauterbrunnen 
road between Matten and Wilderswyl, beyond the Kleine Rugen; 
or through the Wagneren-Schlucht, which opens towards the road 
from Matten to Thun , a little beyond the Rugen path , and is 
reached from the railway-station by a new road in 10 min. (Near 
the ruin, Restaurant Rigi-Oberland and Cafe Unspunnen.^) 

To the *Heimweh-Fluh, '/. 2 hr. In the Wagneren-Schlucht, about 
300 yds. from the entrance, a narrow path diverges to the right, 
and ascends in 20 min. to a Restaurant, the terrace of which com- 
mands a charming *view of the Bodeli and the lakes of Thun and 
Brienz, while the Jungfrau, Monch, and Eiger are seen from 
the adjoining belvedere. — The way from the Trinkhalle (see 
above) to the Heimwehfluh is as follows. About 35 paces above 
the former turn to the left ; GO paces farther descend to the right ; 
cross the road in the Wagneren-Schlucht, and ascend by the path 
through the wood opposite. 

The ruined castle of Weissenau (2 SI.), on an island in the Aare near 
its influx into the lake of Thun (p. 108), is reached by the old road from 
Matten, or by the road from Unterseen to Thun. 

In the opposite direction, on the right bank of the Aare, rises the 
Hohbuhl (2070 1 ; '/a hr.). The path ascends to the left immediately beyond 
the new upper bridge over the Aare (the lower path Ui the left leads to 
the Vogtsruhe on the Aare, a resting-place and spring). The pavilion com- 
mands a line view , which is still more extensive from the grassy slopes 
of the Untere Bleicki, a few hundred paces higher. (The footpath leads 
to the right, crossing a brook after 10 min.) From the Hohbiihl a path 
descends to the Vogtsruhe, skirts the right bank, and leads past a ride- 
ground to the narrow ;iml stony plain of Guldei, between the Harder and 
the Aare, at the base of the Falkenfluh , the upper part of which, seen 
from the proper point of view, resembles an old man's face (the Harder- 
'liuituiU). On a barren eminence below the Falkenfluh, and reached by a 
path from the Goldei, is the Lustbuhl pavilion, commanding a beautiful 
view of Interlaken and the Jungfrau. Several caverns, called the Zwerg- 
lorher, are seen in the walls of the Harder farther on. From the Goldei 
we may either return by Unterseen, or (by a footpath to the right) ascend 
the hill '///i Brand', on which justice was anciently administered; thence 
to the left in 1/4 br., crossing the Lombach, to the Eek, a hill at the base 
of the Beatenberg; all beautiful points of view. — The Thurmberg, as- 
cended from Goldswyl ('/-j hr.), beyond Felsenegg on the road to Brienz 
(p. 131), also affords a panorama of the lakes of Thun and Brienz, the 
course of the Aare, and the small, sombre lake of Goldswyl, or Faulentet. 
— Another walk may be taken by the same road to (3 M.) Ringgenberg, 
with a picturesque church built among the ruins of the castle (view), 
and to the Scliadhurg (I '/a Jl. farther), situated on a spur of the Graggen, 
an untinished castle of the ancient barons of Ringgenberg. 

*St. Beatenberg (;>7l>7'; 2'/ 2 hr.s. , carr. with one horse 15, 
with two horses \lf> fr. ) is reached by a road which diverges about 
1 M. from InterUken to the left from the road into the Habkernthal 
(p. 114). It crosses the Lombach and ascends through wood in 
numerous windings (which may be avoided by short-cuts). A 
pavilion (refreshments) halfway up commands a tine view of the 
lake of Thun. The village of St. Ue.itenbe.rg (hotels, see p. 109) 
is a favourite summer abode, and is specially recommended to 



Oberland. SCHYNIGE PLATTE. 28. Route. 113 

nervous patients. It lies in a sheltered situation on both sides of 
the Sundgraben , which opens towards the lake of Thun (bridle- 
path to Merligen, see p. 108), and commands an admirable view of 
the Alps from the Finsteraarhorn to the Niesen, including the Eiger, 
Monch, Jungfrau , Blumlisalp, Doldenhorn , and Wildstrubel. A 
still finer point of view is the Amnisbiihel , 20 min. E. of the Hotel 
des Alpes. 

Ascent of the Gtmmenalphorn, see p. 114. — The Niederhorn (6447') 
and the Burgfeldstand (6782') are also excellent points of view (each as- 
cended in 3 hrs.). 

The Beatenhbhle (p. 108), with its (in spring) beautiful waterfall, 
may be visited from Neuhaus by boat (5 fr. ; 2 hrs. there and back), 
passing the pleasant villa of Leerau; or by a path (to the right before 
Neuhaus is reached), passing the Kiiblisbad and the village of Sundlauenen 
(I'/z hr.), and at places skirting the precipice high above the lake, but 
unattended with danger. 

To the *Giessbach on the Lake of Brienz (p. 131) a steamer 
four times daily in summer (comp. p. 130). 

Bonigen (l f /2 M.) , Gsteig (p. 115), with a fine view from 
the churchyard (3 M.), and Gsteigwyler ( 3 / 4 M. farther), with 
the 'Hohe Steg' crossing the Liitschine, also afford pleasant walks. 

Longee Excursions. The *Schynige Platte (6791') is one of 
the finest points of view in the Bernese Oberland. There is prob- 
ably no other from which the valleys of Lauterbrunnen and 
Grindelwald are simultaneously visible in their entire length. 
(Horse, incl. carriage to Gsteig, 20 fr, boy to carry luggage 1-2 fr.) 
From Interlaken to (2 M.) Osteig, see p. 115. Crossing the bridge 
at the church here, and turning to the right, a good road leads us 
to (3/ 4 M.) Gsteigwyler (*Pension Sohonfels). In the middle of 
the village the path ascends to the left ; after 12 min. the new 
bridle-path diverges to the right , leading in numerous zigzags 
through wood to the (2 hrs.) small restaurant of Schonegg (4754'; 
with a few beds) , which affords a fine view of Interlaken and the 
two lakes. The path next leads to the (1 hr.) top of the moun- 
tain crest, and crosses its W. extremity (to the right is a fur- 
rowed rock called the 'Ameisenhaufen' or ants' hillock). A few 
steps more bring us to a striking scene. The Lauterbrunnen 
valley lies at our feet ; to the left towers the majestic Jungfrau, 
while immediately in front are dizzy abysses, descending almost 
perpendicularly to the Liitschine. Following the S. slope of the 
crest for 35 min. , we arrive at the Hotel Alpenrose (R. 3-4 , B. 
1 7-2-2, L. and A. V/ 2 fr.). The Platte, a crumbling and 'shining' 
slate-rock (whence its appellation), is about 60 paces from the hotel. 
The finest view is obtained from a bend in the path, a few paces 
before the Platte is reached. The traveller should not omit to visit 
the Iselten Alp, l / t hr. to the N.E., a pasture which supports a 
herd of 600 cattle, with their pleasant tinkling bells. 

In order to enjoy a complete panorama, we walk N.W. from the hotel, 
skirt the left side of the perpendicular Gumihorn (6893'), and ascend the 
Daube (or Tubihorn, 6772': >/2 hr. , new path), whence the survey of the 
Baedeker, Switzerland. 7*h Edition g 



114 Route 28. ABENDBERG. Bernese 

lakes toward the N. is very tine. Towards the S. we enjoy a magnificent 
view of the Bernese Alps : from left to right, the Wellhorn, Wetterhomer, 
Berglistock, Upper Grindelwald Glacier, Schreckhorner, Lauteraarhorner, 
Lower Grindelwald Glacier, F'insteraarhorn (peeping over the Eigergrat), 
Viescherhorner, Eiger , Monch, Jungfrau, Ebne-Fluh , Mittaghorn , Gross- 
horn, Breithorn, Tschingelhorn, Tschingelgrat, Gspaltenhorn, Weisse Frau, 
Doldenhorn, and numerous nearer peaks; far below is the Staubbach in 
the valley of Lauterbrunnen. — The old path from Gsteig to the Schynige 
Platte over the BreitUmenen Alp is seldom used now. Another path as- 
cends from Gsteig between the church and the inn, to the left, reaching 
the new bridle-path at the point where it enters the wood, and cutting 
off the circuit by Gsteigwyler. — From the Schynige Platte to the Faul- 
horn (4 hrs., down in 3 lira.), see p. .126. — Descent from the Platte by 
Giindliichwand to ZiceUiilsr/unen in 2V2-3 hrs.; guide desirable, the path not 
being well defined. 

The Harder (5216', 3 hrs.) should not be ascended without a guide, 
as accidents have occurred from the precipitous character of the slopes. 

The Habkernthal, between the Harder and Beatenberg, may also 
be explored. Carriage road to the village of (6M.) Habkern (3501'; rustic 
inn), from which three points of view may be visited: (1) the "Qemmen- 
alphorn (6772') or Giiggisgrat, which is reached by the Brandlisegg, or by 
following the course of the Buhlbach, in 4 hrs. (better still from Unter- 
seen direct to (2>/2 hrs.) Waldegg (3986', a hamlet in the parish of Beaten- 
berg), and thence by the Leimern to the summit in 2 hrs.]; (2) the Hoh- 
gant (7215'), reached by the Bohlegg (5902'} and Hagletschalp, or by the Alp 
Bbsdlgdu and through the Karrholen in 4 hrs. [a path to the S. of the Hoh- 
gant leads over the Griinenberg (5095') , a pass between Habkern and 
Schangnau in the Emmenthal, in 6 hrs.]; (3) the Avgitmatthorn (Suggithvrm, 
6844'), by the Bodmi-Alp (2 hrs.), and thence to the summit in l>/s hr. 

The Hotel Bellevue (3737'j on the Abendberg , 2 hrs. from Interlaken 
by the bridle-path (a shorter footpath by the Heimwehtluh in l'/2 hr.), 
commands a fine view. A more extensive panorama is enjoyed on the 
Rothenegg (6234'), the next peak of this range, which culminates in the 
Morgenberghorn (7385') above Leissigen. The path leads to the (1 hr.) 
Upper Alp, beyond which it ascends over pastures to the arete ( 3 /4 hr.) 
and (1.) to the top. 

In the Saxetenthal, between the Abendberg and Bellenhbchst (6870'), a 
new road leads to the (7 1 /-j M.) village of Saxeten (3602 1 ; accommodation 
at the schoolmaster's); l /i hr. further are the falls of the Giirben and 
Weissbach, and the valley is picturesquely closed by the Schwalmern 
(9137'). — The 'Sulegg (7914'), an excellent point of view, may be 
ascended from Saxeten. The path (guide desirable) ascends by the Giir- 
benfall to the right, and afterwards keeps to the left, to the (1 hr.) Ness- 
leren-Alp, where it crosses the Gurbenbach and farther on several other 
brooks descending from the Sulegg. The Bellen-Alp (l',« hr.) is then 
reached, where the path divides, that to the right ascending past a stone 
man (1 hr.), up a steep meadow (40 min.), and across the arete to the 
top (20 min.); whereas the left branch (somewhat less laborious) passes 
between the Sulegg and Bellenhochst and skirts the slope of the Sulegg 
to the Bull-Alp (1 hr.), whence the summit is reached in 1 hr. — The 
ascent is easier from Eisenfluh (see below): thence to the Alp Suls l'/i, 
to the summit l'/2 hr. 

Interlaken may also be made the head-quarters for most of 
the following excursions. 

e. From Interlaken to lauterbrunnen. Staubbach. 

Cowji. Map, p. J"2. 
7'/2 M. Carriage there and back, one-horse 11, two-horse 20 fr., see 
p. 102; one-horse can-, from Interlaken to Zweilutschinen 7, to Lauter- 
brunnen 9, Interlaken 16 fr. ; diligence from Interlaken to Lauterbrunnen 
2 fr. 75 c. 



Oberland. LAUTERBRUNNEN. 26'. Route. 1 1 5 

The load first traverses orchards and meadows , and passes 
through (1 M.) Matten (Hirsch), where it divides; that to the 
right is the shorter, leading to ( 3 / 4 M.) WUderswyl (*Bar, pension 
4-5 fr.) and ('/ 4 M.) Mulinen; that to the left, the longer (l/ 4 M. 
more), leads via Osteig (p. 113) to (l'^M.^Mulinen. The Saxeten- 
bach is then crossed , and a narrow gorge soon entered, through 
which the Lutschine flows. To the right rises the precipitous 
Rothenfluh. A spot in this defile, marked by an inscription on the 
rock C/2 M.), is named the Bbsenstein, where a baron of Rothen- 
fluh is said to have slain his brother. 

Near (2'/ 4 M.) Zweilutschinen (2132'; Bar, R. li/ 2 , B. iy 2 fr., 
pension 4 fr.), a village on the right bank of the Liitschine, the 
valley divides. That of the Black Lutschine to the left ascends 
to (7'/ 2 M.) Grindelwald (view of the Wetterhorn in the back- 
ground) , that of the White Lutschine in a straight direction to 
(2'/4 M.) Lauterbrunnen. The valley of Lauterbrunnen , which 
begins at the Hunnenfluh, a rock resembling a gigantic tower, 
is bounded by precipitous slopes of calcareous rock, rising to a 
height of 1000-1500'. It derives its name [tauter Brunnen, i. e. 
'nothing but springs') from the numerous streams which descend 
from the surrounding rocks. 

An excursion may be made (guide unnecessary) from Zweilutschinen 
to (1 hr.) Eisenfluh (3602'). The first road diverging to the right from the 
Lauterbrunnen road rapidly ascends the \V. side of the mountain (shade 
after 3 p. m.; a second path ascends by the tiavsbach opposite the Hun- 
nenfluh, see above). Refreshments at the schoolmaster's, near the upper 
fountain in the village. Eisenfluh commands a magnificent view of the 
Jungfrau, which is seen to still better advantage on the path from 
Eisenfluh to JIurren (3 hrs., p. 116). Near the end of the village, this 
path turns to the left, leading to the (1 hr.) Sausbach, beyond which is 
the only steep ascent in the walk. (The traveller from Murren should, on 
leaving the forest, as soon as the bridge across the brook at the bottom of the 
valley comes in sight, quit the direct path and descend towards the bridge.) 
For I/'., hr. the path presents no difficulty, and the walk well repays the 
fatigue; the Jungfrau and its neighbours are seen to great advantage, 
especially on emerging from the forest, 25 min. from the inn, as the 
Schwarze Monch no longer intercepts the view. The path is generally 
narrow, and near the Sausbach is sometimes completely carried away by 
the rains, in which case the traveller should cross the meadow above the 
precipice (guide desirable; a villager or the schoolmaster of Eisenfluh). 
— Ascent of the 'Svlegg, see p. 114. 

Lauterbrunnen (2615'; *Steinbock , R. 2, B. l'/ 2 , D. 3, A. 
3/4 fr. ; *H6tel Lauterbrunnen ; *H6tel Staubbach , D. 4 fr. ; guides, 
Chr. Lauener, Vlr. Lauener, Friedr. Graf, Friedr. Fuchs, Joh. 
Steiner), a picturesque, scattered village , is situated on both banks 
of the Lutschine , in a rocky valley '/ 2 M. broad, into which in July 
the sun's rays do not penetrate before 7 a.m., and in winter not 
before noon. The snowy mountain-group to the S.E. is the Jungfrau, 
to the S. the Breithorn. (Fall of the Triimlenbach , a beautiful 
evening walk, see p. 118.) Carved wood good and cheap here. 

Upwards of twenty brooks fall from the rocky heights in the 
environs. The most important of these is the *Staubbach ('dust- 



116 Route -2 H. STAUBIUCH. Bernese 

brook'), 8 min. to the S. of the hotel. The brook, which is never 
of great volume, and decreases so much in summer as sometimes 
to disappoint the expectant traveller, descends in an unbroken 
fall of 980'. So small a body of water falling from such a height 
is converted, before it reaches the ground, into minute particles 
of spray, which the breeze scatters into fantastic and ever-varying 
forms. The cascade should be visited in the morning during 
sunshine-, when it resembles a transparent, silvery veil, wafted to 
and fro by the breeze, and frequently presenting the hues of the 
rainbow. The best point of view is in a meadow immediately in 
front of the fall, to the left of a seat indicated by a flag. 

f. Upper Valley of Lauterbrunnen. Murren. Fall of the 
Schmadribach. 

Comp. Map, p. 102. 

From Lauterbrunnen to Murren 2 3 /4hrs., Trachsellauinen 2hrs., to the 
Schmadribach and back 2 his., Lauterbrunnen 2'/2 hrs. — Horses, see p. 103. 

A day can hardly be more pleasantly spent than in visiting Murren, and 
the Full of the Schmadribach. The walk takes a whole day, and, if extended 
to the Upper Steinberg, is somewhat fatiguing; in the latter case a guide 
(8 fr.) may be engaged at Trachsellauinen. If it is intended to visit Murren 
only, which should be the principal object, the excursion from Lauter- 
brunnen, returning by Stechelberg, is easily accomplished in 6 hrs. (guide 
unnecessary). To Murren , Gimmelwald , and Stechelberg a bridle-path, 
thence to Lauterbrunnen (5 M.) carriage-road. The view from Murren being 
seen to the best advantage by evening light, the traveller may prefer to 
proceed first to the Schmadribach, and thence to Murren, where the night 
should be passed. (The path is in shade early in the morning and in the 
evening.) From Gimmelwald to Trachsellauinen there is a footpath, which 
is shorter than the route by Stechelberg (see p. 117). The ascent from 
Lauterbrunnen to Murren and the first half of the descent by Gimmelwald 
to Stechelberg may be performed on horseback , but the latter part of the 
descent is rugged and fatiguing. 

About 200 paces to the S. of the Steinbock hotel at Lauter- 
brunnen (2615') the path to Murren (2'/ 4 hrs.) leaves the valley 
and ascends rapidly to the right by the brook for 20 min. ; it then 
turns to the left, crosses the Oreifenbach (small waterfall) and two 
other brooks, and ascends through the wood to a (1 hr.) bridge over 
the Pletschbach, or Staubbach (4037'; Inn). The ascent soon be- 
comes less steep. We cross two branches of the Spiessbach, and quit 
the wood 1 hr. from the Staubbach. Here is suddenly disclosed a 
magnificent **View of an amphitheatre of mountains and glaciers; 
the Eiger and the Munch, the Jungfrau with its dazzling Silberhorn, 
the rugged precipices of the Schwarze MSnch, rising precipitously 
from the valley ; the wall of the Ebne-Fluh, its conical summit to 
the left, and its mantle of spotless snow ; adjoining it the Both- 
thalsattel; then the Mittaghorn, the Grosshorn, the Breithorn, from 
which the Schmadribach flows, the Tschingelhorn, and nearer, the 
Tschingelgrat and the Gspaltenhorn ; eight or ten glaciers descend 
from these snowy heights to the valleys below. The prospect is 
far more imposing than from the Wengernalp, although the view 
of the Jungfrau itself from the Wengernalp is unrivalled. 



Oberland. MURREN. 28. Route. 117 

From this point the newly constructed path traverses pastures, 
and in 25 min. reaches the Alpine village of Miirren (5348' ; *Grand 
Hotel des Alpes ; *H6lel Miirren and Silberhorn united ; charges at 
both, R. 3-4, B. V/o, D. 5, L. and A. 2 fr.), where the Wetterhom 
also becomes visible to the left, and the Furke to the extreme 
right (p. 117). A more extensive view is obtained from the All- 
mendhubel (V 2 hr.), a height to the W. above the village. 

The 'Schilthorn (9748') may be ascended in 4 hrs. by a new bridle- 
path, ending 1 hr. below the top , which is finally reached by traversing 
snow and slate-detritus (guide unnecessary except for the inexperienced). 
It rises to the W. of Miirren , and commands an admirable survey of the 
Jungfrau, the queen of the Bernese Alps. An extensive prospect is also 
obtained of the whole chain as far as the Bliimlisalp, the Altels, the Rigi, 
the N. of Switzerland, etc. The traveller is recommended to descend by 
the imposing Sefinen-Thal, passing the 'Briicke\ a charming point above 
Gimmelwald ; a route longer by l l /z hr. than the direct path, hut far more 
interesting. A shorter descent, but practicable for good walkers only, is 
by the Schilt-Thal to Gimmelwald. 

From Miirren the bridle-path descends to the left; 10 min., 
bridge over the Murrenbach; 20 min. , to the left between two 
chalets; 5 min. the hamlet of Gimmelwald (4547': *Zum Schilt- 
horn, also a pension); 25 min., bridge over the Seftnen-Lutschine, 
to the right, at the head of the Sefinen-Thal, is the Furke (p. 118), 
and to the left , from the Lauterbrunnen-Thal rises the Schwarze 
Monch. Then a slight ascent; 5 min., a shelving part of the path, 
unpleasant in rainy weather. The Sefinen-Liitschine here forms a 
beautiful "cascade, tinged with rainbow hues in the morning sun. 

At a bridge, a few minutes farther, the path divides : that to 
the left descends to Stechelberg (p. 118; i'/2 nr - f rom Miirren); 
that to the right (finger-post) to Trachsellauinen and the falls of 
the Schmadribach (see below). In one hour from this point the 
chalets of Trachsellauinen (4144' ; Hotel Schmadribach , R. 2, 
B. iy 2 > A. and L. 1 fr.) are reached. The path, now more difficult 
to trace, continues on the left bank. In 10 min. it passes a 
deserted silver-foundry, skirts a projecting mass of rock to the 
left, and ascends the Nadla; it next passes the chalets (^2 hr.) 
of the Lower Steinberg , and crosses the impetuous , glacier-fed 
Schmadribach and Thalbach; ascending the pasture on the right 
bank, it passes a waterfall ; the rugged Holdri is next mounted, in 
72 hr. the chalet of Leg ger is reached (l J / 4 hr. from Trachsel- 
lauinen), and the *Fall of the Schmadribach comes in sight. The 
stream must be crossed higher up by the traveller who desires to 
approach nearer the waterfall, but this hardly repays the loss of time. 
The loneliness of the locality, the imposing character of the cascade, 
and the magnificent panorama of mountains and glaciers, combine 
to present a very impressive scene. — The view is more extensive 
from the chalet of the Obere Steinberg (5794'), which is seen high 
up to the right on the pastures (ascent of l 3 / 4 hr. from Trachsellaui- 
nen by a rough path, guide desirable, 1^2 &■)• The traveller is re- 
commended to go. from Jrachfifillauinen to the Obere Steinberg, 



118 Route 28. SEF1NEN-FURKE. Bernese 

lather than to the Schmadri-Fall , as that point commands a beau- 
tiful view, including the waterfall itself, the Tschingel Glacier and 
the Tschingelhorner, which rise in the immediate vicinity. Adjoining 
the chalet (milk only to be had) is a hut with two beds of hay (conve- 
nient for the Tschingel expedition, p. 152). 

From Murren to the Obeee Steinberg, direct (2'/2 hrs. i guide 6 fr.), 
an interesting route, presenting no difficulty. Beyond the third bridge 
(1 hr.) on the way to Stechelberg, where there is a finger-post on the right 
indicating the way 'Zum Hotel Schmadribach 1/2 St.', we diverge to the 
right, ascend to the right in 5 min. more, and in 20 min. again turn to 
the right. We ascend past O/t hr.) a deserted shaft in zigzags (a spring 
of good water), reach (20 min.) a cattle-shed, and cross a precipitous 
gorge. The enclosure on the opposite side marks the beginning of the 
Obere Steinberg-Alp. In 20 min. more we reach the Chalet (see above), 
and enjoy a superb view. The descent is across pastures and through 
wood (Wilde Eck); then through a narrow ravine, stony and steep, and 
under two timber-slides, beyond which we reach (1 hr.) the chalets of 
the Lower Steinberg (see above). 

From Ihe Steinberg to Oastern and Kandersteg , across the Tschingel 
Olacier, a most interesting glacier-excursion, see p. 152. 

From Trachsellauinen to Lauterbrunnen is a walk of 2^2 hrs. ; 
25 min., bridge over the Liitschine, which dashes wildly down 
its rocky bed ; l / t hr. , bridge of Stechelberg (3025' ; path from 
Murren see above), where the bottom of the valley is reached. 
Near ('/a hr.) Matten we observe a picturesque fall of the Miirren- 
bach to the left. (In 1874 a young German lady lost her life by 
falling over the precipice below Murren, to a depth of 2000'.) At 
the (!/ 4 hr.) Dornigen-Brucke the path divides (road on right bank 
the more interesting). In 10 min., we reach a waterfall of the 
Rosenbach, issuing from a cleft in the rock. About 5 min. from 
the path is a picturesque waterfall of the *Trumlenbach, fed by 
the glaciers of the Jungfrau (p. 120), and rendered safely a cessible 
by flights of steps and railings (from the left bank, 1/2 *'•)• The 
stream is precipitated in copious volume from a narrow chasm into 
a cauldron worn by the action of the water. A few hours' leisure 
cannot be better spent than in visiting this spot from Lauter- 
brunnen, from which it is nearly 3 M. distant. 

From Lauterbrunnen by the Sefinen-Furke to Reichenbach in the 
Kienthal, or again leaving the Kienthal, over the Diindengrat to Kah- 
dersteg. The path mentioned at p. 117 traverses the Sefinen-Thal: from 
Lauterbrunnen to the Furke 51/2 hrs., down to the Kienthal 2 hrs., to the 
Diindengrat 3'/2 hrs., to the Oeschinenthal 2 hrs., Kandersteg l 1 /* nr -i al " 
together a rough walk of 15-16 hrs., the most fatiguing part being the 
passage from the Kienthal over the Diindengrat to Kandersteg , which is 
suitable for experienced climbers only. The night may, if necessary, be 
passed in one of the chalets of the Kienthal. Good guide necessary (to 
Kandersteg 25 fr.). The route presents a series of the grandest views, espe- 
cially at the beginning. It leads to Murren (p. 117) and thence to the 
Furke (8583'), a deep cleft between the Orosse Hundshorn (9620') and the 
liiittlassen (10,489')-, in ascending, we keep to the left and cross a stony 
slope in order to reach the opening in the rock. We then descend to the 
right (fine view of the Bliimlisalp or Weisse Frau), by the chalets of the 
DUrrenberg (6345') and the Steinen-Alp (4856'), to the large Tschingel-Alf 
(3783') in the Kienthal, whence a narrow road leads by Kienthal to (3 Mb.) 
Reichenbach (p. 150). The traveller, if fatigued, may proceed thither, but 



ObeHand. WENGEN. 28. Route. 119 

if strength permits he may, after resting at the chalets of the Siirrenberg, 
cross the Dundengrat to Kandersteg as follows : — Descend into the valley 
of the Kienbach as far as the Qamchi Glacier, where the brook rises, 
cross the brook, ascend a steep grassy slope, and beyond it traverse fields 
of snow. The summit of the Dundengrat (Hochthilrli or Oeschinengrat, 
8875'), to the W. of the Wilde Frau (10,692'), commands a superb view of 
the Bliimlisalp (12,041') with its rounded form of dazzling white, and its 
imposing glacier ; to the right are the Doldenhorn and numerous other 
peaks ; in the plain lies the Lake of Thun. We then descend the slope by 
a rugged path to the chalets of the Oeschinen-Alp (6470'), and partly by steps 
cut in the rock to the Oeschinen- See (5223') and Kandersteg (3839', see p. 151). 

From Lauterbrunnen by the Wetterlilfke or the Petersgrat to the Lbtschen- 
thai, see p. 267. 

From Lauterbrunnen to the Eggischhorn bit the Lauinenthor, a 
difficult and hazardous expedition (19 hrs.), through the wild and desolate 
Roththal, and across the vast ridge (12,000') connecting the Jungfrau 
(13,671') with the Gletscherhorn (13,064') to the Great Aletsch Glacier and 
the Eggischhorn (p. 146). — By the Roththal-Sattel (12,330') , a point a 
little above the Lauinenthor, nearer the Jungfrau (p. 120), also very dif- 
ficult and dangerous (19-20 hrs. to the Eggischhorn). — By the Ebne- 
fluhjoch (12,300'), between the Elinefluh and Mittaghorn, difficult and 
very laborious (15-16 hrs.). — It will repay a good walker to proceed as 
far as the Club Hut (8860') in the Roththal (6 hrs. from Lauterbrunnen, 
crossing the Slufenstein-Alp), and to return the same way (a good day's walk). 

g. from Lauterbrunnen to Grindelwald. Wengernalp. 
Jungfrau. 

Comp. Map, p. 102. 

Bridle-path over the Wengernalp 6'/i hrs. : from Lauterbrunnen to the 
Wengernalp 3 (descent 2), Little Scheideck 3 / 4 (descent '/■>), Grindelwald 
2'/2 hrs. (ascent 3 l /s)- — Diligence from Interlaken to Grindelwald twice daily 
(at 7 a. m. and 2. 15 p. m.). Horses and carriages, see p. 102. — The ascent 
may be made on horseback , either from Lauterbrunnen or Grindelwald, 
but in descending the traveller should dismount at the steep and stony 
declivity near Grindelwald, as well as at the last precipitous descent into 
the valley of Lauterbrunnen. — Guide unnecessary. Chaise-a-porteurs at 
Lauterbrunnen and Grindelwald. 

Two routes lead to Grindelwald. The carriage-road leads through 
the valley of the White Liitschine to Zweiliitschinen , and ascends 
thence in the valley of the Black Liitschine (distance about 12 M., 
a drive of 2^2 hrs., see p. 102). Good walkers, if not pressed for 
time, should take the other route, a bridle-path over the Wengern- 
alp and the Little Scheideck. It is at first somewhat laborious owing 
to the rapidity of the ascent , but well repays the fatigue, and is 
one of the most attractive and frequented routes in Switzerland. 

We cross the Liitschine near the church of Lauterbrunnen, 
walk for 3 min. towards the left , and follow the first wide path 
ascending to the right. After a steep ascent of 40 min. we reach 
a pavilion (refreshments) on a projecting rock, commanding a good 
survey of the valley of Lauterbrunnen. Crossing the meadows, 
well shaded by trees , we pass the village of Wengen and come to 
the ( l /2 hr.) Hotel Mittaghorn. A path leads hence to the right to 
Schiltwald (*Pension Lauener). Our route, however, goes straight 
on in the direction of the precipitous Tschuggen (p. 121), at the 
base of which (i/ 2 hr.) it turns to the right; it then leads past the 



120 Route 28. WENGERNALP. Bernese 

slopes of the Lauberhorn , covered with debris, and enters a pine- 
wood. (The main path had better not be left, as the ground is 
marshy at places. ) On quitting the wood (40 ruin.) we avoid the 
broad path in a straight direction, and ascend to the left over the 
gently sloping pasture of the *Wengernalp to the ( 3 / 4 hr.) *H6tel 
Jungfrau (61W; R. 3, B.2, D. 4, L. and A. 1 1/2 ft. ; carved wood 
sold by A. Zurfliih). Travellers from Lauterbrunnen and Grindel- 
wald generally halt here, or at the Scheideck (p. 121), between 
10 and 12 o'clock, producing a Babel of tongues and often severely 
taxing the energy of the innkeepers. The Gemshugel affords a fine 
survey of the valley of Lauterbrunnen, with the Staubbach, reduced 
to a mere thread, its upper fall, and the windings preparatory to 
its final leap ; high above the valley are the large hotels of Miirren. 

The *Jungfrau (13,671'), with her dazzling shroud of eternal 
snow, flanked by the Silber'horn ( 12,156') to the right, and the 
Schneehom (11,204') to the left, now appears in all her majesty. 
The proportions of the mountain are so gigantic, that the eye in 
vain attempts to estimate them, and distance seems annihilated by 
their vastness. The summits and higher slopes are covered with 
snow of brilliant purity, while the lower and less precipitous 
parts present a boundless expanse of snow and glacier. (The 
highest peak, which is farther to the S., is visible neither from 
this spot, nor from Lauterbrunnen.) The base of the mountain, 
as far as it is seen, is precipitous. 

Avalanches. These terrible and magnificent phenomena are caused by 
the accumulation of vast masses of snow and ice on the upper parts of the 
mountains, from which, as the warmer season advances, they slide off by 
their own weight with amazing velocity. On the Wengernalp the traveller 
will have an opportunity of witnessing the ice avalanche, or fall of portions 
(if the glacier detached under the influence of the summer's sun. Seen 
from a distance the falling ice, breaking into fragments in its descent, re- 
sembles a rushing cataract, and is accompanied by a noise like thunder. 
These avalanches arc most numerous shortly after noon, when the sun 
exercises its greatest power. Except that the solemn stillness which 
reigns in these desolate regions is interrupted by the echoing thunders of the 
falling masses , the spectacle can hardly be called imposing, and often 
falls short of the expectation. The traveller, however, is reminded that 
the apparently insignificant white cascade often consists of hundreds of 
tons of ice, capable of sweeping away forests and whole villages, but 
fortunately descending into the uninhabited Tvumleien-Thal , a deep gorge 
between the Jungfrau and the Wengernalp. 

Since 181 1, when the summit of the J inc. i- hah was reached for the first 
time by the two Meiins of Aarau, the ascent has been frequently accom- 
plished, even by ladies. The expedition is extremely fatiguing, but un- 
attended with danger to experienced mountaineers accompanied by good 
guides (80 fr.J. The ascent has recently been much facilitated by 
the erection of the Club-but on the Berrjli (p. 124), which is reached 
in 772-8 hrs. from Orindclu aid , and where the night is spent; thence 
over the Lower and Cpjur Hbnch-Joch and the Jungfruufirn to the 
Rothtlial-SatUl (p. 110) 4-4 1 . ■„. hrs. , whence the tup is reached in l'/4 hr. 
(If the ascent is made from the Eggischhorn Hotel, the night is spent 
'" the Faulberg lint. 4-4'- hrs.; thence to the summit 6'/ 2 -7 hrs.) — 
The Siltier/iorn , once deemed inaccessible, was ascended for the first 
jme, on 4th Aug., 1863, by Ed. v. Fellenberg and the Editor, pioneered by 
the guides 1'. Michel, H. Bauniann , and I'. Inabnit of Grindelwald. The 
parly started from the n.ll.v.p Hni.i <„„.. l^i.,,.,, a t 4 a m traversed 



Oberland. GRINDELWALD. 28. Route. 121 

the Eiger and Gvggi Glacier & . ascended the Scftiieehorn to the right, and 
crossing the N. slope of the Jungfrau, attained the summit of the Silber- 
horn at 4.30 p.m. The next night was passed on the precipitous E. icy 
slope of the Schneehorn , not one of the party venturing to close an eye. 
(See Jahrbuch des Schweizer Alpenclub, 1864.) 

The Lauberhorn (812C), a peak rising from the ridge running to the 
N. of the Scheideck, may be reached thence in 1 hr. ; or from the Wen- 
gernalp in i'A" hr. (descent 1 hr.). This ascent is chiefly recommended to 
those who have not visited the Faulhorn. View extensive and imposing. 
Travellers coming from Grindelwald add only l'/a hr. to their walk by 
taking the route from the Scheideck to the Hotel Jungfrau over the Lauber- 
horn. Guide hardly necessary. — The Tsehuggen (8278'), which rises to 
the N. of the Lauberhorn, commands a more extensive, but less picturesque 
view. Ascent more fatiguing. — The traveller disposed to extend his walk 
still farther may proceed from the Lauberhorn along the E. slope of the 
Tsehuggen to the '■' Mannlichen , the N. summit of this ridge (comp. p. 123). 
In this case the walk from Lauterbrunnen to Grindelwald (by the Wengern- 
alp, Lauberhorn, and Miinnlichen) will occupy 10-11 hrs. 

The Little Scheideck, Lauterbrunnen-Scheideck, or Wengern- 
Scheideck (6788'; *H6tel Bellevue, R. 3, B. 2, D. 4, L. and A. 
l'^fr-j wood-carver Jean Zurfliili), the culminating point of the 
pass , is attained alter a gradual ascent of s /t hr. from the 
Hotel Jungfrau. This abrupt ridge affords a striking view of 
the valley of Grindelwald, bounded on the N. by the mountains 
which separate it from the Lake of Brienz (to the extreme left is 
the blunt cone of the Faulhorn with its inn), and on the S. by 
the giants of the Oberland, the Miinch (13,465'), Eiger (13,042'), 
and the more distant Schreckhom (13,386'). The Finsteraarhorn 
(14,026'), the highest mountain of the Bernese Alps, is not visible. 
In the extreme distance to the E. rise the Sustenhorner (11,519'). 
The glaciers which encircle these mountains and fill the surround- 
ing valleys cover an area of 360 sq. M., the sixth part of all the 
glaciers of the Alps, and form the grandest uninterrupted sea of 
ice among these mountains. 

The Guggi-Hut at the N. foot of the Jliinch may be visited from the 
Scheideck in l 3 /i hr. (guide necessary). The Eiger Glacier, owing to its 
having decreased of late years, is not now crossed by the route. 

The path to Grindelwald traverses stony slopes, poor pastures, 
and scanty clumps of tree^, passing the ('^hr.) chalets of Bustiglen 
(6250') and (1 hr.) those of Alpiylen (5287'; Hotel et Pension des 
Alpes, situated on a commanding slope). About halfway between 
the Hotel des Alpes and Grindelwald (1 hr. from the former), we 
leave the bridle-path, which leads straight into a hollow, and take 
the path to the left , descending through enclosed meadows and 
scattered cottages to the (20 min.) bridge over the Liltschiiie. The 
road then gradually ascends to Grindelwald, V/4 M. distant. 
(Travellers from Grindelwald to the Wengernalp ascend to the right 
at the bridge.) 

From the Little Scheideck to Grindelwald there is another Footpath 
which is pleasanter than the bridle-path just described. It skirts the left 
bank of the Wergisthalbach , commanding a series of picturesque views, 
and leads for 1 hr. through pine-forest. Guide desirable. 

Grindelwald (3468 '). — -Schwakzeu Adlek, with a pleasant garden, 
R. from 4, B. 2, D. 5, L. and A. 2 fr.'!"B0»u, i>u Gkanu Eiger, R. 3, B. 13/,, 



122 Route l>8. GRINDELWALD. Bernese 

D. 4'/a, L. and A. l 3 /4 fr- i Bak; "Hotel dd Glacier, at the W. end of the 
village, R. 3, B. l'/a, B- 4, A. 1, pension 8 fr. ; "Pension Buegenek, R. 2, 
B. l'/2 fr- ; "Pension Schonegg, small. — The Guides of Grindelwald enjoy 
a high reputation. The Editor can recommend from his own experience : 
Pet. and Christen Michel, Pet. Iniibnit, Joh. Baumann, and Pet. Bohren. — 
Chr. Aimer, Pet. Jigger, Pet. Kaufmann, Pet. Rubi , Pet. Baumann, Ulr. 
Aimer, P. Schlegel, P. Berne t, P. Matter, and P. Michel (Christen's son) 
are also trustworthy. — Guide to the glacier 3 fr. ; chair 6 fr. — Carriages 
and Horses, see p. 102. 

This village (3135 inhab.J, which consists of wooden houses 
scattered over the valley , affords excellent headquarters for moun- 
taineers. The climate is cold, but cherries , from which excellent 
Kirschwasser is distilled, and other kinds of fruit, are successfully 
cultivated. The inhabitants are chiefly herdsmen. The pastures 
of the valley, which is 12 M. long and 4 M. wide, support 6000 
head of cattle. 

Grindelwald owes much of its reputation to its two Glaciers, 
which descend far into the valley, and are easy of access; but they 
are very inferior to the glacier of the Rhone and many others in 
Switzerland, especially as they have considerably decreased of late 
years. Three gigantic mountains bound the valley on the S., the 
Eiger (13, 042' J, the Mettenberg (Mittelberg, 10,197') which forms 
the base of the Schreckhorn, and the Wetterhom (1'2,165') at the 
head of the valley. The two glaciers lie between these mountains 
and form the source of the Black Liitschine. 

The Upper Glacier (4331' at the base) is more interesting than 
the lower ; the ice is purer, and the openings at its base are at 
times more considerable, especially on the E. side. We follow 
the path towards the Great Scheideck as far as the (1 hr.) Hotel 
Wetterhom (p. 127), where we diverge from it to the right by a 
good path crossing the Liitschine and the moraine, skirting the 
rock to the right, and leading to the (10 min.) Glacier Grotto 
artificially hewn in the ice (adm. V-2 fr-> payable at the hotel). 

Another path, recently rendered practicable, leads direct from 
Grindelwald to the Upper Glacier (very interesting, unattended with 
danger, but not to be attempted without a guide). Near the Adler we 
descend, cross the Liitschine, and ascend its left bank towards the E., at 
the base of the Mettenber;;, cross the Hulz , and traverse wood' the 
greater part of the way. We then cross the moraine and ascend a 
steep rock with the aid of ladders attached to it, passing beetween the 
'Hals' and the N.E. angle of the Mettenberg (see below) to tlie (l 3 / 4 hr. I 
glacier, which we reach opposite the Schlupf, at a height of 5200'. The 
passage of the glacier at this point is easy. We then descend on the 
right side across the moraine to the Hotel Wetterhom and the Scheideck 
route (see above). The ascent of the Wetterhom by this route is 1 hr. 
shorter than via the Hotel Wetterhom Icomp. p. 127). 

The Lower Glacier (3543' at the base), 40 min. to the S. of 
Grindelwald, sometimes called the Little Glacier, is four times 
larger than the other. The upper part is known as the Grindel- 
walder Viesclter Glacier (not to be confounded with the Glacier 
of Viesili in the Valais). The retrocession of the glacier of 
late years has been very considerable, and to obtain a survey a 



Oberland. GRINDELWALD. 28. Route. 123 

visit should be paid to the Eismeer ('sea of ice'), a name given, 
as at Chamouny (p. 224), to the large upper basin of the glacier. 
The path oil the left slope is narrow, but well kept and free from 
danger. For l'/o hr. riding is practicable, and in i / 2 hr. more we 
reach the small *Inn on the Baregg (5412'), whence a steep flight 
of steps descends to the glacier (1 fr.). An interesting view is ob- 
tained here of the fantastic minarets, or 'ice-needles.' Here, too, 
is an artificial ice-grotto (p. 122). — ■ The picturesque gorge of the 
Lutschine near its issue from the glacier has lately been made ac- 
cessible (adm. J /2 fr-)- 

A -Glacier Expedition, unattended with difficulty, is recom- 
mended to the traveller who desires to become more familiar with these 
icy regions. We cross (1 hr.) the Eismeer to the chalet of Z&senberg (60500, 
rudely constructed of stone and surrounded by pasture, the last human 
habitation amongst the giants of the Bernese Alps. Vegetation soon disap- 
pears. On every side tower huge masses of ice of the wildest and grandest 
character, and the imposing summits of the Eiger, Schreckhorner, Viescher- 
horner, etc., bound the view, forming a panorama rivalling that from the 
Montanvert at Chamouny. A guide is necessary here, especially for the 
passage of the margins of the glacier. The descent from the chalet to 
Grindelwald occupies 3 hrs. If the excursion is not extended beyond the 
middle of the Eismeer (sufficiently far), the whole may be accomplished 
in 5 hrs. — The ascent of the Zasenberghorn (7687'), l'/2 hr. from the 
Ziisenberg, ia recommended to good climbers, as it commands a magnificent 
glacier view. An interesting, though somewhat fatiguing expedition may 
be made from the Zasenberg to the Eigerhohle, a grotto visible from the 
Zasenberg (2 hrs., descent to the Eismeer 2 hrs. more); guide necessary, 
but no danger. 

The "Mettenberg (10,197') is recommended to the notice of mountaineers 
(ascent laborious, 6 hrs. ; guide 25 fr.). The view of the Schreckhorn, 
rising in the immediate vicinity, and of the Finsteraarhorn, is peculiarly 
imposing, and a striking survey is obtained of the Eismeer and the valley 
of Grindelwald. 

The Mannlichen (7694'), the extreme K. spur of the Wengernalp, is 
ascended from Grindelwald without difficulty in 4-5 hrs. (horse 15 fr. ; 
guide 10 fr. , unnecessary, but desirable if the traveller intends to de- 
scend to Grindelwald by the pleasant forest-path on the left bank of the 
Wergisthalbach ; comp. p. 121). After the Lutschine is crossed, the path 
diverges to the right from the path to the Scheideck, and gradually ascends 
the Itramen Alp. Owing to its isolated position, it commands an admirable 
panorama. It may also be attained from the Scheideck in 2, or from 
Wengen (p. 119) in 2'/2 hrs. (guide desirable, ascent very steep, and no 
regular path). About 20 min. below the summit , on the depression 
between the Wannlichen and Tschuggeit (827S'), is a small inn (Hdtel Orin- 
delwald-Rigi). 

To the Grimsel Hospice (p. 139) a grand and interesting, but diffi- 
cult pass leads in 15 hrs. (10 hrs. on snow and ice) over the "Strahl- 
egg (10,994), the saddle between the Gross-Lauteraarhorn and the Strahl- 
egghdrner, and descending the Strahlegg, Finsteraar, and Unter-Aar glaciers. 
The night is passed at the Baregg (see above; in the reverse direction at 
the Dolfuss pavilion, p. 140). Two guides advisable (each 40 fr.). — Over 
the Finsteraarjoch (11,024'), between the Strahlegghorner and the Agassiz- 
horn, 15-10 hrs., very laborious, but affording splendid views of the 
Finsteraarhorn, etc. The night is passed at the Baregg or the Kustenstein 
cave near the upper Eismeer (7749', 4 hrs. from Grindelwald) ; thence to 
the summit of the pass 4»/2 hrs. 

The Lauteraarjoch (10,354') is another magnificent, but very fatiguing 
pass (16-17 hrs. from Grindelwald to the hospice). The night must be 
passed at the Otecktl^t^H^ (p- ^21)i fj^en an ascent of 6 hrs. on the ice 



124 Route 28. FAULHOEN. Bernese 

to the culminating point; descent precipitous and difficult; finally across the 
Lauteraar-Glacier to the ! (3 hrs.) Doll fuss- Pavilion , and the (3 hrs.) Grimsel. 
Able guides indispensable (60 fr.). — Overthe.Be?'^! -,/ocA(il,lS9')tofhe Vrbach 
Valley, see p. 137 ; over the Bergli-Joch and Wetterlimmi to Rosenlaui, p. 128. 
Passes fuum Grindblwald to the Ecgischhokn (p. 146), for 
thoroughly experienced mountaineers only, with trustworthy guides. The 
Jungfrau-Joch (11,089'), between the Jungfrau and Mbnch, traversed for 
the first time in 1862, from the Wengernalp to the Eggischhorn in I6V2 
hrs., is a difficult but highly interesting expedition (guide 80 fr.). — The 
Mbnch-Joch (11,910'), 15 hrs.' from Grindelwald to the hotel (guide 80 fr.), 
has of late been much facilitated by the erection of the Club-hut on the 
Bergli (' Mbnchh iitle' ', about 1000' below the pass). From the Biiregg the 
Lower Grindelwald Glacier is crossed, and on its left side the precipitous 
Kalli ascended for 2'/2 hrs. (laborious). The Grindelwald Viesclier Glacier 
is then traversed to the (7'/a-8 hrs. from Grindelwald) Club-hut on the 
Bergli, commanding a grand, though not very extensive view of theViescher- 
wand , Schreckhbrner, Wetterhorn, etc. From the hut in 1 hr. to the 
Lower Monch- Joch (11,910'), between the Mbnch and Yieschergrat; thence 
either to the right by the Upper Monch- Jock (11,929'), between the Mbnch 
and Trugberg, and across the Jungfraufirn (ascent of the Jungfrau, p. 120) 
to the Great Aletsch Glacier and Eggischhorn; or, bearing to the left from 
the Lower Mbnch Joch, over the vast Ewig-Schneefeld to the Aletsch Glacier 
(the two routes unite at the Griineck, N. of the Faulberg). (If the Mbnch- 
.loch is traversed in the reverse direction, the night ma; be passed at the 
Faulberg hut, p. 120.) — From the Wengernalp to the Monch-Joch by the 
Eiger Joch (Tevfelssattel, 11,874'), between the Eiger and Monch (22 hrs. 
from the Wengernalp to the Eggischhorn), extremely difficult and hazar- 
dous. — The Viescher Joch (11,700'), between the Rhine and Grosse Vie- 
scherhorn, 22 hrs. from Grindelwald to the Eggischhorn, is very rarely 
traversed, being difficult and deficient in interest. 

h. The Faulhorn. 

Comp. Map, p. 102. 
From Grindelwald to the Faulhorn 4 3 /4 (descent 3) hrs. ; from the Faul- 
horn to the Scheideck 3 (ascent 4) hrs. ; from the Scheideck to the Baths 
of Rosenlaui l'/i (ascent 2Vii) hrs. ; from the Scheideck to Grindelwald 
2 (ascent 3) hrs. — Guide (10 fr., or, if a night be spent at the top. 13 fr.) 
unnecessary for moderately experienced pedestrians. Chair-carriers 6 fr. 
each ; if they pass the night on the top, 12 fr. (three are generally sufficient; 
a bargain should be made beforehand). Horses, see p. 103. Inn on the 
summit, indifferent (bed 5-6 fr. , D. 6, B. 2, L. and A. 2 fr.). If ladies 
are of the party, beds should be ordered previously. A single traveller 
is often required to share his room with another. 

The *Faulhorn (8803'; IUgi5906'; Niesen7763'), rising between 
the Lake of Brienz and the valley of Grindelwald, composed of 
black, friable, calcareous schist (faul = 'rotten', whence probably 
its name), is a very favourite point of view, as it commands 
an admirable survey of the giants of the Bernese Oberland (see 
Panorama). To the N. lies the Lake of Brienz, with its sur- 
rounding mountains, from the Augstmatthorn to the Rothhorn , 
and part of the Lake of Thun, with the Niesen and Stock- 
horn, is also visible; to the N.E., parts of the Lakes of Lucerne 
and Zug, with Pilatus and the Rigi ; then the Lakes of Morat 
and Neuchatel. The prospect does not. however, like that from 
the Rigi, comprise the lower mountains of N. Switzerland, which 
so greatly enhance the beauty of the scene. 

The Path fkom Grindfi/wald to the Faulhorn (43/ 4 hrs.)leads 



Sctwarshom 
8920 
Wildeernt (Vadun-nfluh Sustmhoni 

«B90 9,590 10030 



Mhorn 
98+0 



Wetterhoni 
1I.+12 



TUilhihirni 
7200 Finsteraariiorn 

. Bfig'lislock I1)KI0 Ober Srtu-Ahwn Simrlflioni 13,250 rirnehrrlibrnrr I2J00 



Jnnerf Ei$'er°J .Gr.Mbnch 
12*09 



Oi-mdriiraWi-leWchfr 12,570 



760 



AtissereEiger 
12.220 



mch. Jungfrau 

12827 Sflberhmn 




Breithorn. Lau 




11,690 


Alrtsohhorn 11,559 


(irosshorn 


Tsfhincelhorn 


12,951 Sdmechom 


ll,i85 


11,022. 



Lauierbrunneneiijer ftotdenhom. Amertenhom 

H228 8,00* Scbirakiifrn 

IViwallenhorn RliinilisaJp Schildhorn WiMstruM Diableifl* S524- 
10,565 11298 9,187 9,638 11090 



MorgmWrghoru 




BafilYirthshausaebaude aid' Arm Faulhuni 



Kisfiifliih 



.lauoiama l\om ttic ■ J\\uihoxu. 



Oberland. FAULHORN. 28. Route. 125 

for 3 /4hr. past enclosed meadows and detached houses. The ascent 
begins at the Bear Hotel (p. 121): after 5 min., to the right; 
10 min., at a cross-way, straight on; 5 min., tO'the right; 2 min., 
to the left past a cottage, after which the direction is generally 
towards the E. The footpath soon unites with the bridle-path; 
Y2 hr. a gate , beyond which a wood is entered ; on emerging from 
it (10 min.) there is a steep ascent, at the top of which the 
footpath turns to the left (the bridle-path to the right); 1 / i hr., 
the Ertschfeld meadow , a large enclosed pasture with several 
chalets, near the middle of which the path enters the wood to the 
left; i / i hr. , straight on, not to the left; 20 min., the path 
divides (those who are descending take the path here to the left) ; 
a little farther, a gate; '/4 nr - Rossalp (Hotel Alpenrose), mag- 
nificent view. This point is nearly half-way, the other half is less 
fatiguing. In 20 min. a small waterfall of the Miihlibach (which is 
crossed) is seen to the left, near which are the chalets of the Bach- 
alp (6496'). The only good drinking-water on the path issues 
abundantly from the rock, 10 min. further. Then % hr. of mod- 
erate ascent to the Bachalp-See (7428'), situated in a stony basin, 
bounded on the left by the Rbthihom (9052'), on the farther side 
by the Simelihom (9029'), and on the right by the Ritzligratli 
(8281'). (Near the stone hut the path diverges to the left for 
travellers descending to the Scheideck, see below.) The Faulhorn 
is now in view. The path, which is indicated by stakes for the 
guidance of the traveller in fog or snow, ascends rapidly for nearly 
1 hr. over crumbling slate and calcareous rock. Another stone 
hut is passed, the pastures at the foot of the Faulhorn are traversed, 
and a zigzag path leads in l / i hr. more to the top. The inn (p. 124) 
lies on the S. side, 35' below the summit. 

Another path leads from Grindelwald to the Faulhorn by the Bussalp, 
recommended to those intending to return to Grindelwald. Guide necessary, 
as the route is less frequented. Admirable view from the ' Burg'' (7247'), 
which of itself merits a visit from Grindelwald (272 hrs.). 

The Path from the Faulhorn to the Scheideck (3 hrs.) di- 
verges from the Grindelwald path , to the left near the above- 
mentioned hut (3/ 4 hr.) on the Bachalp-See, traverses the stony slopes 
of the Ritzligratli, where the shrill cry of the marmot is sometimes 
heard, and keeps the same level for some distance ; '/ 2 nr -> a gate 
separating the Bach-Alp from the Widderfeld-Alp ; 5 min. farther, 
to the left, not down the bed of the brook; 10 min. , a ridge 
commanding a magnificent view of the Wetterhorn, Schreckhorn, 
Finsteraarhorn, Viescherhbrner, with their glacier, the Eiger, and 
the valley of Grindelwald ; 8 min., we keep to the left and cross 
the brook; 7 min. , we descend to the left over black, crumbling 
slate, and reach a gate, where the Grindel-Alp begins. The path is 
now lost at places, but soon becomes more distinct ; the direc- 
tion of the Wetterhorn must be kept ; 1/4 nr - , a small brook is 
crossed, beyond which the path is well trodden; 5 min., a brook; 



126 Route 28. SCHWARZHORN. Bernese 

10 min., a natuTal bridge over the Bergelbach ; 5 min., the Cha- 
lets of Grindeln, -with a spring; '/4 h r -' a &' ate ' ^ ere turn to 
the right by the enclosure, without crossing it, pass through the 
next gate (12 min.), and make for the top of a hill; 8 min., 
Scheideck Inn. — (In ascending from the Scheideck , be careful 
to avoid the turn to the left at the bridge over the Bergelbach; 
further on , where the pathway is lost on the pastures , again 
avoid turning to the left, follow a direction parallel with a long 
enclosure which lies a little to the left, and make for the slope 
of the mountain, at the foot of which thp path is regained.) 

The Path from Intfrlaken to the Faulhorn (7 3 / 4 hrs.; comp. 
p. 1*24) leads by the (4hrs.) Schynige Platte (p. 113), and thence by 
a good bridle-path across the Iselten Alp, and along the S. slopes 
of the Laucherhom (7333') to the (1 hr.) ridge which bounds the 
Sagisthal on the S. ; admirable views of the Oberland. We then 
descend slightly to the ( 3 / 4 hr.) Sagisthal - See , with its chalet 
(6358'), skirt the N. andN.E. sides of the lake, and ascend the 
barren slope of the Schwabhorn , a ridge between the lake and 
the Faulhorn. The summit of the latter is reached in 2 hrs. 
from the Sagisthal-See, and is 2445 ft. above it. ■ — In descending 
from the Faulhorn to the Schynige Platte the path is easily- 
found if the traveller is shown the beginning of the route and 
then follows the direction indicated by the heaps of stones. The 
only doubtful point is 1 hr. beyond the Sagisthal-See, on the 
ridge bounding the Sagisthal on the W. , and about 10 min. 
beyond the highest point , where we keep to the right at the same 
level, instead of descending to the left. 

From the Giessbach to the Faulhokn, 6 hrs. (p. 132); path recently 
improved, but guide advisable. 

The view from the Faulhorn is partially intercepted by the neigh- 
bouring group of the Simelihorn (9029') and the Rothihorn (9052") , which 
rise between the Finsteraarhorn and the Schreckhorn , and, though not 
without picturesque effect, conceal part of the Alpine chain, the green 
pastures of the valley of Grindelwald , and the two glacier tongues. The 
Rothihorn , which owing to its isolated position commands a much finer 
view of the mountains of Grindelwald than the Faulhorn , is most con- 
veniently ascended on the return-route from the Faulhorn to Grindelwald, 
by diverging to the right at the Bachalp-See (p. 125), and afterwards descend- 
ing to the Bachalp. 

The view of the Bernese Alps is still grander and more extensive 
from the ' Schwarzhorn (9613'), which, with the Wildgersl (9488'), intercepts 
the view from the Faulhorn on the E. side (the lakes of I.ungern, Sarnen, 
Alpnach , and Kussnaeht are visible heme, all situated in the same 
line). The ascent is best made from the Oreat Scheideck by the Grindel- 
alp (see above) in 3'/a hrs. (from Grindelwald 6 hrs. , from Rosenlaui 5 
hrs.); guide necessary. Active mountaineers may descend to the small 
Blaue Glelscher, and by the Breitenboderi Alj> (2 hrs.) to the Baths of Rosen- 
laui (11,2 hr.; p. 128). 



Oberland. GREAT SCHEIDECK. 28. Route. 127 

i. From Grindelwald to Meiringen. Baths of Rosenlaui. 
Falls of the Reichenbach. 

Comp. Map, p. 102. 
6 3 /i hrs. : From Grindelwald to the Scheideck 3 (descent 2) hrs., from 
the Scheideck to Rosenlaui l 3 /4 (ascent 2'/2) hrs., from Rosenlaui to 
Meiringen 2 (ascent 3) hrs., a good day's walk if 1/2 hr. be spent at the 
Upper Grindelwald Glacier, 2-2'/2 hrs. at the Rosenlaui Glacier, and >/2 hr. at 
the Falls of the Reichenbach. Horses, see p. 103; the whole route may 
be performed on horseback , but the Reichenbach Falls must be visited 
on foot. 

The path ascends gradually through rich pastures, passing the 
(1 hr.J Hotel Wetterhorn (path to the Upper Glacier of Grindel- 
wald, p. 122). In the foreground towers the magnificent *Wetter- 
horn (12,165'), or Hasli-Jungfrau , as it is called by the natives, 
rising precipitously from the Scheideck. 

The W. peak of the Wetterhorn, or Hasli-Jungfrau (12,149') was as- 
cended for the first time in 1844, the E. peak (Roseniiorn, l^HC) in the 
same year, and the Mittelhom (12,165') the following year. The ascent has 
since "been frequently made (in 1863 by the Editor). The night before the 
ascent is spent in the club-hut at the Gleckstein (7673'), 41/2 hrs. from Grin- 
delwald, at the S.W. base of the Wetterhorn (guide 60 fr.). 

Avalanches descend in spring from the Wetterhorn in four 
different directions. The snow frequently extends to the path, 
and does not entirely melt in summer. The Alpine horn (an in- 
strument 6-8 feet in length, of hark or wood) is generally 
sounded from the opposite slope as travellers are passing. Its 
simple notes, reverberating a few seconds later from the pre- 
cipices of the Wetterhorn, produce a not unpleasing effect. 

The (2 hrs.) Great, or Hasli - Scheideck (6434'), also called 
the Eselsriicken or Ass's Back, a rocky ridge nearly 3 M. long and 
only a few paces wide, commands a striking view towards the W. 
(Inn, unpretending, R. 2, B. l'/ 2 > S. 3 fr. ; horse to the Faulhorn 
12 fr. , an ascent of 4 hrs.). The lovely valley of Grindelwald, 
bounded on the !S.W. by the pastures and woods of the Little 
Scheideck, forms a picturesque contrast to the bleak and barren 
precipices of the Wetterhorn, which tower above the spectator to 
a giddy height. The eye next rests on the conical summit of the 
Little Schreckhorn, the Mettenberg, the sharp crest of the Eiger, 
and finally the S.E. snowy slope of the Monch. High up on the 
right appears the Schwarzwald Qlacier, which has greatly decreased 
of late, between the Wetterhorn and Wellhorn. 

Travellers from Meiringen who do not wish to ascend the Faulhorn 
are recommended to make a short digression here, by following the 
path to the Faulhorn (p. 125), at least as far as ( 3 /4 hr.) the Grindel 
Alp (p. 126) , an almost level walk, in order to obtain a fine view of the 
mountains, especially of the Schreckhorn, the Upper Grindelwald Glacier, 
and the Vieschergrat. From the Grindel-Alp the direct descent to Grin- 
delwald (beyond the fountain follow the Faulhorn - path for 5 min. more, 
then turn to left) is not longer than from the Scheideck. 

Immediately below the Scheideck the path turns to the left, 
soon enters a wood , and skirts the base of rocky precipices. 
This part of the route is attractive and varied , passing several 



128 Route :?,"?. ROSENLAUI. lierne.ie 

chalets (among those of Schwar&wald is a tavern), and crossing the 
Oemsbach and Reichenbach. At a broad bridge across the latter 
in a pine-clad valley, li/ 2 hr. from the Scheideck, the track divides. 
One path, affording pleasant views of the upper Rosenlaui Glacier 
and the mountains around it, continues to follow the left bank 
of the Reichenbach , and leads in 1 hr. to the saw-mill (see below); 
the other C/4 hr. longer), entering the forest to the right, leads 
on the right bank of the Reichenbach, which forms a picturesque 
fall near Rosenlaui, in 25 min. to the Baths of Rosenlaui (4363'; 
*Hotel and Pension, R. 3, B. l'/ 2 , L. and A. l7 4 fr. ; portfolios 
of Alpine plants 4-30 fr. ; carved wood sold by Jean Zurfliih). 

Before the Baths are reached, at the point where the forest is quitted, 
a footpath to the right leads to the Rosenlaui Glacier (52t>3'), imbedded' 
between the Wellhorn (10,486') and the Engelhornei: The ice of this 
glacier is remarkable for its purity, owing to the indestructible nature 
of the surrounding rock (black limestone). The dirty appearance of the 
Grindelwald and other glaciers is due to the detritus of more friable for- 
mations. The Rosenlaui Glacier, however, has of late years been marred 
by the melting of its ice, and a somewhat rough ascent of at least 1 1/2 hr. 
is now required to obtain a survey (guide desirable). 

By the Rosenlaui Glacier and the Wellerlimmi to the (iauli Olneier 
and Urbach Valley (laborious), see p. 137. — From Rosenlaui to the 
Orimsel over the Wetterlimmi, the Bergli-Joch (11,289'), and the Lauter- 
aarjoch (p. 123), 15-16 hrs., fatiguing but interesting. Over the (hwligrat 
(p. 137; descend the Gauli-Glaeier as far as the Orilnbergli, and turn to 
the right) about the same distance. 

The path to Meiringen now follows the course of the Reichen- 
bach, which rises on the E. slope of the Schwarzhorn chain. It 
leads at first through underwood, and then traverses a plateau 
of fresh green pasture -land (the first bridge should not be 
crossed), enclosed by forest, and enlivened by chalets and herds 
of cattle, a favourite resort of artists. The barren Engelhorner, 
the Wellhorn, and the snow-clad cone of the Wetterhovn towering 
above it, form a background of mountain grandeur, which with 
the tine scenery at its base presents a picture unsurpassed in 
Switzerland. These beauties strike the traveller most when pro- 
ceeding from Meiringen to Rosenlaui. 

The Reichenbach is crossed for the last time by a bridge, at 
the end of the above mentioned plateau, '25 min. from the Baths, 
and the path now remains on the right bank ( l / 4 hr., a saw-mill 
and small inn). The descent becomes steep. A distant view is 
soon obtained of the valley of Hasli or Meiringen , and the 
mountains which surround the Briinig and Susten. Facing us, 
on the brink of the slope, 1 hr. from Rosenlaui, is the small 
inn Zur Zwirgi. A few paces beyond it a footpath, descending 
in wooden steps, diverges from the bridle-path to the left, to the 
*FallB of the Reichenbach, leading at tlrst through wood, and 
then to the left across a meadow . to a hut, the best point for 
seeing the *Upper Fall (adm. y 2 fr.). In the morning the sun 
shines into the gorge and forms innumerable rainbows. The Cen- 
tral Fall (Kesat : ''■■«■'.■ ' ; -; <".i»rded bv another hut (25 c.). The 



Oberland. MEIRINGEN. 28. Route. 129 

conversion of this beautiful work of nature into a peep-show is 
somewhat annoying. At the foot of the mountain are the *H6tel 
Reichenbach (see below) with its dependance the Hdtel des Alpes, 
whence a good path leads C/4 hr.) to a bridge , from which a view 
is obtained of the *Lower Falls (illumination every evening from 
1st July). 

[The falls are seen to the best advantage when this route is 
taken in the reverse direction (from Meiringen to the upper 
fall 3 / 4 hr.). As Rosenlaui is approached, the Wetterhorn and 
the Wellhorn form a strikingly beautiful background. The path 
which crosses the bridge near the second fall should be avoided, 
although it has the appearance of being the more frequented, 
and that on the right bank of the Reichenbach followed.] 

Travellers to the Grimsel , who do not intend to visit the Falls of 
the Reichenbach and Meiringen , save nearly an hour by following the 
bridle-path for 10 min. beyond the point where the footpath diverges to 
the falls , and then turning to the right by a rugged footpath which leads to 
the village of Geisholz (25 min.), hidden among fruit-trees. Here ascend the 
pastures , and descend the steep slope of the Kirchet (p. 137) to (1/2 hr.) 
Im-Grund, or Hasli-Grund, and (10 min.) Im-Hof (p. 137). 

Meiringen (1968'). — -Krone, R. 2'/2, B. iy 2 , D. 4, L. and A. 1 fr.; 
Sauvage, opposite the post-office, similar charges , pension 5-6 fr. ; "Bar, 
near the church, slightly cheaper; 'Hotel du Reichenbach, prettily sit- 
uated opposite the lowest fall of the Reichenbach , charges rather 
higher. Pension Otlh, moderate; Pension Flux (beer). — English Church. — 
Guides: Melchior and Jew. Anderegg, Melchior and Jac. Blatter, Joh. 
Tannler, A. Maitrer, Andr. Jaun. — Horses, etc., see p. 103. 

Meiringen, with 2787 inhab. (2o Rom. Cath.), the chief village of 
the Hasli-Thal, is situated on the right bank of the Aare, in a level 
valley 3 M. in width, surrounded by wooded mountains, and 
over-shadowed by snowy peaks. Three brooks (Alpbach) descend 
from the Hasliberg into the valley at the back of the village , form- 
ing considerable waterfalls (illuminated every evening during the 
season). They often overflow their banks, and cover the whole 
district with rocks, mud, and slaty detritus from the Hasliberg. 
A disaster of this kind destroyed the greater part of the village 
in 1762 , when stones and mud were heaped up in the church, 
to a height of 18', as indicated by a black line on the wall. A 
broad canal descending to the Aare has been constructed to prevent 
the recurrence of such a catastrophe. 

The Hasli-Thal (or Hasli im Weissland) is divided by the Kirchet (p. 137) 
into the Untere and Obere Hasli. The inhabitants are generally of a slight, 
but strong and active frame, and are remarkable for their picturesque 
costume and pure dialect. According to tradition, they are of Swedish or 
Frisian descent, and the opinions of several modern Swedish savants in 
favour of this theory are recorded in a book kept at Meiringen. 

Six different Alpine Routes converge at Meiringen : the road to 
Brienz (see below) ; the road to Lucerne by the Briinig (R. 23) ; the bridle- 
path to Engelberg by the Jochpass (R. 29); the bridle-path by the Susten 
to Wasen on the St. Gotthard route (R. 30); the bridle-path to the Grim- 
sel (R. 31); and that over the Great Scheideck to Grindelwald (R. 28, i). 
The magnificent fall of the Aare at the Handed: (p. 13S) is 5'/2 hrs. from 
Meiringen. 

Baedeker. Switzerland. 7th F.ilUinn g 



130 Rout* "JH. BKIENZ. Bernese 

k. From Meiringen to Interlaken. Rothhorn. Lake of Brienz. 

Comp. Map, p. 102. 
From Meiringen to Brienz. 9 M. Diligence three times daily in l'/j hr., 
fare 2 fr. 70 c. ; one-horse carr. 7 fr. ; to Interlaken 18 (by the road on the 
N. bank of the lake, see p. 131), two-horse 35 fr. From Brienz to Bbnigen 
Steamboat four times daily in 1 hr. , 2 fr. or 1 fr. ; luggage additional, 
50 c. for each box. From Bonigen to Interlaken Railway (comp. p. 107) 
in 12 min., fare 80 c. or H) c. — Those who intend to put up at one of 
the hotels at the E. end of the Htiheweg may alight at the Zollhaus 
station (comp. p. 131). Hotel omnibuses are in waiting at the Interlaken 
station. Through-tickets to Interlaken may be obtained at Lucerne, Mei- 
ringen, and on board the steamers. 

Beyond Meiringen the road crosses the Aare and traverses 
pastures. Several cascades fall from the precipice on the left, 
among them the beautiful Oltschibach. Below (5 M.) Brienzwyler 
(p. 80) the road again crosses the Aare by a new iron bridge, at 
the junction of our route with the Briinig road. 

The once fertile banks of the Lake of Brienz, which now be- 
comes visible to the W., are strewn with rocks. In 17S17 a minl- 
streain (comp. p. 66) destroyed a great part of the villages of 
Schwanden and Hofstetten, which belong to Brienz, and in liS'2-i 
a landslip devastated an area of 30 acres. 

Tracht (*Weisse$ Kreuz, at the steamboat-quay, the starting- 
point of the Briinig diligence), now almost a continuation of I'ricnz, 
is noted for its wood-carving, which employs about 600 persons. The 
Ki'inzli, r li\\r. above the hotel, commands a pleasing view of the 
lake, the Faulhorn chain , the Sustenhorner , the Miihrenberg, etc. 

Brienz {Bar, with garden on the lake ; Tell, moderate), a con- 
siderable village (2605 inhab. ), consisting chiefly of wooden houses, 
is pleasantly situated at the foot of the Brienzer Oral (see below], 
a mountain separating the Lake of Brienz from the Entlebuch. 
The churchyard affords a fine view of the lake, the Giessbach, 
the Faulhorn in the background , the fall of the Oltschibach (sec 
above) to the left, and the fall of the Muhlbach (1150' in height, 
often dry in summer) behind the spectator. Brienz is also famed 
for its wood-carving, the chief repository of which merits a visit. 

Fko.m Bkienz to Lucerne by the Brukiu, see K. 25 ; one -horse 
carriage to Alpnach-Gestad 25, two-horse 40 fr. 

The highest peak of the Brienzer Grat is the Brienzer Rothhorn (.77 13'>, 
celebrated for the extensive view it commands. A good bridle-path leads 
to the summit in 5 hrs. (guide, Moleh. Zobrist at Brienz, 5 fr., unneces- 
sary; horse 15 fr.). "Inn i.' 4 hr. from the top (R. 3','i, B. 2, A. 1 fr. ; open 
from July to Sept. only). The first third of the route only is fatiguing, 
the last 20 min. of this part traversing wood, as far as the (2 hrs.) 
I'tanalp Chalets (5383'; Restaurant Fluck , with a few beds); the ascent 
1 1 hr.) of the Planalp , watered by the Miihlbach, and of the last slopes 
of the mountain (2 hrs.) is gradual. At the top stands the boundary-stone 
of the Cantons of Bern. Lucerne, and I'nterwalden. The view embraces the 
chain of the Bernese Oherland (p. 124), the Lake of Brienz in the fore- 
ground; a glimpse of the Lake of Thun between the mountains to the 
right above Interlaken; the entire Maslithal from Meiringen nearly to 
the Grimsel ; on the other side the small Ey-See, the Lake of Sarnen , a 
considerable part of the Lake of Lucerne with the Rigi , part of the Lake 
of Zug. along strip of the Lake ofNeuchatel, and even the Lake of Con- 



Oberland. LAKE OF BR1ENZ. 28. Route. 131 

stance. This point of view vies with the Niesen (p. 106). The Bernese 
Alp. are partia y concealed by the Faulhorn chain, but the chain of the 
Titlis, and particularly the Titlis itself, stands out very prominently; to 
the S. of .t are the Sustenhorner, the Thierber R e, the Winterberge with the 
Dammastock etc.; the Glarnisch and the Sentis'are also distinctly visible 

The Lake of Brienz (1857'), 7i/ 2 M. long, and 2 M. wide, 
near the Giessbach 500', and near Oberried 859' deep is 20' 
higher than the Lake of Thun, with which it is supposed 'to have 
been once united (p. 109). It is surrounded by lofty wooded 
mountains and rocks. To the S.E. in the background are the 
snow-clad Sustenhorner ; to the right the Thierberge. The inconsid- 
erable lowest fall of the Giessbach only (see below) is visible from 
the lake. Beyond the Giessbach is the small wooded Schnecken- 
Insel, and near it, on the S. bank, lies the prettily situated vil- 
lage of Iseltwald (Hotel Burg Iseltwald, on a wooded promontory • 
Zur Schweizerheimath). The steamer then crosses the lake to Ober- 
ried and Niederried (new Inn), charmingly situated among fruit- 
trees at the foot of the Auystmatthom (p. 114). Farther on rise 
the ruined castle of Ringyenberg (2024'), on an eminence, 'with 
the church of that name , surrounded by woods and orchards, and 
the old tower of the Church of Goldswyl , standing on an isolated 
hill and presenting a very picturesque appearance. On the opposite 
bank the Lutschine descends from the valleys of Grindelwald and 
Lauterbrunnen. The lake gradually contracts, and at length joins 
the lake of Thun (comp. p. 110) under the name of the Aare. 

The steamer stops at Bonigen (p. 109), the terminus of the 
Bodeli Railway (p. 107), by which travellers are conveyed in 12 
mm. to the station of Interlaken. The halfway station of Zollhaus 
is at the E. end of the Hoheweg, where the omnibuses of the neigh- 
bouring hotels are in waiting. Interlaken, see p. 109. 

o ,n <. T ? e RoAD rKOM Br1 enz to Inteklaken (12 M. ; one-horse oarr 
8-10 fr.) on the N. bank of the lake, passes through (lu, M ) TeuZu (2 Ml 
Obernef, and (3 31.) Ni ederr i e d : then, at a considerable heigh Tbove tL 
lake, traverses a rocky tract to (2'/« M.) Ringqenberq nast the L a n 
Faulensee (p. 112) at the base of the hill with the ancfent Church tower 

?L } 7tVSl%tT cbeilutiful views) t0 the upper bridge °™ tS 

1. The Giessbach. 

ii; ^ 0t fJ, at t he Giess bach, with a large dependance, R. from 2V* fr B 

lhe'hS'elt /2 ' '*' PenSi ° n 7 " 12 fr - ; whe y- cure - - P« S 1 Office at 

,v,„ U1 ^ n i lina ^ 0f the FaJls ' with Ben ^ al K^s, every evening from the 
the middle of May till the end of September (inmates of the hotel If, 
each, other persons li/ a fr.). 

see ™m M U° °n ^ B T sen in . 50 > to or fr °»> B »enz in 10 min., 
see pp. lid IdO. On Thursday evenings a train leaves Interlaken for 

ffw g *h a * 7 - 50 . in t . connection with a steamer to the Giessbach, returning 
after the il urmnation. - Porter of small luggage from the landing-placl 
to the hotel 2.5 c. ; trunk VrlV* fr. ; chair 3 fr. . one-horse carriage 4 fr 

9* 



132 Route 28. GIESSBACH. 

Rowing-boat from Brienz to the Giessbach in 1/2 nr -> eacu rower 1 fr. 
The boatmen of Brienz usually demand 3 fr. for a boat with two rowers. 

The *6iessbacli , one of the prettiest and most popular spots in 
the Bernese Oberland, was brought into notice in 1818 by the school- 
master Kehrli (d. 1854), who constructed a path to the falls. In 
LS54-55 it belonged to the brothers von Rappard, by whom the 
pleasure-grounds were tastefully laid out, and from that period 
down to 1870 to the Steamboat Co. of the Lakes of Brienz and 
Thun. It is now the property of Messrs. Hauser. Since the construc- 
tion of the new hotel on the terrace the original charm of the spot 
has been sadly marred. 

A good road ascends in windings from the landing-place to the 
hotel (12 min.J. Near the second bend is a bridge spanning the 
lowest fall. On reaching the sixth bend we pass an old stone bridge, 
which the path to Iseltwald crosses (see below). Farther up, 
immediately below the hotel , is the Kanzeli , a small projecting 
platform commanding a limited view of the lake. 

The *Terracb with the large new hotel, is the finest point in 
the grounds. (The older house is 150 yds. farther back in the dale. ) 
It commands a complete *view of the Giessbach, a series of seven 
cascades falling from rock to rock from a great height (highest 
point 1148' above the lake), and framed with dark green foliage. 
The W. side of the new hotel, with its verandah and lofty flight 
of steps , commands an admirable survey of the lake of Brienz. 

The falls are crossed by three bridges. To the second of these, 
constructed of iron, paths ascend on both sides of the stream, from 
which to the third bridge ('/ohr.) there is a path on the right bank 
only. A wooden gallery enables visitors to pass behind the second 
fall. Those who have time should, if possible, ascend to the( 3 /4hr.) 
Highest Fall, where the Giessbach, issuing from a sombre ravine, 
is precipitated under the bridge into an abyss, 190' in depth. This 
fall is best seen from a projecting rock to the right of the bridge. 
About noon rainbows are formed in the falls. 

The *Rauft (2460') , a group of wooded rocks, with a pavilion 
on the top, on the N. side of the valley, and rising 600' almost per- 
pendicularly from the lake, commands a view of the Lake of Brienz, 
the mouth of the Aare , and the alluvial district, of Brienzwyler; 
above Brienz , opposite , the long Brienzer Grat and the Brienzer 
Rothhorn with its inn (p. 130); then, beyond Interlaken, part of the 
Lake of Thun, overshadowed by the pyramid of the Niesen. A good 
path leads from the back of the new hotel to the top in 20 min. ; 
another, indicated by finger-posts, from the older hotel in i / t hr. 

Fiiuii the Giessbach to the Faii.horn (p. 126), 6 hrs., a fatiguing, 
and at places unpleasant walk, especially the part over the Battenalp, 
which is exposed to the morning sun (guide necessary, 6 fr.). To the 8. 
of the Schwabhorn this path unites with the bridle-path from the Schynige 
I'bitte to the Faulhorn (p. 12(i). 

I'uoM tiie(!iessba<:h to Iktkki.akkn 1 4 hrs. |. A rough path leads tot2hrs.) 
/•■•■Uiralil, from which their is ;i food road via (li ... M.j Siugg and (3 M.) 



ENGSTLEN-ALP. 29. Route. 133 

Boiiit/en to (l'/ 2 M.J Jntertakeit. About midway between the hotel and the 
lake, we cross the brook at the finger-post by an old stone bridge, and 
skirt the lake, generally at a considerable height above it, until Bonigen is 
nearly reached. 



29. From Meiringen to Engelberg. Jochpass. 

Comp. Map, p. 102. 

9'A brs. : Im-Hof l>/«, Engstlen-Alp l'/a (descent 3), Joch l'/a (descent 1), 
Triibsee i/« (ascent 1), Engelberg V/i (ascent 2'/'->) hrs. Carriage - road to 
Imhof, beyond it a bridle-path. Horse 32, guide 18 fr. (unnecessary); from 
the Engstlen-Alp to Engelberg 6 fr. (those who begin this route at Engel- 
berg require a guide to the summit of the pass). If the traveller intends 
to devote two days to this interesting journey, the night should be passed 
at the Engstlen-Alp, where an afternoon may be agreeablv spent. 

From Meiringen to (l 1 / 4 hr.) Im-Hof (2054'), see p. 137. We 
then follow the Susten "route to (20 min.) Wyler (2428'), where 
we turn to the left and cross the Gadmer Aar. After 5 min., we 
keep again to the left and ascend rapidly through meadows and 
wood. Near the (1 hr.) chalets of Lauenen (3802'), where the direct 
path from Meiringen is joined (see below), begins the Gentelalp. 
The path skirts the right bank of the Oentelbach as far as a bridge 
(15 min. ; tavern on the left bank), where it unites with another 
path from the Gadmenthal (p. 135). 

A route shorter by '/-' ni °'i but unsuitable for persons inclined to 
giddiness (guide advisable) , leads from Meiringen to the left (instead of 
going to the right to Im-Hof), ascends, and skirts the brow of the Hasli- 
Berg, affording a striking view of the valleys which unite at Im-Hof far 
below. 

We now ascend very gradually through the somewhat mono- 
tonous valley to the (20 min.) Gentelhi'ttten (3993'), which lie ou 
the left bank of the brook. The path still follows the right bank, 
and after a more considerable ascent reaches (1 hr.) the Schwarz- 
waldhiitten (4596 ; small Inn). Behind us rise the Wetterhorner 
and the Hangend-Gletscherhorn at the end of the Urbachthal (p. 
137). 

The valley now becomes more interesting. The precipices of the 
Gadmer Fliihe (9750') on the right become more imposing as we 
proceed, and are enlivened by a series of waterfalls , the volume of 
which depends on the state of the melting snow, and of which we 
at last come to eight close together [Achtelsassbache). The Engstlen- 
bach, as the brook is named above this point, also forms several 
considerable falls. The path crosses the stream (small ravine) and 
ascends, often steeply, through beautiful pine-wood, commanding 
a retrospect of the Bernese Alps which gradually increases in mag- 
nificence. We now reach (l'/ 2 hr.) the * Engstlen-Alp (6033'), 
which lies at about the same height as theGrimsel-Hospice(p. 139), 
and is one of the most beautiful of mountain pastures, with its 
flower-carpeted meadows, Alpine roses, venerable pines and 'cedars 
of the Alps' , brooks, and waterfalls. (Excellent drinking-water, 
temperature 40-42° Fahr.) The view to the S.W. embraces the 



134 Route 29. JOCH-PASS. 

Finsteraarhorn , Schreckhorner , Wetterhorner , and Breithorn ; to 
the N. the Graustock; to the E. the Titlis and W'endenstocke ; to 
the S. the Gadmer Fluh. (*Inn, R. 2'/ 2 , D. 3y 2 , pension from 6 fr.) 
The finest point of -view is a small hill in front of the house 
(3 min.). 

The Wunderbrunnen ('miraculous well'), about 300 paces to the N. K. 
of the inn, is an intermittent spring which flows copiously in fine weather 
(when swollen by the melting snow), especially about 3 p. m., while at 
5 a. m. it is quite dry. When the weather is cloudy (and the snow con- 
sequently does not melt), the flow almost entirely ceases. The name given 
to the spring is hardly justified by such simple natural causes. 

The ascent of the 'Titlis (p. 82) from the Engstlen-Alp is shorter than 
from Engelberg; from the Engstlen-Alp to the Jochpass l'.'i! hr. to the 
•Stand (p. 82) 1 hr., thence to the top 3 hrs. (descent 4 hrs.). Guide from the 
inn 10 fr. (charged in the bill) and a gratuity. In order to reach the Titlis 
in good time, travellers generally leave the Engstlen-Alp at 2 a. in. with 
lanterns. — The Geissberg (p. 82) may be ascended from the, Engstlen-Alp 
in 2 hrs. 

The S&tteli, a pass to the Gadmenthal (p. 136), 2 hrs. to the S. of the 
Kngstlen-Alp, commands a fine view of the Gadmenthal and the Bernese 
Alps. The route from the Gadmenthal to the Siitteli (C hrs. from the inn 
'am Stein', p. 136, to the Engstlen-Alp) is very steep and requires a guide, 
there being no beaten track. 

From the Engstlen-Alp to the Melchthal. From a point about 
>,U hr. below the inn, near the waterfall, a steep path ascends in l'/2 hr. to 
the Tonnen-Alp (6503'), where a view is obtained of the Wetterhorn , the 
Bernese Alps, the Titlis, etc. From the Tannen-Alp to the Melchsee (642T; 
p. 79) a gradual descent of 1 hr. The Melchthal, see p. 79. 

The path to Engelberg skirts the Engstlen-See (6076'), a lake 
l'/.jM. long, and abounding with trout, and then ascends, com- 
manding a view of the extensive snows of the Wendenstiicke to the 
right, to the (1 hr.) Joeh-Pass (7244'), whence we obtain an im- 
posing retrospect of the Bernese Alps. The view of the mountains 
towards the N. which enclose the Engelberger Thai is gradually dis- 
closed as we descend. 

The path descends over blocks of rock and detritus, being ill 
defined at places, to the O/2 hr.) Obere Triibsee-Alp (Inn 'Zum 
Alpenclub', R. 3, B. jU/ 2 fr.), on the S.E. side of the small green 
and turbid Trubsee (5794'). On the right, apparently quite near 
us, are the glistening snows of the Titlis, which is usually ascended 
from this point (p. 82). The direct bridle-path (now exclusively 
used) from this point to Engelberg (l'/ohr.) leads straight towards 
the N.E., across the flat and marshy floor of the valley (keeping the 
Triibsee on the left), and crosses the brook which descends from 
the glaciers of the Titlis (no bridge). The well-defined path now 
descends in zigzags, skirting the precipitous Pfaffenwand for Y2 nr - 
(somewhat slippery in rainy weather). It next traverses the Gerschni 
Alp (4125'), in the direction of a clump of pines, enters a wood 
farther on. crosses the Enyelberyer Aa at the foot of the mountain, 
and reaches Engelberg (p. 82). 



135 
30. From Meiringen to Wasen. Susten-Pass. 

Comp. Map, p. 84. 

ll'/ahrs. : Im-Hof l<-/ t , Gadmen 3 (descent 2), Am Stein 2>/2 (descent l\/ 2 ), 
Susten-Scheideck l>/4 (descent i/V) , Meien 2>/2 (ascent 3>/2), Wasen 1 (ascent 
l'/a) hr. — Horse 35 (or, if a night is spent on the route , 40) , guide 
21 fr. , unnecessary. Horses and guides are often found on this route re- 
turning from the Furca or Grimsel route to Andermatt or Hospenthal. 

After Napoleon had annexed the little republic of the Valais (founded 
by him in 1801) to France in 1811 (p. 269), and had established a tariff of 
customs on the Simplon route , the produce of Canton Bern was sent 
to Italy by the Susten and the St. Gotthard. The pass was then con- 
verted into a kind of military road from 10' to J2' wide, but two years 
later, circumstances having changed, it was abandoned. It may still lie 
traced up to the summit of the pass on both sides , and, though no longer 
practicable for carriages, is the most frequented bridle-path in this part 
of the Alps. 

From Meiringen to Im-Hof (2054'), iy 4 hr., see p. 137. The 
Susten route diverges here to the E. from the Grimsel route. 
It traverses pleasant meadows and wooded slopes, ami skirts the 
winding Oadmer Aar. At one time the Wetterhorn, Wellhom, 
and Engelhorner, at another the Schwarzhom group form the 
background towards the W. 

The lower part of the valley is called the Muhlethal, above 
which is the Nessenthal. At (20 min.) Wyler the path to the Oen- 
telthal (p. 133) diverges to the left. The Susten road crosses (10 
min.) the .Gadmer Aar and at the C/4 hr.) old iron-foundry the 
Oentelbach , on the left bank of which a second path leading to the 
Engstlen-Alp ascends to the left. At ( 3 / 4 hr.) Miihlestalden (3050' ; 
new Inn) the narrow Triftthal opens towards the S.E., with the 
extensive Trift Glacier in the background. 

Triftthal (4V2-5 hrs. to the club-hut on the Thaltistock; guide ne- 
cessary ; Joh. and Andr. von Weisseit/luh of Miihlestalden and Melch. Moor 
of Gadmen are recommended). The path ascends above the left bank of 
the Trifibach , and along the lower ice-fall of the Trift Glacier to the 
(3 hrs.) Windegg (6237'; rude hut), whence the glacier, here tolerably 
level, is crossed in 1/2 hr. The steep rocks of the Thaltistock are then 
climbed to the (1 hr.) Club Hut (8250'), affording a good survey of the 
upper plateau of the Trift Glacier. — From the club-hut over the Trift- 
Limmi (10,171') and the Rhone Glacier to the Furca (p. 142) or the Grimsel 
Hospice (p. 139), 9 hrs., fatiguing, but highly interesting. — The Damma- 
stock (11,920'), commanding a splendid view, is reached without serious 
difficulty from the club-hut in 4-5 hrs. (descent by the Rhone Glacier 
and Nagelisgratli to the Grimsel in 7 hrs.). — The Schneesiock (11,667'), 
the TMeralplistock (11,175'), and the Diechterhorn (11,119') may also be as- 
cended from the club-hut. — Passes to the Geschenen-Alp over the 
Winterberg range (Maasplankjoch, Dammapass, Winterjoch) difficult (conip. 
p. 88); over the Thierbergliicke and Kehlenjoch, see p. 88. — By the 
Tiefensattel (10,820') to the Tie/en Glacier (p. 143) and the Furca, not very 
difficult. — Interesting passes also cross the Furtwang-Sattel (8392') to 
Guttannen (a steep ascent of 3 hrs. from the Windegg; descent by the 
Steinhaus-Alp to Guttannen in 2 hrs.) , and the Stein-Limmi (8970) to the 
Stein Inn [from the chalet of Graggi, opposite the Windegg on the r. 
side of the glacier, in 3 hrs. to the col, between the Giglistock and Vor- 
der-Thierberg , whence the descent lies over the Sleinlimmi Glacier and 
along the slopes of the Thaleggli to the (2 hrs.) Stein-Alp (p. 136)J. By 
combining the two last named passes, an active walker may reach llie 
Stein-Alp from Guttannen in a single day (11-12 hrs. walking). 



136 Route JO. SFSTEN. 

The path crosses the, tiadmcr Aar and ascends by Schaftelen 
to (1 hr.) Fi'tren (38 18'). In the beautiful Oadmenthal, which be- 
gins here, lies (">/ 2 hr.) the village of Gadmen (3960' ; Bar, toler- 
able), consisting of the three hamlets of An der Egg, Buhl, and 
Obermatt. (Path over the Satteli to the Engstlen-Alp, see p. 134.) 
The green valley with its tine old maple-trees contrasts singularly 
with the barren and precipitous Gadmer Fluh (9750' ; see p. 133). 
On the slope of the Uratstbcke (9544'), to theE., is seen the Wen- 
den Glacier. 

The path ascends gradually, and then more rapidly through 
wood to the chalets of Feldmoos (4934'), beyond which wild and 
rocky scenery is traversed to the (-Va hrs.) Inn Am Stein (R. 2, 
B. I'/,, A. 1/2 fr-)> at the foot of the" Stein Glacier (6122'), and 
surrounded by moraine, and rock. This glacier is unquestionably 
one of the most extensive and remarkable in Switzerland. In 1840 
it was l'/ 2 M. distant from the old path, but now extends con- 
siderably beyond it, and is only 200 yds. distant from the inn, but, 
as is evident from the moraine, it is now again receding. 

Over the Susten-Lijimi to the Geschenen-Alp, 9 hrs., fatiguing, but 
without serious difficulty for practised mountaineers. The rugged slope 
of the Thaleggli (on the W. side of the Stein Glacier) is ascended and 
the Steinlimmi-Glacier crossed to the Tliierbergli, beyond which the great 
plateau at the head of the Stein Glacier is traversed to the pass ( 10,180'), 
S.E. of the GleUcherhorn (11,457'). The descent lies over the Snslen 
Glacier to the Ke/ilen-Alp (7562') and across the Kehlen Glacier to the 
Hinlerc Rolhe and Gestfienen-Alp (p. 88). — Over the Stein-Limmi to the 
Tri/t Glacier (5 hrs. to the Graggi-hut), see above. — The ascent of the 
Brunnenstock (11.519'), the highest of the Sustenhorner. is laborious, hut 
highly interesting. 

The (I1/4 hr. ) Susten-Scheideck (7421'), as the culminating 
point of the pass is called, commands a limited but imposing 
view , embracing the entire chain of precipices and mountains 
which bound the Meienthal on the N., and the long jagged ridge 
of the Gadmer Fluh ; to the S. the Sustenhorner ( I 1.519') and Thicr- 
berge (11,306'), from which the huge Stein (ilacier descends in 
three arms. .Several of the peaks of the Bernese Oberland are visible 
through a narrow gap towards the W. 

The path , now uninteresting , winds down the slopes of the 
(lu fern- Alp. The Meienbach , which it follows and crosses re- 
peatedly, emerges from the Kalchthul, a wild gorge on the right, 
into which avalanches are frequently precipitated from the Stilckli- 
stock (10,856') and the majestic Sustenhorner. The Susten-Alp is 
passed on the right, and the ( 3 / 4 hr. ) Gufernplntten-Alp (5725') on 
the left. Near the (3/ 4 hr.) Hunds-Alp (5043') the road crosses a 
bridge high above the impetuous Gorezmettlerbach. Several brooks 
issue from the Itiitifirn on the right. 

Ferniyen (4787'; Inn, moderate) is the first group of houses, 
then the (1 hr.) village of Meien (4331': Inn near the chapel), 
consisting of several hamlets (Dbrfli, Hits en , &<•.'). Above Wasen 
the road passes the Meienschanz (3599') , an intrenchment com- 



IM-IIOF. 31. Route. 137 

manding the entrance to the Meienthal , erected in 1712 during 
the Religions War (p. 31'1), and destroyed by the French in 1799. 
The path then descends rapidly to (1 hr.) Wasen (2779') on 
the St. Gotthard route (p. 87"). 

31. From Meiringen to the Rhone Glacier. Grimsel. 

Comp. Map, p. Si. 

lO'/i lirs. : Guttannen 3 1 -j, Handeck 2, Grimsel Hospice 2 3 /i, summit of 
(lie Grimsel 1, Rhone Glacier I1/4; back in 8','j lirs. — Good bridle -path, 
guide unnecessary. Horse from Meiringen to the Handeck (and back in 
one day) 15, Grimsel 25, Rhone Glacier 32, Hospenthal or Andermatt 40 fr. 
(comp. p. 103); from the Rhone Glacier to the Grimsel 6, to the Hospice 
10, Handeck lo, jUeiringen 30 fr. 

The carriage-] oad , completed for some distance beyond Im- 
Hol' (to which a diligence runs twice daily, fare 1 fr.J, crosses to 
the left bank of the Aare near Meiringen, and ascends the Kirchet 
('2313'), a wooded ridge sprinkled with erratic blocks of granite, and 
dividing the valley into the Lower and Upper Haslithal. At the 
top, l /-2 hr. from Meiringen, a finger-post near the small 'Lamm' inn 
indicates the path to the 'Finstere Aarschluchi 1 to the left. 

The Finstere Schlauche. From the inn we ascend slightly to the left, 
then follow a good path through underwood into a most picturesque rocky 
gorge resembling that of the Tamina, formed by the erosive action of the 
stream. Far below dashes the Aare, between perpendicular precipices 
300' in height. Interesting \v;;lk, there and back, of 40 min. A toll of 
1 '•_• fr. for one person, and 1 fr. for a party of three or more, is levied at 
the inn for the construction of the path. 

The road descends the Kirchet in long windings, which the 
pedestrian may avoid, traverses the rich meadows of the valley of 
Hasli-im-G'rund, and crosses to the right bank of the Aare near 
(3/ 4 hr.) Im-Hof (2054'; Hotel Im-Uof, R. 2'/,. B. 1% A. 3/ 4 , 
pension 5-6 fr. ; *H6tel Alpenhof, new), the principal village in the 
parish of Innertkirchen, where the Susten (p. 135) and Jochpass 
(p. 133) routes diverge to the E. 

.\ visit to the Urbachthal, which opens here towards the S.W. , as 
far as the huge Gauli Glacier at. the head of the valley , requires 10-12 lirs. ; 
guide desirable, in order that the traveller may ascend the glacier and 
obtain the most advantageous view of the head of the valley and the im- 
posing environs. The sides of the valley consist of several different regions, 
the lowest of which is cultivated. At the foot of the glacier is the Matte.n- 
ntp (6202 1 )-, farther up, on the left side, is the Uriienrilp (7211'). A glacier 
path leads hence to the right over the Wetter-Limmi ( 10,440') to the Rosen- 
laui Glacier (p. 128) and over the Bergli-Joch (11,289') to Grindelwald 
(p. 124); another to the left over the Ouuli-Pass (10,258') to the Lauteraar 
Glacier (p. 140). These are for experienced mountaineers only, with able 
guides (Joli. Taunler and M. Xcigeli of Imhof recommended).' The Kwiij- 
Schneehorn (10,929') is easily ascended from the Gauli-Pass (comp. p. 140). 

The carriage-road in the valley of the Aare terminates at the 
bridge over the Aare, 1 hr. above Im-Hof, beyond which the route is 
continued by a good bridle-path on the left bank. Refreshments are 
sold at many of the way-side chalets, but occasionally at exorbitant 
charges. The path now ascends more rapidly and higher up (25 min.) 
is carried through a projecting ridge of rock. It next crosses several 



138 Route 31. HANDECK. From Meiringen to the 

torrents which are covered with avalanche-snow in the eariy sum- 
mer. (t/2 hr.) Im-Boden is a small hamlet on a terrace of the 
valley (2933')- Near a (5 min.) house, a shorter and pleasanter 
path traverses the meadows to the left. Then (40 min.) Guttannen 
(3442'; *Bar, R. 2, B. 1'/.,, A. '/ 2 fr.), a poor village, the largest 
in the Oberhaslithal , situated in a basin of considerable extent. 
The meadows are covered in every direction with heaps of stones, 
brought down by torrents, and collected in order to prevent injury 
to the grass. (By the Furtwang-Sattel to the Trift Glacier, see 
p. 135.) 

Beyond Guttannen (!/ 2 hr.) a bridge spans the wild and foam- 
ing Aare [Tschingelbrucke , 3733'). The valley contracts, and 
barren black rocks rise on the right. Huge masses of loose stones 
deposited on the less precipitous slopes testify to the power 
of avalanche and torrent. On the right the Wissbach-dlacier dis- 
charges its waters into the valley. Patches of snow are oc- 
casionally visible on the mountain -tops. The C/2 hr. ) next 
bridge across the Aare is the Schwarzbrunnenbriicke |H97I>'); 
10 min. beyond it, after the first short ascent, there is a spring 
of good water on the right. The Aare becomes more rapid, and 
here forms a small waterfall. A pine- clad ridge of rock now 
closes the valley. The paved path ascends over granite rocks, 
rounded and polished by glacier-friction (comp. Introd. XIV). 

Near two huts, at a bend in the path ( 3 / 4 hr. from the last 
bridge, 8 min. before the Handeck inn is reached) a side-path 
leads to the left to a platform with a balustrade (t/j fr.) im- 
mediately above the **Fall of the Handeck, which precipitates 
itself in an unbroken mass into an abyss, 250' in depth. Grand 
as the spectacle is from this point, it is still finer when viewed 
from a point reached by descending for 5 min. to the E. from 
the Handeck Inn. Next to the falls of the Tosa (p. 148) and the 
Rhine (p. 27), this is the most imposing cascade among the Alps, 
owing to its height, its great volume of water, and the wild 
character of the adjuncts. The rapidity of the stream is so great 
that it falls unbroken half way to the bottom, and in its rebound 
forms a dense cloud of spray and vapour, in which rainbows are 
formed by the sunshine between 10 and 1 o'clock. The silvery 
water of the Erlenbach falls from a height to the left into the 
same gulf, mingling halfway down with the grey glacier water 
of the Aare. The approach to the fall is easy and safe. The 
best point of view is a projecting rock beyond the bridge (adm. 
V2 fr-)- The chalet of the Handeck has been converted into a 
tnlcrable Inn (4(149'). Carved wood is sold here at moderate prices. 

The sombre pine-forest becomes thinner, and even the dwarf- 
pines disappear altogether a little above the Handeck. The stony 
soil is clothed with stunted grass , moss , and rhododendrons. 
About '/•> hr. from the Handeck the path leads over rounded 



Rhone Glacier. GRIMSEL HOSPICE. 31. Route. 139 

slabs of rofk called the Bbse [Seite and the Hahle ('slippery') 
Platte, both worn by glacier friction. Opposite them the Gel- 
merbach forms a picturesque cascade, descending from the Gel- 
mersee (5968') , a lake which lies on the mountain to the left, 
between the Gelmerhom and Schaubhom, and may be visited 
from the Handeck (steep path). 

The valley becomes narrower and more desolate. The path 
frequently crosses the Aare, now a mere brook. Vegetation dis- 
appears almost entirely. Between the Handeck and Grimsel the 
only two human habitations, 13/ 4 hr. from the former, 1 hr. from 
the latter , are two chalets in the Rdterichsboden (5594'), the last 
basin below the Grimsel, and probably once the bed of a lake. 

The rocky, but well-trodden path ascends for a short distance 
through a wild defile, and then becomes comparatively level. It 
at length crosses the Aare, turns to the left, and in */4 hr. reaches 
the Grimsel Hospice (614*'; Inn, R. 2i/ 2 , B. Vj. h D. 5, A. 1 fr.), 
formerly a refuge for poor travellers crossing the Grimsel, and now 
always crowded with tourists in the height of summer. 

This barren mountain-basin , called the Grimselgrund , lies 
955' below the summit of the pass (p. 140). Bald rocks , with 
perpetual snow in their crevices, and occasional patches of scanty 
herbage or moss form the surrounding scenery. Beyond the 
small and gloomy lake , which is destitute of fish, lies the See- 
mattli , a meagre pasturage, where the cows of the Hospice 
graze for one or two months only. 

The jagged mountain to the W., above the ravine of the Aare, is the 
Agassizhorn (13,120'), the N. pedestal of the Finster-Aarhorn , connected 
with which on the W. is the crest of the Viescherhorner. The Finster- 
Aarhorn (14,026'), the highest of the Bernese Alps, is not visible from the 
hospice itself, but from the Nollen, a rocky eminence a few paces distant. 
This giant of the Oberland was ascended for the first time in 1829 , twice 
in 1842 , and several times within the last few years by members of the 
English and Swiss Alpine Clubs. If the ascent is made from the Grimsel 
Hospice, the night should be spent in the Rothloch (9203'), a cave on the 
W. slope of the Walliser Iiothhorn (11,644'). The route thence leads 
round the W. side of the Finsteraarhorn to the summit in 6-7 hrs. If 
the Eggischhorn be the starting-point, the night is spent in the club-hut 
on the Favlberg (9429'), from which the ascent lies across the OrUnhornliicke 
(10,843') and the Viescherjjrn. The expedition cannot be safely undertaken 
except by thoroughly experienced mountaineers with able guides. In Aug. 
1876, the Finsteraarhorn was ascended for the first time from the S.E. 
side (21 hrs. walking from the Grimsel Hospice). 

The Aare flows from two vast glaciers (6158'), the Vorder-Aar, or 
Unter-Aar Glacier, and the Ober-Aar Glacier, to the W. of the hospice. 
The latter, an ice-field with numerous crevasses, separated from the TJnter- 
Aar Glacier by the Zinkenstocke, is 5 hrs. from the hospice. A tolerable 
bridle-path leads in 3 hrs. to the foot of the Unter-Aar Glacier. The pas- 
sage of the glacier itself is easy and safe. It forms a continuation or 
offshoot of the Finster-Aar and Lauter-Aar Glaciers. At the junction of the 
two glaciers rises a medial moraine, 100' high at places (see Introd. XIV). 
The valley, now named the Aareboden, extending from the hospice to a 
point far above the Unter-Aar Glacier, was once called the Blilmlisalp 
(flowery Alp), and consisted of rich pastures , which the advance of the 
glacier and the deposit of detritus from the mountain have now entirely 
destroyed. 



140 Route 31. GRIMSEL. 

The two glaciers of the Aare present many attractions to those inter- 
ested in the investigation of the theory of glaciers. The eminent Swiss 
naturalist Hugi caused a hut to he built in 1827 on the lower glacier, at 
the foot of the rock named '/in Abschwung\ which separates the two glaciers, 
3 hrs. from the Hospice. This hut, moving with the glacier, had in 1840 
travelled to a distance of 2000 yds. from the rock. On the same glacier 
the eminent Agassii, then a professor at Neuchatel, with Desor, Vogt, Wild, 
and other savants, spent a considerable time in 1841 by desire of the King 
of Prussia, and published several interesting accounts of their observations, 
dated from the '■Hotel des Xevchdtelois\ a stone hut erected for protection 
against wind and storm under a huge block of mica-slate projecting from 
the medial moraine. The latest researches on the subject have been made 
by M. Dollfuss-Ausset of Jliilhausen in Alsace, who has erected a ' pavilion' 
(7835') on the N. side of the mountain, opposite the Abschwung. According 
to bis calculations the glacier advances 85 yds. per annum, that is about. 
8 in. per diem. The arm of the glacier to the right abounds in crevasses, 
that to the left is quite level. 

The : Kleine Sidelhorn (9075'), to the S.W., is often ascended in 2 hrs. 
from the Grimsel Pass (guide necessary, 4 fr.) [The Grosse Sidelhorn (9449'), 
more than double the distance from the hospice, and commanding an 
inferior view, lies towards the S.W.I The path is generally good, but the 
last '/< hr. i s fatiguing, owing to the loose fragments of granite with which 
(he summit is covered. The view is grand, but deficient in foreground and 
vegetation. Gigantic peaks surround the spectator on every side : to the 
W. the Schrcckhorn , the Finster-Aarhorn, and the Viescherhorn -, to the 
>J.E. the Galenstock , from which the Rhone Glacier descends; to the 
S. the Upper Valais chain with its numerous ice-streams, particularly the 
Gries glacier; to the S.W., in the distance, the Monte Rosa chain, Jli- 
schabel, JIatterhorn, Weisshorn, etc. The view of the two glaciers of the 
Aare with their grand medial moraine is interesting (romp. Dill's Panorama). 
The ascent of the ,: 'Ewig-Schneehorn (10,929') presents little difficulty 
Inexperienced climbers. From the Grimsel to the Dollfiiss Pavilion 3 hrs., 
across the Lauter-Aar Glacier to the foot of the mountain IV2 hr., to the 
Gmiligrat 2 hrs., thence to the summit 3 /j hr. (comp. p. 137). Descent over 
the limili Glacier (p. 137) to the Mattenalp, where if necessary the night 
may be. spent, 3-4 hrs.; then through the Vrbaehthal in 3 hrs. more tn 
/;»-//»/ (p. 137). A safe excursion with a good guide. 

Fiiom the Gkimskl to Vinson for belter to the Eggi.ichlmrit , p. 146), 
over the. Oberaarjoch (10,624') and the "Wrilliser Viescher Glacier, an 
expedition for experienced mountaineers; 11-15 hrs., two guides necessary 
(35 fr. each). From the summit of Ihe pass the Oberaarliorn (11,952') may 
be ascended in l'/ 2 hr. — Over the Studerjoch (11,945'), between the Stu- 
dcrhorn and Ohcraarhom . 14 15 hrs. to Viesch, difficult. Descent from 
the pass by the Sluderflni and I'iescher Glacier; or the traveller may as- 
cend to Ihe col between the Rolhhorn and Finsteraarhorn and descend 
thence by the Vicscherlirn and Griinhornliicke to the Faulberg and Eggisch- 
horn. — Over the. C;ler-Aar Glacier and the col between the Studer- 
horn and Finsteraarhorn (about 11.580'), IS hrs. to Viesch, also difficult; 
same descent a*; from the Studerjoch. 

/•'/em the Grimsel by l/ie Strahleyg to (l riiidelunld , see p. 122; by the 
Finsternrirjoeh or Laiiteraarjoch, see \>. 122. — From the Grimsel to the 
Furcti direct, over the Rhone Glacier, sec p. 142. 

A stoop bridle-path, partly paved, and indicated by stakes, 
winds up the pass of the Grimsel (7103'), which connects the 
valley of Oberhasli with the Upper Valais. At (1 hr.) the summit 
of the pass (Haiiseck), the boundary between Bern and Valais, the 
miow seldom entirely melts. The small Todtensee ('lake of the 
dead) lies on the S. side of the pass. 

In Ihe summer of 1799 this lake was used as a burial-place by the Aus- 
trians and French. The former, with the Valaisians, had entrenched them- 



RHONE GLACIER. 32. Route. 141 

selves on the Grimsel, having extended their outposts as far as the first 
bridge over the Aare. All the attempts of the French, who were stationed 
at Guttannen under Gudin, to drive the Austrians from this position were 
ineffectual. A peasant of Guttannen, however, named Fahner, at length 
conducted a small detachment over the Gelmerhorn, Doltihorn, and Oersthorn 
to the Grimsel, where they attacked the Austrians, and after an obstinate 
conflict compelled them to retreat into the Valais or towards the Hospice 
.the Branch presented their guide, at his request, with the Raterichsboden 
(p. Ida), as a reward for his services, but the government of Bern cancelled 
the gift a few months later. The crest from which the French poured down 
upon the Grimsel, on the N. of the Pass, is called Niigelfs Griitli (847l'l- 
see p. 142. v " 

Before the summit of the pass is reached, the direct path to 
Obergestelen in the Valais (p. 144) diverges to the right from the 
Furca route, and leads towards the S., on the \V. bank of the 
Todtensee. The Furca route leads to the E., on the N. side of 
the lake, descends the Maienwand, a precipitous grassy slope 
1300' iii depth, carpeted with rhododendrons and other Alpine 
plants, and commanding a view of the Rhone Glacier and Galen- 
stock, and in iy 4 hr. reaches the Rhone Glacier Hotel (see 
below) on the Furca road. 

32. From the Rhone Glacier to Andermatt. 
The Furca. 

C'omp. Map, p. 84. 
. . .^PVa M; Diligence daily (about noon) in 41/2 hrs., coupe 8 fr. 10 c . 
inteneur 7 fr. 15 c. - Distances for walkers: from the Rhone Glacier to the 
Burca 2'/. (descent 1'AO, Bealp 2>/ 2 (ascent 3y 2 ), Hospenthal H/* Ander- 
matt V, hr. - Horse from Realp to the Furca 8, to the Tiefenglefscher 

Hntol 1 in r h °?'£ e , car " a ! e / TOm th ? Knone Glacier to the Furca 
Hotel 10, two-horse .1.5 fr. 5 to Andermatt 25 or 40 fr. 

The -FuitUA Road , constructed principally for military purposes, is 

traversed by a diligence in summer (once daily from Andermatt to Br eg 

and vice versa, m 12 hrs halting for dinner at the Rhone Glacier 

coupe 21 fr. 30 inteneur 18 fr. 90 c). It. commands striking views of the 

Rhone (.lacier, the Galenstock, Spitzberg, etc., and is strongly recommended 

of view P ed estnans. The bridle-path is shorter, but destitute 

The *Rhone Glacier, imbedded between the Gelmerhorn (10 499') 
and Gerstenhorn (10,450') on the W., and the Galenstock fll 805')' 
Rhonestock(ii,B'2V), and Dammastock fll,9'20') on the E. ex- 
tends in a terrace-like form to a distance of 15 M., somewhat re- 
sembling a gigantic frozen waterfall. At its base 'Im GletscH (5751') 
is the *Hotel du Glacier du Rhone, where travellers from the Grim- 
sel the Furca , and the Rhone Valley frequently halt for dinner 
(R. 3, B. I1/2, D. 41/-J-5, L. and A. li/ 2 fr.). 

A grey torrent of snow-water issues from the Rhone Glacier 
111 some seasons from a lofty cavern of ice. This is the Rhone! 
the Rhodanus of the ancients, which was said to issue 'from the 
gates of eternal night, at the foot of the pillar of the sun' an 
infant stream which gradually becomes a mighty river, and even- 
tually discharges itself into the Mediterranean after ' a .-nurse of 



1 12 Route :il>. FUKCA. 

live hundred miles. The inhabitants of the valley give the name 
of Rotten, or Hhodan, to three warm springs which rise at the back 
of the hotel, to the left of the post station, and regard them as 
the true source of the river. These streams bubble up in a round 
stone basin , and mingle with the glacier-stream a short distance 
from their source. — A visit to the Ice Grotto artiticially hown in 
the glacier, ] / 4 hr. from the hotel , is recommended (admission 
Y2 fr- i umbrella useful). 

The FuitCA. Road crosses the infant Rhone close to the hotel, 
and then ascends in long windings on the E. side of the valley. 
Pedestrians should follow the old bridle-path which diverges to 
the left beyond the bridge, cuts off the first windings of the road, 
and rejoins it in 1 /-> hr. (or pass the ice-cavern mentioned above, 
cross the flat tongue of the Rhone Glacier, and regain the road in 
3 /4 hr., an easy and safe walk with a guide). The road slowly 
ascends the slope of the Lcingisgrat, enters after 1 / t hr. the valley 
descending from the Furca , and crosses the Muttbach, the dis- 
charge of the Gratsclducht-Giacier, which flows under the Rhone 
Glacier and forms one of the sources of that river. 

The old path, destitute of view, here ascends rapidly to the 
right to the pass. The new road turns sharply to the left and 
ascends in long windings, high above the Rhone Glacier, command- 
ing admirable views of its lofty and fantastic pinnacles, especially 
from the second ( a tavern here) and third bend. From the highest 
winding, near the Galenhiitten (7897'), another fine retrospect is 
obtained, including the Bernese and Valaisian Alps, the Finster- 
aarhorn, Schreckhorner, Weisshorn, and Mischabel. To the right 
is the Mutthorn (10,181'), with the dirty-looking Gratschlucht- 
Glacier. (From this point the Furca Hotel is 3 / 4 M. distant.) 

After a moderate walk of 2'/ 2 hrs. from the Rhone Glacier 
Hotel (the diligence takes 2 hrs.), we reach the summit of the 
Furca (7992'; *ffitel de la Furca, R. 2, B. l l / 2 , D. 4, I,, and 
A. 1 fr.). The pass, which is seldom entirely free from snow, 
descends abruptly on both sides, and lies between two peaks, 
somewhat resembling the prongs of a fork (furca). 

The ascent of the Furcahorn (9935' ; '2" 2 hrs.}, across pastures, detritus, 
and patches ofsimw, presents no difficulty (guide advisable, 4 fr.). Admir- 
able panorama, of the Alps of Bern and Valais, the Galenstock, the St. 
Golthard group, etc. (This exclusion may also be combined with the 
route to Nageli's Gratli and the Grimsel Hospice- see below.) 

Ascent of the Galenstock (1 1 ,805') 5 hrs., for experienced mountaineers 
only, with an atile guide (18 fr. ; two required for the less experienced). 
The (rack leads from the upper part of the Rhone Glacier up a steep snow 
slope and difficult rocks, and dually over a loin; arete of nevd (rope and 
ice-axe required). Imposing view. The descent may be made across the 
lihonc Glacier and over Nageli's Gratli to the Grimsel Hospice (see below). 

To niK Ghimsi.l Huspk-k (p. 139). Pedestrians may descend from 
Ihe turca Inn to the Rhone Glacier in " ■• hr., cross it above the ice-fall 
:ind descend by XiigilVs (Iriitli IS171'; line view) to Ihe Hospice (4 hrs' 
guide necessary). The path descends to the X. end of the small lake (p 139)' 



KEALI'. 32. Route. 143 

The Old Path now descends rapidly into the Garschenthal, 
and traverses monotonous pastures, interesting to botanists only. 
On the Siedeln-Alp and Wasser-Alp especially, numerous species of 
Alpine plants are found. — The New Road skirts the lofty N. side 
of the valley. To the left is seen the Siedeln Glacier, the discharge 
of which forms a picturesque fall near the road ; adjacent to it 
rise the sharp pinnacles of the Bielenstock; farther to the left is 
the Tiefen Glacier (see below). We then cross the Tiefentobel to the 
inn Zum Tiefengleischer (good Italian wine), the only house between 
the Furca and Realp. 

A bridle-path leads hence in 3 /j nr. to the end of the Tiefengletscher, 
descending between the Galenstock and the Qletschhorn (10,850'), where 
beautiful crystals were found in 1868. The grotto which once concealed 
these treasures, at the base of the (Jletschhorn, is difficult of access, and re- 
quires a guide. The weight of the crystals (clouded topaz) found here 
amounted to 12-15 tons. The most beautiful specimens are now in the 
museum at Bern (p. 100). — Over the Tiefensattel to the Rhone Glacier 
( Grimsel, Trifl Glacier), see p. 135. — Over the WiiUer-Liicke (9449') to the 
Gesc/ienen-Alp (p. 88), 6 hrs. ; the descent to the Winter Glacier is very 
steep. 

On the (l 1 ^ M.) Ebneten-Alp (6831') begin the long windings 
by which the road descends into the Urseren Valley (see below), 
and which the pedestrian may avoid by taking the old path. A 
fine survey of the broad valley is now enjoyed ; in the background, 
above Andermatt, are the zigzag lines of the Oberalp route (R. 
80). In descending , pedestrians quit the road a few hundred 
paces beyond the 50th kilometre stone by several steps on the 
left; in ascending they leave it 50 paces beyond the first bridge, 
!/ 4 hr. from Realp. 

I41/2 M. Realp (5059' ; Hotel des Alpes, R. 1, B. 1, D. 2i/ 2 fr. ; 
Zum Hospiz , a small inn adjacent to the former 'Hospiz Realp', 
umpretending but clean), a poor hamlet at the W. extremity of 
the Urseren Valley. 

By the Alpiglen-Liicke to the Geschenen-Alp, see p. 88. — From Realp 
to Villa in the Val Bedrelto (p. 145) by the Cavanna-Pass (8566'), between 
the Piz Lucendro and Hiihnerstock, 5 hrs. (not recommended). 

The Urseren- Thai is a sequestered valley with excellent 
pastures, 9 M. long, 3 / 4 M. wide, watered by the Reuss , and 
enclosed between mountains partially covered with snow. Beyond 
Realp the road crosses the Locltbach, the E. discharge of the Tiefen 
Glacier (on the N. rises the Lochberg, 9400'; see p. 88), and the 
Reuss , and then leads straight across the bottom of the valley, 
overgrown with brushwood, to (2 '/a M.) Zumdorf. To the left in 
the foreground, on the N. side of the valley, tower the serrated 
peaks of the Spitzbery (10,049'). From this point to (13/ 4 M.) 
Hospenthal (4800'; see p. 90), on the St. Gotthard route, the 
road follows the right bank of the Reuss. Thence by the St. Gott- 
hard road to (13/ 4 M.) — 

201/2 M. Andermatt (4738'), see p. 89. 



144 

33. From the Rhone Glacier to Vispach. Eggischhorn. 

37'/2 M. Diligence to Brieg once daily (in the afternoon) in 5 lira, (to 
Miinster li/ 2 , Viesch ls/ 4 , Brieg l 3 /< hr); coupe 13 fr. 20c, interieur 11 fr. 
75 c. (in the reverse direction the journey takes 7 hrs.). From Brieg to 
Vispach diligence twice daily in - 1 -i hr. — Carriages: From the Rhone 
Glacier to Viesch one-horse 20, two-horse 30 fr. ; to Brieg 30 or 50. Vis- 
pach 35 or 60, Sierre 55 or 90, to the Batln of I.euk (JO or 100 fr. 

This road(Furea route, comp. p. 141) has been a diligence route since 
1807, and will hardly repay the pedestrian. 

Those who have seen the Rhone Glacier may proceed from the Grimsel 
direct to Ohergestelen, by the path which at the top of the pass turns 
to the right (leaving the Todtensee on the left) and descends the wooded 
slopes to the village in 2'Ai hrs. 

A short distance from the Rhone Glacier Hotel (p. 141) the 
road crosses the Rhone , which careers far below through its rocky 
ravine, and descends in long windings, commanding a more open 
view than the old route, to (3y 4 M.) Oberwald (4456'; *H6tel de 
la Furca, R. ll/ 2 , B. l^fr.), at the bottom of the valley of the 
Upper Valais, a broad expanse of pasture -land , studded with 
houses and hamlets, enclosed by monotonous chains of mountains, 
and watered by the Rhone , which is seldom visible. In front rises 
the majestic Weisshorn, with its dazzling snow-pyramid ; behind 
us the Galenstock, and to the right of it the Mutthorn. The valley 
consists of three regions, the upper extending to Viesch, the second 
to the bridge of Grengiols, and the third below this bridge. The 
inhabitants (Rom. Cath.) speak German ; the French language begins 
to prevail near Sion (p. 269). 

Through the wild Gerenthal, a ravine opening to the E. of Oberwald, 
a fatiguing but interesting pass crosses the Kiihboden-Glacier and the 
col (about 9180') S. of the Kiiltbodenhorn (10.410') to AW Arqiiii in the Val 
Bedretto (see below: 8 hrs., guide necessary, 18 fr.). — The Pizzo lio- 
tosdo (10.4S9') , the highest peak of the St. Gotthard group, may be as- 
cended from the Kiihboden (upper end of the Gerenthal) in 5 lirs. (difficult, 
i'nr experienced mountaineers only, with good guides). 

At (13/ 4 M.) Obergestelen (44r)'2' t ; Tavern, with a few beds), 
French Haut-CliatUton, the direct route to the Grimsel diverges to 
the right (p. 141 ). The village was burned down in 1868. with the 
exception of three houses, but has been rebuilt. The next place is 
(I'^M.) Ulrichen, or Urlichen (4380' ; *H!)tel :«?n (jriesgletseher, 
unpretending), a village with a tapering spire, situated opposite 
the mouth of the Valley of Eyinen. 

To Airolo uv the XuFENEX Pass (8' ,'j hrs.) , a rough, uninteresting 
bridle-path, guide necessary 1 12 fr., horse 25 fr.). Beginning of the route, 
seep. 147. At Altstaffel, 'before the Gries Glacier is reached, the path 
leads to the left anil crosses the (3 l /a hrs.) Nufenen-Pass (or Passo di Xoveiui. 
8009'), the boundary between the cantons of Valais and Ticino, into the 
Val Bedretto, where Italian is spoken. Immediately below the pass rises 
the Tiritio, which the path follows, first on the right, and then on the left 
bank, as far as the | l :i i hr.) Hospice all' Acqua l5o(i(>' ; poor Inn), whence 
another path crosses the Pass of S. Giacomo to the Tosa Falls (see p. 148). 
The lofty situation of the Val Bedretto renders it barren and unfruitful. 
Winter iasts at least six months, and even in summer it sometimes freezes 
at night. The slopes of the mountains are clothed with wood and over- 
topped by barren pinnacles of rock, \valanehes are frequent in spring 
and winter, and their track is frequently crossed by the narrow path. 



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VIESCH. 33. Route. 145 

(1 hr.) Bedretto (4610'), the principal place in the valley. On 7th Jan., 
1863, the W. part of the village was destroyed by an avalanche, and 2S of 
the inhabitants perished. The nevt place is (20 min.) Villa (indifferent Innl. 
Near (20 min.) Ossasco (4367'; listeria delle AlpiJ the road crosses to the 
right bank of the Ticino. We next reach (25 min.) Fontanel (beyond 
which is the wild ravine of the Valle lliirino, with picturesque waterfalls) 
and (3 ', hr.) Airolo (p. 92). 

The following villages are Geschenen (4396') and (3 :i ;4 M. j'rom 
Obergestelen) — 

10 M. Miinster (4528'; Goldenes Kreuz; one -horse carr. to 
Brieg 18, to Vispaeh 20 t'r. and gratuity), the principal village in 
the valley, Beautiful view from the loftily-situated chapel. 

The "Lbffelhorn (10,138') is ascended from Miinster (fatiguing, 5 hrs.; 
guide 6 fr.) across snow and granite-rocks ; view similar to that from the 
Eggischhorn, with the addition of the Finstcraarhoni in the foreground. 

The next villages , Tieckingen (with the handsomest church 
in the valley, at the mouth of the Hlinnen-Thal) , Gluringen, 
Hitungen, Biel , Selkinyen , and Blitzingen, are almost contiguous. 
At (I'/o M.) Niederwald (4052'; Zum Guten Freund) delicious 
water bubbles up abundantly under a roof by the road-side. 
Beyond Niederwald the Rhone forces its passage to a lower region 
of the valley. 

19 1 /"! M. Viesch, or Fiesch (3458'; *H6tel du Glacier de Viesch; 
Hotel des Alpes; at both R. 'i'Ai, B. V/*, D. 3 fr.; Restaurant du 
Glacier; one-horse carr. to Brieg 10, Vispach 14, Obergestelen 14, 
Oberwald 15, Rhone Glacier 20 fr.), a thriving village, prettily 
situated at the influx of the impetuous Vieschbach into the Rhone. 

By the Albeun-Pass to Pkemia OK Andermatten in the Val 
Formazza (p. 149), 11-12 hrs. from Viesch, or from Lax (guide from Ini- 
feld desirable, 12 fr.). From Lax a good new bridle-path leads by ( 3 /i hr.) 
Ansserbinn (4337') to (l'/i hr.) Biiin (4718' : beds at the cure's), a village in 
the Binnen-Thal, interesting to mineralogists. (The "BeUlihovn, 9728', as- 
cended hence without difficulty in 5hrs., commands an admirable view; 
guide necessary.) Then (3/ 4 hr.) Imfeld (5144'), beyond which the path is 
indifferent (guide advisable) ; f/i hr. pine-forest, 3 U hr. chalets, l'/4 hr. last 
chalet, 1 hr. summit of the Albrun-Pass (Colle d'Avbola, 7907"), the latter 
part of the way stony, between the Ofenhovn (Punta (VArbola, 10,729') on 
the left and the Albrunhorn (9513') on the right. We then descend to the 
(1 hr.) Beuli-Alp, and thence either proceed down the valley past the (1 hr.) 
Lago di Codelago, and through the Val Devera by Crempiolo and Al Ponle 
see) below) to (4 hrs.) Premia (p. 149) ; or we ascend to the highest Alp 
Forno, cross the Colle di Van in (fine retrospect of the Val Devera and the 
lake of Codelago) by a bad path, pass the Lago di Lebendun, and descend 
the valley of that name to (3 l 2 hrs.) Andermatten (p. 149). — The Tosa 
Falls may be reached from the Lebendun Lake direct by crossing the 
glacierclad Nvfelgiu Pass to the left, and following the Niifelgiu Valley to 
Morast and Auf der Fruth (p. 148), a walk of 13 hrs. from Lax. 

From Viesch to Iselle by the Passo del Boccareccio (or Hitter 
Pass), a fatiguing, but very interesting expedition (12-13 hrs.); able guide 
necessary. The route at first leads through the Binnen-Thal (see above), 
from which, f/* hr. before Binn is reached, it diverges to the right and as- 
cends through the Lang-Thai in 7'/2 hrs. to the pass (8858') between the (r.) 
Hiillenhorn (9679') and the (1.) Helsenhorn (10,143') (the latter may be ascend- 
ed without much difficulty ; magnificent panorama) ; then a fatiguing descent 
of 1"., hr. to the Alp Diveiilia lo,uarters for the night, if necessary) in the 
Val I'/u-iasca, and through the latter by Trasquora to (3 hrs.) Iselle (p. 275). 

From Viesth to Prkmia i;v the Krikoai.p-Pash (or 1'asso i>eli.a 

Baedeker. Switzer land. 7th Edition. J (J 



146 Route 33. EGGISCHHORN. Lpper 

Corneka), fatiguing, and of no great interest (12-13 Ins); a good guide 
necessary (12 fr.). The route ascends the Kriegalp-Thal, a lateral valley of 
the Lang-Thai, in 7 hrs. to the summit of the pass on the U. side of the 
Kriegalpstock (fine view of the Helsenhorn , the ascent of which is more 
difficult from this point than from the Ritter-Pass, above mentioned). 
Descent to Al Ponte (3273') , and by the Val Devera to Premia in the 
Val Anligorio (p. 149). — Another pass from Vicsch to Premia (9-10 hrs. 
with guide, interesting route) is the GEiasri ad-1'ass (or Bocca Rossa). At 
Imfeld (see above) we diverge to the right from the Albrnn route to the 
Messern-Alp (6174'), and ascend past the Oeissp/ad-See (7972') to the summit 
of the pass (8120'). Then a somewhat steep descent to Al Ponte, where 
the path unites with the Kriegalp route (see above). 

Very interesting excursion from Viesch to the — 
*Eggischhorn. 

The "Eggischhorn (9640') is the highest peak of the mountain ridge 
which separates the Great Aletsch Glacier from the Rhone valley, and is 
so situated as to command a magnificent view of the Bernese Alps to 
the N. and the Valaisian Alps to the S. 

The "HStel el Pension Jungfrau (7150'; R. 2'/z, B. l'/a, D. 5, L. and A. 1, 
pension 8 fr.), two-thirds of the way up, is well adapted for a prolonged 
stay. A good bridle-path (guide unnecessary) leads from Viesch to the 
hotel in 3 hrs. , and thence to the summit in l'/» hr. more (horse to the 
hotel 10 fr. and gratuity). The path crosses the Vieschbach (see above), 
ascends to the right past some houses , where a finger-post indicates the 
way to the Eggischhorn ('a l'hotel 2 lieues'), and enters the wood, pass- 
ing (3/4 hr.) a small tavern. On quitting the wood we perceive the inn 
above us to the right. We now turn to the left to the fl> j hr.) chalets 
of Viescherstaffel. (A path to the right following the telegraph wires 
effects little saving.) In about 5 min. more we turn to the left again, 
then to the right past two hay-sheds, and in 1 hr. reach the hotel. Beyond 
the hotel the path ascends in zigzags. (The apparently better path to 
the right leads in 1 hr. to the crest above the Merjelen-See, which also 
commands a fine view, and thence to the Merjelen-Alp.) The bridle-path 
extends to within i/i hr. of the summit , which is finally reached by cross- 
ing loose rocks. (Very inexperienced walkers may take a guide from the 
hotel, 4 fr.) The summit is a pyramid of rock, covered with large masses 
of stone, and surmounted by a wooden cross. Immediately below the 
spectator lies the small dark-green Merjelen- Fee (7710'), in which blocks- of 
ice frequently float. The whole of the Aletsch Glacier is visible (15 M. long), 
the most extensive among the Alps, and to the right the Viesch Glacier. 
Of the innumerable mountain peaks, the most prominent are : to the right, 
the Oalenstock, Ober-Aarhorn, Finster-Aarhorn : in front, the Eiger, Monch, 
and Jungfrau; to the left, the Aletschhorn (13,773'), which next to the 
Finster-Aarhorn is the highest peak N. of the Rhone; to the S. the Weiss- 
horn, the conspicuous Matterhorn, and the Mischabel with the Dom (Monts 
Rosa is concealed by the Mischabel). A still more distant snow-peak is said 
to be the Bosse de Dromadaire of Mont Blanc. The view embraces a great 
part of the Simplon route with the Hospice, and the valley of St. Ni- 
eolaus (p. 283). Consult the panorama. 

The traveller intending to descend the valley of the Rhone may take 
the path to Lax (see below), turning to the right near the chalets nf 
Viescherstaffel. The following route is, however, preferable: from the 
Jungfrau Hotel the path leads nearly at the same level for some distance, 
high above the Rhone (beautiful views), over the /lelten-Alp, with its small 
lake (6726', abounding in fish), in 23 j hrs. to the Rieder-Alp (6388'), where 
there is a small inn ( Sepibits) , and by Ried (3940') down to Morel (see 
below; ascent from Jlijrel to the Rieder-Alp, 2','... hrs.). — An interesting 
route from the Rieder-Alp, affording varied and magnificent views Aral 
ascends the mountain (Furka) towards the W. for :, hr. , then descend! 
precipitously to the (l'/a hr.) Aletsch Glacier, crosses this at a perfectM 



IP A °E HEAMA yum X KKISCHKH DO s . 



Valaia. LAX. 33. Route. 147 

safe place, traversed even by horses (guide desirable), in 'A lir. to Aletsch- 
bord, and ascends in 1 hr. more to the Hotel Bellalp (p. 272). 

Ascent of the Jungfrau, see p. 120; Finsteraarhorn , p. 139. — The 
Aletschhorn (13,773') , the second in height of the Oberland peaks , is 
best ascended from the Bellalp (p. 272) and presents no serious difficulty 
to practised mountaineers (good guides required). Magnificent view. 

From the Eggischhorn to Grindelwald by the Viescherjoch, Eigerjoch, 
MSnchjoch , and Jungfraujoch , see p. 124 ; to the Grimsel by the Oberaar- 
joch, Studerjoch, and Unter-Aar Glacier, see p. 140. — From Laulerbriinnen 
to the Eggischhorn by the Lauinenthor, Rothihal-Sallel, and Ebnefluh-Joch, 
see p. 119. 

Fkom the Eggischhorn to Ried in the Lotschenthal (p. 267) by the 
Lotschenliicke (10,512') , 14 hrs. , with experienced guides (30 fr. each) : 
descend to the Merjelen-See , and cross the Great Aletsch Glacier to the 
Lotschenliicke, a depression of the Ahnengrat; then descend over the 
deeply furrowed Lbtschen-Glacier to the Lotschenthal. — Another interest- 
ing pass to the Lotschenthal is by the Beichgrat (11,136'; comp. Bellalp, 
p. 273). 

Beyond Viesch the road traverses the fertile valley for about 
2^2 M., passing through Lax (3425'; *Kreuz) with its con- 
spicuous new church, whence the Eggischhorn may be ascended 
in 4'/ 2 hrs. , and then descends by numerous windings to the 
bridge of Grengiols (Qrangeribrucke; beyond which is the inn 
'Zum Engel' on the right, and a chapel on the left) , commanding 
a fine view the whole way, with the Weisshorn in the background. 
It crosses the profound channel of the Rhone by this bridge, and 
follows the rocky ravine of the river (first on its left bank, after- 
wards crossing to the right by the Kastenbaum bridge) to (5 M.) 
Morel (2523' ; Hotel Eggischhorn). 

The valley widens a little. The river here dashes wildly over 
sharp fragments of slate rock. On a bold rock below Morel, which 
almost blocks up the road , rises the very picturesquely placed 
Hochfluhkirche. Near it, on the Matt, is a road-side inn. The 
road then crosses the Massa, which drains the Great Aletsch 
Glacier. (3y 2 M.) Naters, a considerable village, surrounded by 
fruit-trees, is commanded by the ruined castles of Weinyarten and 
Supersax (Auf der Fluh). 

The road crosses the broad, stony channel of the Rhone (2216'), 
and at (Sl'/^M.) Brieg reaches the Simplon route. Brieg and 
(37y 2 M.) Vispaeh, see p. 272. 



34. From Ulrichen to Domo d'Ossola. 

Gries Pass. Falls of the Tosa. Val Formazza. 

Comp. Map, p. 144. 

18 hrs. Two days 1 journey, spending the night at the Falls of the Tosa. 
Bridle-path from L'lrichen to the Falls of the Tosa (6 hrs.); guide (to 
Fruthwald 12, horse 20 fr.) unnecessary in fine weather, but otherwise 
advisable as far as the other side of the glacier (6 fr.). The new road 
through the Val Formazza is completed as far as S. Rocco ; thence to 
the Hotel de la Cascade a rough bridle-bath. (Horse from that inn to 
Domo d'Ossola, 30 fr.) Diligence from Crodo to Domo d'Ossola daily at 
4 p.m. 

10* 



148 Route 34. GRIES PASS. From Ulrichen 

At Ulrichen (p. 144) a bridge crosses the Rhone to (10 min.) 
Im-Loch, a group of deserted huts at the entrance to the Eglnen- 
Thal. The path crosses the Eyinenbach above a picturesque water- 
tall, leads through larch wood, and traverses a rock-strewn valley 
to(l'/4hr.) the Alp Hohsand (5720'). It then ascends a steeper 
part of the valley, through a growth of alders and Alpine roses, 
where the brook forms several waterfalls on the left. In front of 
us rises the Nufenenstock (9387'). In 1/2 hr. we cross the brook 
by the Ladsteg (6340'), beyond which are the dirty chalets of 
Im-Lad. To the right, above us, is the Gries Glacier (see below). 
The path, running on the right bank of the brook, then traverses 
the highest part of the valley and ascends to (20 min.) Altstaffel 
(6585'), the last chalet, where the path to theNufenenPass diverges 
to the left (p. 144). A steep ascent of 1 hr. more brings us to the 
level Gries Glacier, which we cross in 20 min., the direction being 
indicated by posts. The culminating point of the pass is on the S. 
side of the glacier. Where the posts terminate we keep to the right, 
skirting the left side of the small glacier-lake, beyond which it is 
impossible to mistake the route. The Gries Pass (8032'), 3'/<> hrs. 
from Ulrichen, the boundary between Switzerland and Italy, is 
surrounded by barren heights, and in clear weather commands a 
beautiful view of the Bernese Alps. 

From the Gries Glacier a little frequented path leads N.E. through 
the Val Corno to the Hospice alV Acquit in the Val Bedretto, p. 144. 

The S. side of the pass , as is usually the case among the 
Alps, is steeper than the N. side. The narrow path at first 
skirts the slopes to the left. The Griesbach rises here and unites 
at Kehrbiichi (see below) with the Tosa (Toce, or Toccia), which 
descends from the Valle Toggia. The upper part of the Formazza 
valley consists of four distinct regions, each with its summer 
habitations : Bettelmatt (6348'; two chalets, generally empty) in the 
highest, Morast in the second (the slope between Bettelmatt and 
Morast is named Wallisbachlen) , and Kehrbiichi (or A Rialt) and 
Auf der Fruth (Sulla Frua) , in the third , with a small chapel 
(0528'). The latter (2 hrs. from the Gries Pass) stands on the 
margin of a precipitous slope, over which the Tosa, 85' in width, 
falls in three cascades, widening as it descends. The **Fall of 
the Tosa, or Cascnta di Fruth, 650' in height, is one of the 
grandest among the Alps, especially when the river is high. (We 
descend by the bridle-path to the left for ' 4 hr., in order to reach 
a mass of rock by the wayside, which affords the best survey of the 
fall.) Immediately above the fall a bridge crosses the Tosa. On 
the left bank, adjoining the chapel, is the unpretending '"lintel de 
la Cascade (K. 2, B. i «/-2 fr- )■ 

The Piz Basodine (10,748') may lie ascended without serious difficulty 
from the Hotel de la Cascade in -1 his. (the landlord of the inn acts as 
guide I. Ascent from the K. side, see p. 311(1. 

r'Buii Tin Tosa Fai.i. to Aikolo on the St. liotlhaid-roail . 8 hrs. 



to Domo d'Ossola. PREMIA. 34. Route. 149 

(guide unnecessary for experienced walkers). The tolerable bridlepath 
from the Val Formazza to the Yal Bedretto , not easily mistaken, and 
on the whole interesting, diverges by the chapel above the falls to right 
from the path to the Gries Pass and after 20 min. crosses the brook de- 
scending from the Basodine. It then ascends to the right by the wall 
(leaving Kehrbachi below to the left), and mounts by somewhat steep 
zigzags to the C/4 lir.) upper level of the sequestered Valle Toggia; '/-ihr., 
a bridge ; 20 min., chalets Im Moos. (To the right, between the Kaslelhorn 
and the Marchhorn,, is the Bocchetta di Valmaggia, a digression to which 
is interesting; 2 hrs. there and back.) The small Fisch-See, which is well 
stocked with trout, remains on the right. By the Konigin-Alp, 1/2 hr. far- 
ther, the path recrosses the brook. In the highest part of the valley we 
pass another small lake on the left, and reach ('/j hr.) the S. Giaeomo Pass 
(7572'), the boundary between Switzerland (Canton Ticino) and Italy. Below 
the pass on the N. side, stands the (20 min.) chapel of S. Giacomo (7369'), 
where the inhabitants of the neighbouring valleys assemble annually for 
worship on 25th July. In descending, we obtain a beautiful view of the 
S. mountains of the St. Gotthard group, the Kuhbodenhorn, Pizzo Rotondo, 
Pesciora, Lucendro, etc., and towards the W., for a short time^ of the 
Finsteraarhorn and Viescherhorner. We now follow the path (taking 
care at first not to go too much to the right) past some chalets, through 
a growth of Alpine roses, and through larch-wood, down into the valley, 
where we cross two brooks, and then the Ticino, and reach the (IV2 hr.) 
Hospice alV Acqua (p. 144). Thence to Airolo, see p. 145. 

Below the Tosa Fall begins the Val Formazza , or Pommat, con- 
taining the villages of C/2 nr -) Fruthwald (In Camscha), Gutf (In 
Grovello), Zumsteg (Al Pont) , with the town-hall and archives of 
the valley, (1 hr.) Andermatten (4075'), or Alia Chiesa, with the 
church of the valley ; then Staffelwald (S. Michele) , and finally 
Unterwald (Foppiano), 3!/ 2 M. from Andermatten, where German 
is still spoken. Italian prevails lower down. Most of the villages 
have both German and Italian names. 

From the Val Formazza by the Albrun-Pass to Lax or Viesch in the 
Valais, see p. 145. 

Fbom the Val Fobmazza to the Val JIaggia (p. 399) a very fatiguing 
route, deficient in attraction (from Andermatten to Cevio 8 hrs., not without 
guide) : from Staffelwald a steep ascent of 3 hrs. to the Criner Furca (7631', 
beautiful view); descent of 1> '» hr. to Bosco (4931'), also called I'rin, or Gvrin 
(Inn), the only German village in Canton Ticino. From Bosco to Cevio 
3 1 ,'-i hrs. — Bignasco ("Post), lies 1 hr. to the N. of Cevio in a magnificent 
situation. Diligence from Bignasco to Locarno daily in 3'A hrs. (see p. 399). 
The Defile of Foppiano is imposing. The Italian character 
of the climate gradually becomes perceptible, and the soil is richly 
cultivated. The mica slate rocks beyond (3 1 /2 M.) 8. Roeco (Asti 
wine at the inn) contain garnets. Below (3 M.) Premia (2621'; 
Agnello, R. 2, B. 1 fr. ; carr. to Doma d'Ossola 10 fr., not always 
to be had), 10 M. from Andermatten, the valley of the Tosa is call- 
ed Val Antigorio, one of the most beautiful among the S. Alps, 
and enlivened by numerous waterfalls. (From Premia to Viesch by 
the Kriegalp or Oeisspfad Pass, see p. 146.) 

The Italian custom-house is at (6 M.) Crodo (1679'; Leone 
d'Oro~). The road joins the Simplon route 4'/ 2 M. below Crodo, 
by the lofty bridge of Crevola (p. 276), at the mouth of the Val 
di Vedro, near the confluence of the Diveria and Tosa. 
3 M. Domo d'Ossola, see p. 276. 



150 

35. From (Thun) Spiez to Leuk and Susten over 
the Gemmi. 

Comp. Maps, pp. 102, 152. 
51 M. Diligence twice daily from Spiez to Frutigen in 2 hrs. 20min.t 
from Frutigen to Kandersteg daily in 2 l /-t (back in 2) hrs. One-horse carr. 
from Spiez to Frutigen 10, two-horse 18 fr. ; to Kandersteg 18 or 35 fr. — 
[•'r.oM Thun to the Heustrieh-Bad omnibus daily at 4 p.m. (2'/j fr.): 
one-horse carr. to Wimmis or Spiez 8 fr. 

The Gemmi, one of the most imposing of the Alpine passes, is more 
remarkable for grandeur than picturrsqueness. There is a good carriage- 
road as far as Kandersteg (18 M. from Spiez, 22'/a M. from Thun); (hence 
over the Gemmi to the Baths of Leuk (5'/2 hrs.) a good bridle-path (guide 
unnecessary); from the baths a good road descends to the (7 1 2 SI.) Rhone 
valley. 

Thun, see p. 104; steamboat to Spiez (*SpiezerHof), see pp. 107, 
108. (The post-office is near the landing-place, where carriages also 
are in waiting.) The road, skirted by houses and fruit-trees, ascends 
the gently sloping 8. bank of the lake to Moos, where it unites with 
the road from Thun, and (l'/^M.) Spiezwyler; to the 8.W. towers 
the Niesen (p. 106), with Wimmis and its chateau (p. 106) at its N . 
base, to the right of the entrance to the Simmenthal (p. 1T)T). The 
conical Stockhorn (p. 158) stands prominently forth from the op- 
posite mountains on the left bank of the Simme. 

Beyond Spiezwyler, a road to Aeschi (see below) diverges to the 
left. The high road skirts the lofty right bank of the Kander. 
(3 M.) Emdthal is the station for the Heustrich-Bad, situated op- 
posite on the left bank of the Kander, a much frequented sulphur- 
bath (also a hotel ; ascent of the Niesen, see p. 106). To the left a 
footpath ascends to ('20 min.) Aeschi (see below). 

Near (i/ 2 M.) Miihlenen or Mullnen (2264'; *Bar, R. l'/ 2 , B. 
I '/o, S. 2^2 fr. i Hotel Niesen), the road crosses the Suldbach. 

From Muhlenen to Interlaken, ll'/a M., a charming walk. Beyond 
Miihlenen the road diverges from the high road to the right and ascends 
to the hilly district between the Kanderthal and the Lake of Thun (the 
voituriers prefer the longer route from Miihlenen to Interlaken via 
Spiezwyler, see above). The village of (2'/i M.) Aeschi (2818' ; "Bar and 
'■'■Blumlisalp ; Zum Niesen; A la Vne des A/j>es) , lies on a height, com- 
manding an extensive view of the lake of Thun (the Fuulenseebad, p. 108, 
is situated i/sH. to the N.E.). The road then gradually descends to (5 31.) 
Leistigen ( Steinbock), situated on the lake, and (2 M.) Darligen (p. 108), 
from which Interlaken (2'/4 M.) is reached by railway. ■ — Pleasant excursion 
from Aeschi by Aeschi- Allmend to the Soiinenberg and the (3 hrs.) Hutmad- 
Alp (5350'), whence the Morgenberghorn (7385') is reached in 2 hrs. ; or by 
carriage to the (2 hrs.) waterfall in the Suldliial, whence a path ascends 
to the left to the Renggli-Alp and by the Tanzbodeli (9449') to (4 hrs.) 
Hareten (p. 114). 

The Gemmi route leads through the pretty village of Bei- 
chenbach (2336'; *Bar), at the entrance of the Kienthal (p. 118; 
beautiful view of the Blumlisalp to the left), crosses the Kander, 
and, 47.2 M. from Miihlenen, reaches — 

ili/ 2 M. Frutigen (2717'; *Hutel Gemmi; Adler; Helvetia; 
Belle cue; in all K. 2, B. l'/ 2 , A. 1/2 fi\.)> a village in a fertile 
part of the valley, on the Engstliyenbtich , which falls into the 



KANDERSTEG. 35. Route. 151 

Kander below the village. From the church, a beautiful view of the 
Kanderthal, the Balmhoin , Blunilisalp, and Altels , and of the Ral- 
ligstocke (p. 108) in the opposite direction. - — Bridle-path to the 
Niesen, see p. 106. 

The valley divides here ; the S. arm, through which the Kander flows, 
leads to the Gemmi, while the S.W. branch ascends into the narrow valley 
of Adelboden. The road to the latter at first follows the Kandersteg road, 
crosses the Engstligenbach , then turns to the right, and ascends rapidly 
on the right bank of the brook to (12 M.) Adelboden (4449' ; rustic inn by 
the church). At the head of the valley (l>/2 hr.) is the beautiful Staubfall, 
above it the Wildstrubel , to the left the Lohner. From Adelboden a path, 
marshy at places, leads over the Hahnenmoos (near the highest point, 
6404' , a chalet) in 3'/2 brs. to Lenk (p. 155) , affording a beautiful view, 
during the descent, of the upper Simmenthal, the Wildstrubel, the Weiss- 
born, and the Razli Glacier. 

From Adelboden to Kandersteg an interesting pass leads over the 
Bonder- Kvinden (7831') in 6-7 hrs. Guide necessary (10 fr.). — Ovek thk 
Strubeleckjoch to Siekre (p. 270) 12-13 hrs., a difficult glacier-pass, for 
skilled mountaineers only, with good guides. 

Near Frutigen the road crosses the Engstligenbach and the 
Kander, near the Tellenburg (now a prison), and intersects the 
pleasant and almost level valley of Kandergrund. The church and 
parsonage of the valley are at (3 M.) Bunderbach (2881'; *H6tel 
Altels, moderate). 

A path to the right, a short distance from the inn, leads in >,2 nr - to 
the small Blaue See, picturesquely embosomed in wood, and remarkable 
for its deep blue colour (afternoon light most favourable, not worth vis- 
iting on dull days; the innkeeper at Bunderbach charges 1 fr. for the 
use of the boat). 

Near Mittholz (3154') the square tower of the ruined Felsen- 
burg is passed. The road then ascends the Biihlstutz in long wind- 
ings (short-cut for pedestrians) and reaches (5'/2 M.) ■ — 

18 M. Kandersteg (3839'). — "Hotel Gemmi, R. 2, B. I'/s, D. 3U;, 
A. i/ 2 fr. ; :: Bar, R. 2'/2, B. l'/2, D- 4, L- and A. U/ t fr. ; both at the 
upper end of the village, near the foot of the Gemmi ; Hotel Victoria. — 
Guide (unnecessary) to Schwarenbach (3, descent 2 hrs.) 5 fr. ; to the Gemmi 
(summit of the pass, 4, descent 23/ 4 hrs.) 7 fr. ; to the Baths of Leuk (5Va hrs. ; 
ascent thence to the summit of the Gemmi 2 1 /? hrs.) 10 fr. — Horse to Schwa- 
renbach 10, to the Gemmi 15, to the Baths of Leuk 20 fr. ; but riding should 
not be attempted beyond the summit of the pass, owing to the precipitous 
nature of the descent. Carriage to Frutigen, one-horse 10, two -horse 
18 fr. ; Spiez, one-horse 18, two-horse 35; Thun, one-horse 20, two-horse 
40 fr. ; Interlaken, one-horse 25, two-horse 45 fr. ; for the ascent from 
Frutigen to Kandersteg 2 fr. more are demanded (return vehicles may often 
be hired at a cheaper rate). 

A magnificent mountain panorama is disclosed here : to the 
N.E. rises the jagged Birrenhorn; to the E. the glistening snow- 
mantle of the Blumlisalp or Weisse Frau, the magnificent Dol- 
denhorn , and the barren Fisistocke; to the S.W., between the 
Ueschinenthal and Gasternthal, the lofty Gellihorn. Opposite the 
Victoria Hotel, on the W. side of the valley, are the remains of 
an old moraine. 

To the E. lies the " Oeschinen - Thai , a valley about 4 M. long, well 
worthy of a visit (guide l 1 /^ fr., unnecessary; follow the road on the right 
bank of the Oeschinenbach ; horse 6 fr.). It is terminated by the Oeschinen- 
See (5223'), a small lake 1 M. in length, enclosed by precipitous rocks, 



t&2 Route :i. r >. SCIIAVAKENBACII. From Thun 

from which waterfalls are precipitated (boat for the use of visitors). Above 
the lake tower the Weisse Fran, or Bliimlisalp (12,041'), and the Friinden- 
horn (11,030') and Doldenhorn (11,965') , both ascended for the first time in 
1862 (see Dr. Roth's interesting description of the expedition, 'The Dolden- 
horn and Weisse Frau', London, 1864). A footpath leads hence over the 
Diindengrat (Hochthilrli) into the Kienthal (p. 119), and over the Se/inen- 
Furke to Lauterbrunnen (p. 118). 

From Kandersteg by the Lotschen Pass to Gampel (in the Valais), see B. 62. 

From Kandeksteg over the Tsohingel Pass to Lactebbkuxnen, a 
most interesting expedition of 13-14 his. (7 hrs. on the ice), for which 
able guides are necessary (30 fr. each ; Fritz Ogi, Joh. and C'lir. Hart. 
Clr. Linder , and J. Sleiner are recommended). The previous night may 
be spent at Selden (p. 268) , or, in (he reverse direction, at Traclisellau- 
inen (p. 117). From (2 hrs.) Selden in 13, 4 hr. to the Alpetli Glacier, the 
W. arm of the Kander Glacier. Next, a fatiguing walk of 2 hrs. over the 
lateral moraine on the S. margin of the glacier, and a precipitous ascent 
to the Kander Glacier, properly so called, an interminable expanse of snow 
and ice, overshadowed on the left by the bold precipices of the Bliimlisali> 
(12,041'). Then a gentle ascent of li/n'hr. to the Tschingel Pass (9252'), to the 
left of the Mutlhorn (9958')- and over the Tschingel Glacier, leaving the 
Gamchiliicke ( Kienthaler Furca) and farther on the Gspaltenhorn (11,260') 
on the left, finally over moraines and steep patches of grass to the (2 hrs.) 
TschingellriU , a precipice 2000' high, skirting which the route descends 
across the Lower Tschingel Glacier ('/a hr.) to the ('2 hr.) upper Steinberg 
Alp (p. 117) and (1 hr.) Trachsellavinen (p. 117). 

Beyond the Bar inn (see above) , where the diligence office 
is established, the road contracts to a well kept bridle-path and 
ascends. The brook issuing from the Ueschinenthal on the right 
forms some small falls. The path ascends in windings at the base 
of the Oellihom (7530'), on a slope which apparently terminates 
the valley, and leads through a pine-forest at a great height above 
the valley , commanding a fine view of the Gasternthal (p. 261S) 
to the left, and the mountains enclosing it. About 2'/ 2 hrs. from 
Kandersteg, we observe the chalets of Spitalmatt (6250'), or Spit- 
telmatt , to the right. To the E., between the snowy Altels 
( 11,922') and the black, rocky peak of the Kleine Rinderliorn 
(9852') (to the S. of which is the snow-clad (irosse Rinderhorn, 
11,372'), lies embedded the Schwarze, or Zagen Glacier. The 
glacier is drained by the Schwarzbach , or Spittelmatt Data. 'W e 
next traverse a stony wilderness, the scene of a landslip, to the 
(V 2 hr.) ■■Jnn (R. 2, B. li/ 2 . A. 1/2 fr.) of Schwarenbach (6775'; 
ascent from Kandersteg 3. descent 2 hrs. ; from the inn to the 
Paths of Leu k 2'/ 2 hrs.)'. 

The : Balmhorn (12,100'), the highest peak of the Altels group, is 
Hscended from (his point without danger in 5-6 hrs., by the Zagen tHarier 
and Zagen Grat (guide necessary, 30 fr.). The magnificent panorama from 
Mie summit embraces the Alps of Bern and the Valais, and extends to K. 
Switzerland. — The ascent of the Altels {'11.922') is more difficult owing 
to the steepness of the snow-slopes, and suitable for skilled mountaineers 
only (6-7 hrs.. rope and ice-axe necessary; guide 25 fr.). 

Alter '/> hr. the path skirts the shallow and muddy Dauben- 
see (723S'). a lake 1 M. in length, fed by the waters of the 
Lammcven Glacier (see below), with no visible outlet, and 
generally frozen for seven months in the year. The well-construct- 
ed path leads on the E. bank of the lake, at some height above 




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In Leak. GEMMI. 35. Route. 153 

it, to (10 min.) the summit of the pass, called the Daube (7553'), 
or Gemmi, at the base of the Daubenhom (9449'), the barren 
limestone -rocks of which rise abruptly to the right. A magni- 
ficent *View of part of the Rhone Valley and the Alps of the Va- 
lais is obtained from a slight eminence a few min. from the pass, 
to the left of the path. The lofty group of mountains to the ex- 
treme left are the Mischabelhorner; more to the right rises the huge 
Weisshorn, then the Bruneckhorn, the pyramid of the Matterhorn, 
and still more to the right the Dent Blanche. At a giddy depth 
below lie the Raths of Leuk, and beyond them Inden (p. 154). 
On the W. the moraines of the Lammeren Olacier extend nearly 
to the pass ; above the glacier rises a glistening snow-peak, and 
near it the huge, rocky Wildstrulel (p. 156). Abundant flora. 

About 5 min. below the pass is a stone-hut for sheep, on 
the brink of an almost perpendicular rock , 1800' in height, 
down which the Cantons of Bern and Valais constructed one of 
the most remarkable of Alpine routes, in 1736-41, from this 
point to Leuk upwards of 2 M. in length, and nowhere less than 
5' in width. The windings are skilfully hewn in the rock, often 
resembling a spiral staircase, the upper parts actually projecting 
at places beyond the lower. The steepest parts and most sud- 
den corners are protected by parapets. At a point called 'Jm. 
Lerch' the remains of a wooden hut, behind which a cavern is 
said to exist, are seen in a now inaccessible position on a per- 
pendicular cliff above a rocky gorge, where there is a fine echo. 
Although the path appears so unprotected when seen from below, 
it may be traversed with perfect safety, even by persons inclined 
to giddiness if accompanied by a guide (descent to the Baths l 1 ^; 
ascent 2'/2 hrs.). The descent on horseback should be avoided. In 
1861 a Comtesse d Herlincourt fell from her saddle over the pre- 
cipice and was killed on the spot. Litters may also be hired for 
the passage of the Gemmi. The regulations require 4 bearers for 
each litter; 6 for a person above the usual weight, and 8 for a 
'poids extraordinaire'. The openings in the walls of the meadows 
at the foot of the Gemmi are used to facilitate the counting of sheep. 

Baths of Leuk (4643'), or Loeche-les- Bains. — Hotel 

i>es Alpes, with springs, and commanding a fine view; : Beli.evue; 
pension in these 9-11 fr., R. 2-3, B. l'/ 2 , D. 4-5, A. 1 fr. : Hotel de Fkanck; 
'Union, E. 2, B. l'/ 2 , P. 3, pension 6 fr. ; 'Hotel Bkunnek, similar charges -, 
;! 31aison Blanche, with its dependance (tkand Bain; Croix Fedekale, 
unpretending ; Guill. Tell. — Boise to Kandersteg 20, Schwarenbach 12, 
Daube 8 fr. ; Porter to Kandersteg 10 , Schwarenhach 6, Daube 4 , foot of 
the Gemmi 3 fr. — Post Omnibvs from July to 15th Sept. twice daily from 
the Baths to Leuk . Susten (5 fr. , coupe 6 fr.), and Sierre (S fr. , coupe 
10 fr.), descending in 5' /•_., ascending in 7 hrs. Also private omnibuses of 
the Hotel des Alpes and the Bellevue at Sierre fp. 270). — One-horse 
carriage to Susten 14, Sierre 20, Vispach 25, Brieg 30 fr. ; two-horse carr. 
about onehalf more. 

Bad Leuk, a village consisting chiefly of wooden houses, with 
550 (Rom. Cath.) inhab. , situated on green pastures in a valley 



154 Route 35. BATHS OF LETJK. 

opening to the S., and watered by the Dala, lies 2920' below the 
Daube (Gemmi), and 2590' above the Rhone. In July and August 
the Baths, which are locally known as Baden, or Ober-Baden, are 
much frequented by French, Swiss, and Italian visitors. The 
massive embankment on the E. side protects the village against 
avalanches. In the height of summer the sun disappears about 
5 p. m. The huge, perpendicular wall of the Gemmi presents a 
weird appearance by moonlight. 

The Springs, 22 in number, rising in and near the village, and so ab- 
undant that nine-tenths of the water flow unused into the Dala, are chiefly 
hen<'fH'ial in eases of cutaneous disease. They vary in strength and tem- 
perature (93-123 ) , the Lorenz Spring being the most powerful. Their 
sanitary properties appear to depend more on the mode in which they 
are used than on their mineral ingredients. In order to avoid the tedium 
of a long and solitary immersion, the patients, clothed in long flannel dress- 
es, sit up to their necks in water in a common bath, where they remain 
for several hours together. Each bather has a small floating table before 
him, from which his book, newspaper, or coffee is enjoyed. The utmost 
order and decorum are preserved. Travellers are admitted to view tin's 
singular and somewhat uninviting spectacle. The charge for a single 
batli is 2 fr. — The old bath-house, opposite to the new, contains baths 
2'/2 ft. only in depth, now used by the poorer classes. All the baths are 
open from 4 to 111 a.m., and from 2 to 5 p.m. 

Excursions. A walk , partially shaded, and affording a beautiful view 
of the right bank of the Dala, leads from the promenade to the foot of a 
lofty precipice (},'■• hr.) on the left bank of the Dala. The traveller then 
ascends by eight rude Ladders leehellesj, attached to the perpendicular face 
of the rock, to a good path at. the top, which leads in 1 hr. to the village 
of Albhien , or Arbignon (4202'). Persons liable to dizziness should not 
attempt the ascent, but the fine view obtained from a projecting rock 
above the second ladder will repay the climber. The descent is more difficult 
than the ascent. 

Excursions may also be made to the Fall of the Dala, > •_• hr. , Data 
Glacier (with guide), 2'/2 hrs., to a waterfall on the right bank of the Dala, 
1/2 hr., to the Foljeret-Alp, 3/ 4 hr., to the Torrent-Alp, l'/ s hr. The Tor- 
renthorn (9679'), which commands a magnificent prospect of the snow - 
mountains and glaciers of the Bernese Oberland , and of the Pennine Alps 
from Monte Kiisa to Mont Blanc, may be ascended on foot or on horseback 
in 4 1 , ■> hrs. (descent 2>/_>-3 hrs.: horse 15 fr. ; guide, not absolutely neces- 
sary, 10 fr.). The route may be varied by descending by the Maing-Glacier 
(guide indispensable). Travellers coming from the Rhone Valley, and desi- 
rous of visiting Albinen and the Torrenthorn, effect a considerable saving 
l>y proceeding direct from the village of Leuk (see below) to Albinen, and 
thence with a guide by Chermignon to the Torrenthorn , from which they 
may then descend to the Baths of Leuk. The Galmhom (8081'), near Cher- 
mignon, is also frequently ascended. — Passes : To the Liitschenthal by 
the Sclteidsclnir-Pass or the Jteyini- Furka , fatiguing. — To Kandertteg 
over the Dala- Pass or Fltih- I'ass, 9 hrs., interesting and not difficult; 
over the Thierliihidi-l'ass , 9-10 hrs., laborious. — To Lenk over the Ltim- 
nieren Glarier, 11-12 hrs., difficult; for experienced mountaineers only, with 
able guides (comp. p. 156). 

The carriage-road to Leuk crosses the Dala immediately below 
the I'.aths , follows the lofty right bank , and descends to (3 M.) 
Indeu (ISSfkS'; *Inn). It then (Ti/2 M-~) recrosses the Dala, com- 
manding magnificent views of the Dala ravine and the little village 
of Albinen situated on the precipitous slopes opposite. The old 
bridle-path to the left of the inn at Inden, which rejoins the high- 
road near the bridge, and, 1 1/4 M. hcjond the bridge, a path to the 



LENK. 36. Route. 155 

right by a small chapel descending toLeuk, are short-cuts. Distance 
from the Baths to the Rhone-bridge 8 M. 

Direct Road to Siekre. Travellers bound for Sion and Martigny effect 
a saving of 1 hr. by quitting the road to the right , by a slate quarry, 
8 min. before the last-mentioned bridge is reached, and skirting the brink 
of a precipice on the right bank of the Dala. In 12 min. a small tunnel is 
reached, and in 2 min. more a second. Above the dirty, but picturesque 
C/4 hr.) village of Varen (2565'), situated at the apex of the right aniile 
which the ravine of the Dala forms with the valley of the Rhone, a 
striking view is obtained of the latter from Vispach to Martigny, a dis- 
tance of 45 31., of the Forest of Pfyn, and the huge yellow basin of the 
Illgraben on the opposite mountains. Then ( 3 /4 hr.) Salgesch (2313') and 
(3/ 4 hr.) Sierre, (see p. 270). 

At the mouth of the Dala ravine the carriage - road to Leuk 
still remains high above the Rhone Valley, of which a beautiful 
view as far as Martigny is disclosed. The descent is very at- 
tractive. 

Leak, or Loeche-Ville (2608'; Couronne; omnibus to Sierre at 
8 a.m., fare l 1 ^ fr. ), is a small town (pop. 1220) situated on a 
height 3 / 4 M. from the Rhone, and commanded by a picturesque old 
castle. The culture of the vine begins here. The high-road from 
Sierre to Brieg (diligence three times daily, p. 2(58) leads through 
the little village of Susten (2044' ; *H6tel de In Souste). on the op- 
posite bank of the Rhone. 

The dusty high-road in the Rhone Valley (p. 269), which 
averages 3 M. in breadth , and is marshy at places, forms an 
nnpleasing contrast to the magnificent route just described, and 
is of course unsuitable for pedestrians. One-horse carr. to Vis- 
pach 8, to the Baths of Leuk 14 fr. 

36. From Thun to Sion by the Rawyl. 

Comp. Map, p. 252. 

21 hrs. From Thun to Lenk (31Va M.) a carriage-road. From Lenk tn 
Sion (lO'/i hrs.) a bridle-path , good on the Bern side , but rough on the 
side of the Valais , where it improves near the bottom only. A very 
interesting route. Guide unnecessary. 

From Thun to (25^2 M.) Zweisimmen, see pp. 157, 158. The 
road to Lenk (9 M.) crosses the Simme near Gwatt, and ascends the 
Upper Simmenihal by Bettelried (to the right the chateau of Blan- 
kenburg, now a prison) to the prettily situated (3 M.) St. Stephan 
(3277' ; Falke). Farther on, the road proceeds via Hausern and 
(3 M.) Matten, where the path from the Orimmi (p. 158) is joined 
on the right, to (3 M.) — 

341/2 M. Lenk (3527'; * Krone , R. 2-3, B. 1, pension 6 fr. ; 
*Hirsch; *Bar; Stern, pension 5 fr. ; all somewhat rustic ; Christ. 
and Peter Jaggi and Jac. Tritten, good guides), situated in the 
middle of the flat and somewhat marshy floor of the valley of the 
Simme, surrounded by lofty mountains and glaciers. About 1 /j M. 
from the village, at the base of the Hohliebe, lies the *Kuranstalt 
Lenk (R. 3, B. l'/-2, A. 1, pension 10 fr.), with sulphur-baths. 



156 Route 36. UAWYI.. 

The majestic Wildstrubel (10,71:")'), the snows and glaciers of which 
rise above a long succession of grey rocks, ami are the source 
of numerous brooks, presents a very imposing appearance. 

The Simme rises 6 M. to the S. of Lenk , near the Razli Glacier. An 
excursion (4 hrs. there and back) to its source, called the ' Sieben Brun- 
nc«' (Seven Fountains, 4770'; guide unnecessary), is interesting. In 2 hrs. 
a chalet (milk, coffee, etc.) is reached, beyond the Razliberg (6138'), which 
here intercepts the view of the valley. To the S. is the precipitous Razli 
Glacier, at the foot of which, near the bottom of the valley, 10 min. from 
the chalet, is the source of the Simme, called the Seven Fountains, as it 
is said to have once been divided into seven different streams. Mure to the 
left is the upper Fall of (he Simme. To the right of the glacier rise the Glet- 
scherhom (9629') and the Laufbodenliorn (8871'); above the Seven Fountains, 
the pointed Seehorn; to the left above the upper fall of the Simme, the 
Amerienhorn (8590') (the Wildstrubel behind it is only visible from a 
point lower down the valley). The experienced mountaineer may ascend 
the Wildstrubel with two guides from the chalet in 6-7 hrs. 

From Lenk to Gsteig (7 hrs.). The route leads to the W. over 
the Triittlisberg (6713') to (4y 2 hrs.) Latienen (p. 159), and thence hv the 
Chrinnen (5463') to (2'/2 hrs.) Gsteig (p. 159). Scenery very attractive at 
places, see p. 157. 

From Lenk to Saaken (p. 159) 6 hrs., footpath over the Reulisseiiberij 
or Zwitzer Egg (5G36 1 ), and down the Turbach Valley. — To Adelboden over 
the Hahnenmoos, see p. 151. 

From Lenk to Leuk (p. 154) over the Lammeren Glacier, 11 hrs., dif- 
ficult; for experienced mountaineers only with good guides. 

From Lexk to Sion, IOV2 h TS - The road, at first practicable 
for carriages, leads past the parsonage-house into the valley of 
the lffigenbach, and on the left bank of the brook to the (l 1 ^ hr 
picturesque *Fall of the lffigenbach. For '/ 4 hr. the path mounts 
the rock above the fall, and in y 4 hr. more reaches the chalet of 
Iffigen (5'2fV2'; rustic Inn), situated in a rocky basin resembling 
that of the Baths of Leuk. It here turns sharply to the left (finger- 
post) and ascends through a small wood, skirting a stony slope, 
and then leads along the face of a perpendicular cliff, where it in 
hewn in the rock, to a (1 hr.) stone hut on a rocky eminence which 
commands a beautiful view of Lenk and the mountains of the 
vSimmenthal. We next skirt the "\V. side of the small (^hr-J llawyl 
See (7743') and reach (' 4 hr. ) a cross which marks the boundary of 
Bern and Valais and the highest point of the Bawyl (7943'), on 
which there is a refuge-hut. The path now passes a second small 
lake, and crosses the Plan ilea Roses in 3/ 4 hr. to the margin of 
the S. slope of the pass, where we are environed with imposing 
mountains. To the N.W. rises tho long Mittaghorn (8842'); to the 
S.W. the Schneidehorn (9639') and the snow-clad peaks of the 
WiUlhorn (10,7'2'2'); to the S. the broad Rawylhorn (9541') and 
the Wetzsteinhorn (9114'); to the E. the Rohrbachstein (9688'; 
ascended from the Kawyl Pass in '2 hrs.; extensive view from the 
Monte Leone to the Mutterhorn ) ; to theX.K. the extremities of 
the glaciers of the Weisshorn (98,S'2'). This wild scenery resembles 
that of the (unimi. but is more varied. The view of the valley and 
the mountains of the Valais. especially the Matterhorn and its W. 
neighbours, is also very striking. 



BROTHAUSI. 37. Route. 157 

The path now descends the precipitous rocks in zigzags to the 
dirty chalets of (i hr.) Nieder-Rawyl , Fr. Les Ravins (5891'), 
and then leads along the mountain to the right at .nearly the same 
level, as far as a spring C/2 hr.), shortly before which the bet- 
ter path diverges to the right to (3 hrs.) Ayent (3405'; inn of 
the cure', good Valais wine). 

The footpath from Nieder-Rawyl to Ayent, shorter by 1 hr., by the 
so-called l Kiindle ' (i.e. channel) is only practicable for persons with 
thoroughly steady heads. In order to convey water to the opposite side of 
the mountain, a channel, generally not exceeding 1' in width, has been 
cut in the face of a precipice 1300' high, and also serves as a path. At 
one point the water is conveyed across the abyss by a wooden conduit, 
while the traveller has to cross the chasm by a single plank. This path 
looks more dangerous than it really is, but it should not be attempted by 
those who have any misgivings. In 3/ 4 hr. the bridle-path is rejoined. From 
this point to Ayent the track is broad and easy. 

From Ayent in 2 hrs. by Orimisuctt, Ger. G'rimseln (2920'), 
to Sion (1709'), see p. 270. 

37. From Thun to Saanen by the Simmenthal. 

34 l /u M. Diligence once daily direct in 8 hrs., and once daily spending 
the night at Zweisimmen ; fare 9 fr. 65, coupe 11 fr. 55 c. — From Spies 
to Zweisimmen daily in 5 l /2 hrs. (8 fr. 20 c). 

From the Beknese Oberland to the Lake of Geneva the following 
beautiful route is strongly recommended to pedestrian* (27 hrs. from 
Interlaken to Aigle; the whole journey may be performed on horseback; 
guides unnecessary, except perhaps between Adelboden and Lauenen). 
Four moderate days' walk. (1st). Drive from Thun or Spkz to Frutigen, 
and walk thence in 4 1 ' 2 hrs. to Adelboden (p. 151). — (2nd). Walk in 3>/ 2 
hrs. over the Hahnenmoos (p. 151) to Lenk (p. 151), and visit |4 hrs.) the 
Seven Fountains (p. 156). — (3rd). Walk in 7 hrs. over the Truttlisberg 
and the Chrinnen (p. 156) to Gsteig (p. 159). — (4th). Walk in 7>/ 2 hrs. 
over the Col de I'illon (p. 160) (or drive from the Hotel des Diablerets or 
from Sepey) to Aigle (p. 105), whence the traveller may proceed by rail- 
way to the Lake of Geneva, or to Martigny, or Sion in the valley of the 
Rhone. 

The road skirts the Lake of Thun as far as Gwatt, where the 
road to Spiez and Interlaken diverges to the left, and gradually 
ascends thence in the direction of the Niesen, affording a beau- 
tiful view of the Stockhorn to the right, and the Bernese Alps to the 
left. To the right rises the slender tower of Strcitiligen (fine view 
from the top). At the bottom of the valley flows the fCander. 

At (6'/-2 M.) Brothausi (*Hirsch) , a picturesque old castle, 
now occupied by the district authorities, rises on the mountain 
slope. (Wimmis and the Niesen, see p. 106.) The road then passes 
through a defile into the Simmenthal, a rich and fertile valley, 
studded with numerous villages , carpeted with well-cultivated 
gardens and pastures, and bounded by partially wooded moun- 
tains. The channel of the Simme lies far below. 

Near (3 M.) Latterbach (Bar) opens the valley of Diemtigen. 

From Latterbach to Mattes a shorter but uninteresting route 
(7 hrs.) leads through the Diemtiger-Thal. At Latterbach it crosses the 
Himme and follows the right bank of Ihe Cliirel. To the right on Ihe 
hill is the ('/ 2 hr.) village of /Jieniliyni, to the left the ruins of the chateau 



1 58 Route 37. ZWEISIMMEN. 

of ftrimmenstein or flasenbttrg. It then leads on Hie left hank to (l'/« hr.) 
Tschuepis, where the valley divides into the Maitnigrund to the right and 
the Schwendenthal to the left. The road follows the latter, which after 
:l 4 hr. again divides. A path now diverges from the road and ascends 
rapidly to the W. through the Grimbachthal to the (2 hrs.) Grimmi (6644'), 
a little frequented pass , almost destitute of view , and then descendj 
through the fertile valley of Fennel to (2 hrs.) Matten in the Upper 
Siminenthal (p. 155). 

From (2M.) Erlenbacb. (2319'; *Krone, R. V/ 2 , B. 1 y 2 fr. ; 
Lowe), with its well-built wooden houses, the Stockhom (7195') 
is sometimes ascended (3 1 /.} hrs., suitable for skilled climbers only; 
descent by the Wahlalp to the Baths of Weissenburg , which are 
reached by means of ladders). 

141/a M. Weissenburg (2418'; *H6tel Weissenbourg) is a small 
group of houses, 2 M. to the N.W. of which, in a gorge seldom 
reached by the rays of the sun, are the much frequented Sul- 
phur-Baths of Weissenburg , or Bunsehi (2940'; 82° Fahr.J. Bath- 
house at the entrance of the gorge (R. 2-3, pension 3 '/ 2 -7 fr. 
per day). 

Near (6 M.j Boltigen (2726'; *Bar, moderate), a village with 
handsome houses, two rocks form a defile called the Simmeneck, 
or Enge. Above the village rise the bald peaks of the Mittags- 
jluh, a landslip from which destroyed a wood at the foot of the 
mountain in 1846. To the left the snow-fields of the Rawyl (p. 150) 
are visible beyond the lower mountains. 

A coal-mine is worked in a side-valley near Keidenbaeh 
(2756'; 3 / 4 M. from Boltigen), which accounts for the sign of the 
inn (a miner). 

Feom Eeidenbach to Bulle (p. 161) two direct mountain-paths lead 
in 8 hrs. ; one by the Klus, the other by the Badermoos. The first is steep 
at places, but picturesque ; the second traverses beautiful pastures and pine 
woods (guide from Boltigen to the top of the Badermoos 1 fr.). The path 
unites with that from Ablanlschen , 3 j\ hr. before Jaun is reached. The 
village of Jaun, Fr. Bellegarde (3317'; Imhof , moderate), in Canton 
Freiburg, 3 hrs. from Boltigen, is beautifully situated, and boasts of a 
waterfall 80' high. A rough cart-road leads through the Volley of Jaun, 
or Bellegarde, with its rich pastures, where excellent Gruyire cheese is 
made, to (2'/2 hrs.) Charmey, Ger. Oalmis (2956') (two good inns). Pleasing 
view near the church. The path next leads by Crtsus, Chdtel, and the ruins 
of Montsalvens (rare plants), crosses the Jauii-Bach to Broc, then the Sariiie, 
traverses wood forlhr., and reaches Bulle (p. 161), 3'/a hrs. from Charmey. 
— From t'resus a pleasant bridle-path (3'/ 2 hrs.) leads by Cerniat, the ancient 
monastery of Valsainte , and the Clu'xaUe - L'ck (4659 ft.) to the Lac Suir, 
surrounded by lofty mountains. On the W. bank are the sulphureous 
Bains Dom'ene. 

The high-road crosses the Simme, and turns suddenly round 
the Laubeckstalden rock. To the left are the ruins of the two 
castles of Munnenberg . 

2">i/ L , \I. Zweisimmen(3215'; Bar; Krone, pension from 5 fr.), 
a village at the confluence of the Grosse and Kleine Simme. The 
Cnsllv of Blunkenhurg, a prison, and the residence of the Amt- 
nianii. not visible from the road, stands on a height on the road 
to l.enk, which is ( J M. distant (see p. 155). 



GSTEIG. 38. Route. 159 

The road ascends gradually for 5 M., with the Kleine Simme 
in a pine-clad valley on the left, and crosses five or six deep 
ravines. At the top of the hill (4227'; Inn) begin the Saanen- 
Mbser, a broad Alpine valley, sprinkled in the direction of Saa- 
nen with innumerable chalets and cottages. A magnificent view 
is gradually disclosed of the Riiblehorn, or Dent de Chamois 
(7569'), which serves as a barometer to the surrounding country 
(comp. p. 76), the indented Oumfluh (8068'), the snow-fields of 
the Sanetsch beyond it, and finally the huge Oelten Olacier (see 
below) to the left. 

34'/ 2 M- Saanen, Fr. Oesseney (3556'; Orand Loyis, or Oross- 
Landhaus ; Ours, unpretending; one-horse carr. to Thiui 25 fr.), 
is the principal place in the upper valley of the Saane (Sarine), 
with 3639 inhab. (11 Rom. Cath.), whose occupations are cattle- 
breeding and the manufacture of the famous Gruyere cheese and a 
variety called Vacherin. 

To Aigle by the Col de Pillon, see E. 38; to Shu by the Sanetsch, 
see below. 

Fkom Saanen to Chateau d'Oex (p. 163) 7 31. ; diligence twice daily 
in U/3 hr., by Rougemoni , «r Iiothenberg ("Pension Cottier, prettily situ- 
ated, reasonable), the frontier between cantons Bern and Vaud, where the 
language changes from German to French, and Flendruz. 

38. From Saanen to Aigle over the Col de Pillon. 

Comp. Map, p. 102. 

30 31. Diligence from Saanen to (7 M.) Gsteig once daily in l'/z hr. ; 
bridle-path thence to (3 hrs.) Ormont-dessus ; road to Ormont-dessons 4 M. ; 
diligence once daily from Ormont-dessous to (9 31.) Aigle in l'/z hr. (return- 
ing in 2'/a hrs.). — Guide unnecessary. One-horse carr. from the Hotel 
des Diablerets to Aigle 15 fr. 

Saanen , see above. The road leads to the S. through the 
broad and smiling Saane-Thal, the upper part of which is called 
the (isteig-Thal, to Ebnit and (2 M.) Gstaad (3455'; Bar), situated 
at the mouth of the Lauenen-Thal. 

A road ascends on the right bank of the Lauibctch to (4 31.) Lauenen 
(4130'; "Bar, moderate), the beautifully situated capital of the valley. 
Pleasant walk thence to the picturesque Laveuen-See (4557'), 1 hr. higher 
up. The lake is best surveyed from a hill at the upper end. To the 
S. the brooks descending from the Gtlten and Dvngel glaciers form fine 
waterfalls on both sides of the Hahnenschrilthorn (9304'). — Routes from 
Lauenen to Lenk by the Triittlisberg, and to Gsteig by the Chrinneii, sec 
p. 156. — To Matlen through the Tiirbachthul and over the Zwitzer Egg, 
see p. 156. 

7M. Gsteig, Fr. Chatelet (3937'; Bar, R. 3, B. l'/ 2 , D. 4'/. 2 fr.) 
lies in an imposing situation. From the marshy upper part of the 
valley rise the precipitous Sanetschhorn (9679') and the Oldenhorn 
(10,282') , which almost entirely exclude the sunshine from the 
village in winter. 

To Sion over the Sanetsch , 7Va hrs., a somewhat fatiguing and un- 
attractive route. The path crosses the Sarine beyond Gsteig, and ascends 
the valley of that river to the dreary Krenzboden (2 hrs. from Gsteig); 
thence l'/2 hr. to the culminating point of the Sanetsch, Fr. Seuiii (7369'), 



160 Route 38. ORMONT- DESSOUS. 

indicated by a cross. Beyond the pass a magnificent View is obtained of the 
valleys and mountains of the 8. Valais as far as Mont Blanc; to the right the 
'^reat Sanlleuron Glacier. Then a descent to (2 :i t hrs.) Cliandoliii (Inn, good 
wine), and by Granois and Onnona to (I 1 4 hr.) Siou (p. 269). Ascent from 
Sion to the pass 7, thence to Gsteig 2 hrs. 

The bridle-path here turns to the S.W., ascends the valley of 
the Reuschbuch through woods and pastures, commanding a view of 
the preripic.es of the Oldenhorn and Ke.v Rouge, from which several 
waterfalls are precipitated, and reaches (2 hrs.) the summit of the 
Col de Pillon (51*24'), at the S. foot of the Palette (see below). 
During the descent, where pedestrians may frequently make short 
cuts, a view is disclosed of a valley enclosed by picturesque, 
wooded mountains , and thickly studded with the houses and cha- 
lets known collectively as Ormont-dessus ; in the background rise 
the peaks of the Tour a" Ay and de Mayen. To the left is the 
rocky f'reux de Champ, the base of the Diablerets, whence numer- 
ous brooks precipitate themselves, forming the Grande-Euu, which 
waters the Ormont valleys and falls into the Rhone below Aigle. 
Then a descent of 1 hr. (ascent I 1 /., hr.) to Lbs Plans (381;V; * Hotel, 
des Diablerets, post -station for Ormont, pension 7 fr. ; *H6tel- 
Pension Bellevue, moderate; Pensions Ancermet, du Moulin, etc), 
at the W. base of the Pillon, from which a new road (passing the 
Pension des Hirondelles, halfwayj leads to (l'/j M.) Vers I'F.ali.ie 
(*H6tel Mon Se'jour; *Pension liusset), the largest of these Mat- 
tered villages. 

Excursions from Lex Plans (see above). To the Creux de Champ, 
M-3'/2 hrs. to the highest cascade and back. Good walkers may ascend 
from the Creux de Champ to the chalets of Leeheret (2> ■.; hrs. from l.es 
Plans). — By the chalets of J.ieniiii.r to the "Palette (7 133' I, an easy ascent 
of 2 1 .'.j-l-J hrs. ; the summit commands a view of the Bernese Alps from the 
Diablerets to the Jungfrau and of the Dent du Midi to the S. Or the 
ascent may be made from the Col de Pillon (in l'.V- hrs. , past the 
small lletlaii Lake}. — Poinfe de Meilhret (fi-ll)i'), '2' ■_■ hrs.; view of Mont- 
Mane towards the S.W. — No guides required for any of these. 

The Oldenhorn (10.282'}, Fr. Bee d'Amloii, a superb point of view, is fre- 
quently ascended from Gsteig I in 7, descent A' , 2 hrs.), or from Les Plans 
(in 8. descent S'.'j hrs.). The excursion requires a steady head and sure 
foot, (luide necessary ( 10-12 fr.). The paths unite at the chalets of the 
(Hiere uldenalp (coffee and milk only), where the night is usually passed. 

To Villaru, ok Oisyon, bt the Pas DE la Croix, 3 1 2 hrs., a beauti- 
ful walk, guide unnecessary. From the Hotel des Diablerets we ascend 
the valley of the Grande Kau for '/-• hr., and then enter a lateral valley 
by a bridle-path to the right (S.W.). After a somewhat steep ascent of 
1 3 M hr., with frequent retrospects of the Diablerets, the summit of the 
Pas de la Croix (oilfcY), with some houses to the left, is attained. The path 
descends on the right bank of the Gnionne to (l 1 i hr.) Arveyes and (' i hr.) 
I'illai-fl (p. 20f>). The path to Gryon diverges before Arveyes. to the left, 
crosses the brook , and reaches G rtion (p. 25;")) in 20 min. This route is 
preferable to that which leads to liryon on the left bank of the Gryonne 
nrook , as it commands a magnificent view of the Dent du Midi, Dent de 
Moreles, Grand Mmeran, and the Argentine. 

Immediately adjoining Onnoiit-drsMi^ are the houses of the 
lower part of the valley, known a.-* Ormont-dessous. About i'/-> M- 
from Vers l'Egli-o the road unites with that, from (hate. in d'tlex 
(p. ll>4|. turns to the S W.. ami I'/., \1 . farther rv.-icht'.- Le Sepey 



BULLE. 39. Route. 161 

(3704'; *H6tel des Alpes; Mont d'Or, well spoken of; *Cerf, mod- 
erate ; one-horse carr. to the H6tel des Diablerets 8 fr. , and a fee 
of 2fr.), the principal village in the lower part of the valley. 

Excursions. Pointe de Chavssy (7798'), 4>/2 hrs., not difficult (comp. 
p. 164). — By La Forclaz, Coney, and past the small lakes des Chuvannes, 
Servay, Noir and des Chalets to the chalets of Bretay and the summit of 
the Col de Chamossaire (whence the Chamossaire, p. 206 , may he easily 
ascended); hack to Chesihv or Villard, and hy Plamlmit to Sepey, an in- 
teresting excursion of one dav. — A good path, affording fine views, leads 
from Sepev hy the loftily situated village of Leysin to &!■• hrs.) Aigle 
(p. 205). 

Far below, at the base of the precipitous and beautifully wooded 
rocks, the Orande-Eau forms several waterfalls ; opposite us rises 
the imposing Chamossaire (6953'). Beyond the valley of the 
Rhone rise the four peaks of the Dent du Midi. The road now de- 
scends in numerous windings towards the Grande-Eau, and, pass- 
ing between vineyards, reaches Aigle (see p. 20:")), 7 M. from Sepey. 

39. From Bulle to Chateau d'Oex. 

Comp. Maps, pp. 152, 194. 
18 SI. Diliof.nce twice daily in 4 hrs. — A most attractive walk of 
two days is from Bulle over the Jloleson to Slonthovon, and thence over 
the Jaman to Jlontreux or Vevey. Byron calls the passage of the Jaman 
' beautiful as a dream \ In order to realise this, the traveller who is yet 
unacquainted with the Lake of Geneva and the mountains of Savoy, should 
cross the pass from the valley of the Sarine, so as to have this mag- 
nificent spectacle suddenly presented to view. The morning and evening 
lights are the most favourable, as the lake is often veiled in mist about 
noon. — From the Lake of Geneva to the Bernese Oberland the route by 
Aigle and the Col de Pillon (p. 160) is far preferable to that over the 
Jaman (see p. 157). 

Bulle ('2487' ; *Cheval Blanc ; Hotel de la Ville), a busy little 
town, the principal depot of the highly esteemed Gruyere cheese, 
is the terminus of the Romont and Bulle railway (see p. 167). 
Diligence several times daily to Saanen (p. 159) by Chateau d'Oex 
(p. 163); also to Vevey by Chatel St. Denis. 

Ascent of the Moleson from Bulle, 4V--> hrs.; guide (8 fr.) unneces- 
sary for moderately experienced walkers. We follow the Vuadens road 
for ' */ t SI., and turn to the left by a saw-mill. The path gradually as- 
cends by the brook La Treme to the (1 hr.) red-roofed buildings of Part- 
Uien, formerly a Carthusian monastery (3133'), and leads on the W. slope 
of the mountain, crossing several small affluents of the Treme, to the 
(2 hrs.) chalets of Les Plane's (poor inn). The route can hardly be 
mistaken, as the summit of the Moleson is frequently visible. The path, 
now precipitous and ill-defined, ascends to the summit in D/2 hr. more. 
The Moleson (6578') , the X. continuation of the Jaman, and a pro- 
minent spur of the higher Alps, may be called the Rigi of W. Switzerland, 
and is recognisable in all the panoramas of this region by its bold, rocky 
slopes, surrounded by meadows and forests, which afford an excellent 
field for the botanist. The view embraces the Lake of Geneva, the Sits, 
of Savoy, the Dent d'Oche and Dent du Slidi , and stretches to the Mont 
Blanc chain, of which the summit and the serrated Aiguille Verte and 
Aiguille d'Argentiere are visible. To the left of the latter, nearer the 
foreground , rises the Dent de Sforcles, forming the commencement of a 
chain of mountains which culminate in the Diablerets in the centre, 
and extend to the heights of Gruyere at the feet of the spectator. The 
Bardekek. Switzerland. 7 Hi l.\i:t;..« jj 



162 Itoute 39. JAMAN. 

Grand Combin, to the left of the Mont Blanc group, is the only peak of 
the Alps of the Valais visible hence. Most of the Bernese Alps are also 
concealed. To the extreme left rises the Titlis. To the W. the Jura. 

Ascent of the Moleson i'bom Albeuve (see below; 4-4 l /2 hrs.). On the 
outskirts of the village the path crosses to the left bank of the brook, tra- 
verses pastures, enters a picturesque ravine, and leads along the well 
shaded slope to a small chapel and a saw-mill a little farther. It here 
crosses the stream , recrosses it at a charcoal-kiln , V2 hr. farther , and 
reaches (5 min.) the first chalet. Towards the N.N.E. the ridge separating 
the Moleson from the Little Moleson is now visible. The path continues 
traceable to the vicinity of the highest chalet, which we leave on the left. 
Thence a somewhat fatiguing climb of I1/4 hr. to the summit. There 
is no path, but the traveller will find his way without difficulty to the 
ridge, whence the summit is visible, and attainable in 10 min. more. 

The path ascending from Vaulruz, the station before Bulle (p. 1G7), 
unites at Part-Dieu with that from Bulle, and another path ascends from 
Semsales (2 hrs. S.W. of Vaulruz) , but neither of these routes is recom- 
mended , as a lofty buttress of the mountain must be traversed before 
the valley of the Treme and the base of the Mole'son are reached. 

The high road from Bulle to Chateau d'Oex leads past ( 3 / 4 M.) 
La Tour de Treme, with its picturesque old tower, to (l'/j M\) 
Epagny (2390'). On a steep rocky hill to the right lies the old 
town of Gruyere (2723' ; Maison de Ville; Fleur de Lys), with an 
old castle of the powerful Counts of Gruyere , who became extinct 
in the 16th cent., flanked with massive towers and walls, and 
supposed to date from the 5th cent. The surrounding district 
consists of rich pasture-land where the well-known Gruyere cheese 
is laTgely manufactured. The 'ranz des vaches' of Gruyere is 
celebrated. The natives speak a Romanic dialect. 

The road now enters the valley of the Sarine , or Saane, and 
passes (l'/ 2 M.) Enney (2409'), opposite which lies Estavanens. 
In the background of the picturesque valley rises the tooth-like' 
Dent de Corjeon (6460') ; on the right are Les Vadalles (5207'), 
forming a spur of the Moleson. At the mouth of a ravine opposite 
(274 M.) ViUard-sous-Mont, lies the large village of Grand- Villard, 
overshadowed by barren mountains. Passing Neirivue, we next 
reach (1 M.) Albeuve (2487'; Ange; ascent of the Mole'son, see 
above), cross the Hongrin ( below, we observe a picturesque older 
bridge), and arrive at (3 M.) Montbovon (2608'; Hotel du Jaman, 
plain ; horses and guides to be had). 

Fkom Montbovon ovkk the Jaman to Montkeux (6 hrs.) and Vevet 
(7'/i hrs.). Guide (6 fr.) unnecessary. Horse to the top of the pass 10 fr., 
to Montreux or Vevey 20 lr. 

By the church of Montbovon we ascend to the right; after 25 min. 
we turn to the right by a house; further on we descend to the bridge 
(35 min.) over the Ilonyrin ; • 1 hr. , church of the scattered village of 
Allieres; "4 hr., Crni.r A'u/Ve inn. (The direct route to this point froft 
Albeuve follows the .Montbovon rorul for ',^31., and diverges to the right 
by a path leading by Sciemet to Allieres in l'/a hr.) 

The patli now ascends gradually to the foot of the pass, then more 
rapidly over green pastures (not too much to the left), to the (t'/s ur ') 
chalets of the Plan de Jaman, a little beyond the boundary between can- 
tons Krciburg and Vaiid , and a few min. farther to the Col de 1ft Dent 
de Jaman ( V.I74'). A strikingly beautiful prospect is suddenly disclosed 
here to the S., embracing the entire mountain-range as far as the Rochers 
de Naye (GTuo'j and the Tour d'Ay , and the Moleson (p. 161) to the N.5 



CHATEAU D'OEX. 39. Route. 163 

the rich Canton de Yaud, the S. part of the Jura chain, the long range 
of the Alps of Savoy, the E. angle of the Lake of Geneva, the huge 
mountains bounding the Yalais on the S., and the snowy summits of the 
Great St. Bernard. From the Dent de Jaman, Ger. Jommen (6165'), 1211' 
above the Col, a fatiguing ascent of l'/z hr. more, the view includes the 
lakes of Geneva. Neuchatel, and Morat, Pilatus, and the Weissenstein. 

From the Col to Jlontreux the path cannot be mistaken; 12 min. from 
the chalets it turns to the right; 25 min. a bridge, then a slight ascent, 
and a level walk to (1 hr.) Les Avants (3212'; ~H6tel des Avants, well sit- 
uated; Union, moderate). The path hence, generally paved, follows the W. 
slope of the valley. At a bend in the path (i> min. from Les Avants), at the 
beginning of the region of fruit-trees, a narrower path, also paved, leads 
to the left, to (10 min. I Sonziei; and then descends rapidly to the left to 
( l /-> hr.) Montreux, or Vernex (p. 202), a steamboat and railway station. 

The path to the right at the bend above mentioned soon leads to 
the village of Chernex (2231'), charmingly situated in the midst of orchards, 
from which a new road, parsing to the X. of Chatelard leads towards 
the village of ChtiiUn (Pension Benker). Before it is reached, a path 
descends to the left to the high-road leading to Vevey (p. 201), 4 1 /™ M- 
from the bend. (The traveller coming from Vevey, on arriving at the 
last houses of La Tour, must take the first path diverging to the left and 
then incline to the right ; 12 min., to the right; 12 min., a iinger-post , in- 
dicating the way to 'Challev, Churnex, and Jaman 1 .) 

Above Montbovon the valley of the Sarine turns to the E., and 
the road enters a wooded ravine , where the stream flows far below 
us in its deeply hollowed channel. In a wider part of the valley 
lies (1 l /± M.) La Tine (Inn), with beautiful meadows around it. 
Farther on [2 l / t M.) we observe on the opposite bank the prettily 
situated village of Rossinieres , with the large *Pension Henchoz (or 
Grand Chalet deRossinieres, 3 M. from Chateau d'Oex). At (1 1/2 ML) 
Les Moulin* , at the mouth of the Tourneresse , the road to Aigle 
diverges to the right ( see below). The road now crosses the Sarine 
by the (3/ 4 M.) bridge of he Pre and ascends to (1 M.) — 

Chateau d'Oex, Ger. Oesch (3498'; *Pension Berthod, in a 
flue open situation, K. 1, T,. 1/2. D. 3, A. 1 ft.; Ours, R. I1/2 ft., 
and opposite to it Mai.ton de Ville, both in the village, adjoining the 
post-ofriee ; *Pension Romit, du Midi, Villa d'Oex, etc., 5 ft. and 
upwards ; Turrian, confectioner, ices), a long, substantially built 
village, situated in a green valley, and visited for the sake of its 
bracing air in summer. The church, situated on an eminence, com- 
mands a good view of the environs. To the E. rises the jagged Rilble- 
horn{]>. 159). — From Chateau d'Oex to Saanen(7M.), see p. 159. 

! Mont Cray (6795') may be ascended from Chateau d'Oex in 3 hrs. 
(guide unnecessary); the view extends over the Bernese and Valaisian Alps 
as far as Mont Blanc, and to the lakes of Bienne and Neuchatel to the N. 

From Chateau d'Oex to Aigle (2i l /-> M.) diligence once daily in 
Si '3 hrs. (returning in 5 hrs.). The road to Montbovon and Bulle is followed 
as lar as P/4 31.) Le Pre" and I 3 '., 31.) Les Moulins, where the new road diverges 
to the left, and ascends the valley of the Tourneresse ( Vallie de VEtivaz) by 
long windings. (Walkers should' follow the old road, which diverges at Le 
Pri, immediately beyond the bridge over the Sarine.) The road runs high 
above the valley, and affords picturesque views of the. profound rocky bed 
of the brook. At (3 3 /4 M.) Au-Devant the road becomes more open, and its 
continuation is seen on the mountain to the right, but it remains in the val- 
ley as faras(2'AM.) ISEtivai (3865'), where it turns and quits the ravine: 
Pedestrians avoid this long bend of the road by a rough and stony path 

11* 



1 64 Route 40. LAUPEN. From Bern . 

descending to the brook at a saw-mill in the valley, and ascending to the road 
at a point considerably higher. From Etivaz to the top of the hill (5069') 
2y» W.; beyond it ( 3 /4 M.) La Lteherrtte (4519'); then (l',2 M.) Les Mosses 
(inn), whence a splendid view of the Dent du iMidi is enjoyed. The road 
now descends the valley of the brook Raverette. to (2 1 4 M.) La Com- 
ballaz (4476'; H.'ouronne, generally full in summer), much frequented for 
its mineral spring and invigorating mountain air, and a good starting-point 
for excursions (Poinle dt Chaussy, 7798', an easy ascent of 3 hrs. ; cotnp. 
p. 161). Beyond this the road commands a line survey of a very picturesque 
basin, with the Diablerets and Oldenhorn in the background, and winds 
down to (S )1.) Le Sepey (p. 160). Thence to (7 M.) Aigle, see p. 161. 



40. From Bern to Lausanne (Vevey). 

61 M. Oros Railway. To Freiburg in l-l'/« hr., fares 3 fr. 75, 2 fr. 70 c, 
2 fr. ; to Chexbres (Vevey) in 3-3'/2 hrs., fares 9 fr. 65, 7 fr., 5 fr. 20 c. ; 
to Lausanne in 3>,r4 hrs., fares 10 fr. 90, 7 fr. 85, 5 fr. 80 c.; to Geneva 
in b\!---&/-i hrs., fares 17 fr. 50, 12 fr. 25 c, 9 fr. 

On the arrival of each train at Chexbres, an omnibus is in waiting to 
convey passengers to Vevey (fare 1 fr., luggage 20 c), which is thus reached 
sooner than by first proceeding to Lausanne. (Road from Chexbres to 
Vevey, see p. 168.) Several trains correspond at Lausanne with trains on 
the Western Railway to Geneva, but in the direction of Vevey, Bex, and 
fSion there is no direct communication, carriages being always changed. 
Arrangement of carriages with passages throughout, the same as in Ger- 
man Switzerland. 

The Oron Railway to Chexbres traverses a fertile tract of arable 
land and pasture, affording occasional glimpses, to the left, of the Alps from 
the Bernese Oberland to the mountains of Savoy on the S. bank of the 
Lake of Geneva. The journey between Chexbres and Lausanne is strikingly 
beautiful, the views far surpassing those on any other Swiss railway. 

On starting, the traveller should choose a seat on the left, 
bearing in mind, however, that the train backs out from the Bern 
station, and afterwards proceeds towards the W. A glimpse is soon 
obtained of the Bernese Alps, with the pyramidal Niesen in front 
of them to the left, the mountains enclosing the valleys of the 
Simme and the Sarine, of which the bald and serrated Brenleire 
(7743') and Folierant (7690') are most conspicuous, and the Mo- 
le"son more to the right. From stat. Biimplitz to stat. Thbrishaus 
a monotonous grassy valley is traversed. The line then descends 
and crosses the Sense, the boundary between the cantons of Bern 
and Freiburg. 9 M. Flamatt. 

From Flamatt to Laupen' diligence twice daily in l',4 hr. (fare 75 c), 
by Xeueneck (Bar or Post), where an obelisk commemorates a victory 
gained by the Bernese over the French in 1798. Laupen (liar), a small town 
at the foot of the Bramberg, at the confluence of the Sense and the Sarine, 
is celebrated in the annals of Switzerland for a victory gained in 1339 by 
the Bernese under Rudolph von Erlaeh (p. 99) over the army of Freiburg 
and the allied nobility of the Vechtland, the Aargau, Savoy, and Burgundy. 
The anniversary of the battle is observed every five years. The battle- 
field on the Bramberg, 3 /4 JM. to the N. of the road from Neueneck to 
Laupen, is marked by a monument, erected in 1829. 

Beyond the next tunnel the train traverses the green valley 
of the Taferna-Bach. Stations Schmitten, (15 M.) Diidingen (Fr. 
(ittin, view of the Alps to the left), where the valley is crossed by 
a lofty bridge, and Baltiswyl, beyond which the * Viaduct of the 



• to Lausanne. FREIBURG. 40. Route. 1 65 

Sarine is reached, 260' in height, and nearly */ 4 M. long. The 
fact that 3000 tons of iron were used in its construction conveys 
some idea of its proportions. Below the line is a path for foot- 
passengers. 

20 M. Freiburg (2100'). — *Zahringer Hoe, near the bridge, line 
view of both the bridges from the terrace, R. 3'/'-j, B. l>/ 2 , D. 4-5, L. and 
A. I l /2 I'r. "Hotel de Fkiboorg, well situated, R. from 2'/2, H. 3'/a - 4'/^i 
L. and A. l 1 /^ fr. ; Kramern, or Ildtel des Merciers (or des Marchands), 
near the church of St. Nicholas, similar charges ; HotivL dks Chakpentieks. 
Near the station, Campagne Beauregard , pension from 4 fr. ; "H6tel-Pens. 
Bellevue, well situated. — "Railway Restaurant. — Omnibus to the lower 
part of the town V* fr. 

Freibury, Fr. Friboury, the capital of the canton of that name 
and of the ancient Vechtland , founded in 1175 by Berthold of 
Zahringen (p. 99), stands on a rocky eminence surrounded by the 
Sarine (Saane), in a situation very similar to that of Bern, and con- 
tains 10,904 (1136 Prot.) inhab., most of whom speak French. Frei- 
burg lies on the boundary between the two tongues, German being 
spoken in the lower part of the town. 

The picturesque situation of the town and bridges is not seen from the 
railway station, but may be inspected within a few hours. The following 
walk of about l 1 /? hr. is recommended. From the station to the Jesuits' Col- 
lege ; thence through the town, cross the Suspension Bridge, and ascend by 
the road to the right to'the Pont de Ootteron (see below ; an old tower between 
the two bridges is a good point of view), cross this, and follow the wind- 
ings of the road to Bourgillon, a group of houses. (The use of a tempting 
short cut is prohibited under a penalty of 10 fr.) We now return and 
descend the road to the Loretto Chapel, from which another fine view of 
the town is obtained. Farther on, on this side of a small cha'pel, we 
obtain to the left a pleasing view of the valley of the Sarine, which has 
lately been converted into a reservoir in connection with the waterworks, 
and forms a dark-green lake (Lac de Perolles) , discharged by a canal 
cut through a projecting part of the left bank, from which the water 
is precipitated over rocks {Restaur, and Pension Pisciculture, with shady 
grounds). A direct path descends hence to the right by steps to the 
Arsenal. We then turn to the left by the fountain, cross the Sarine by a 
stone bridge, and ascend to the Council Hall. — Those who wish to inspect 
the Railway Bridge (see above) more closely should walk to it from 
Freiburg. About 1 M. from the town a good footpath to the right descends 
to the foot of the pillars on which the bridge rests, and a steep path ascends 
thence to the cafe on the Freiburg side. 

The *Suspknsion Bridge, or Pont en Fil de Fer, completed in 
1834, is 300 yds. in length, 22' in breadth, and 168' above the 
Sarine. It is supported by four chains , 411 yds. in length , which 
form a single arch , the extremities being secured by 128 anchors 
attached to blocks of stone at a considerable depth below the sur- 
face of the earth. Before the construction of this bridge it was 
necessary to descend into the ravine and ascend on the other side, 
which occupied fully an hour. 

A little farther up is the Pont de Gotteron, a similar struc- 
ture , completed in 1840, spanning the Vallee de Ootteron, a 
deep and romantic rocky ravine , which opens into the valley of 
the Sarine. The construction of the bridge (249 yds. in length, 
and 305' above the water) is in some Tespects more remarkable 



166 Route 40. FREIBURG. From Bern ■ 

than that of its neighbour, as the wire-chains are secured in 
the sandstone rock itself, and pillars are thus dispensed with. 

The *Chtjkch of St. Nicholas, the episcopal cathedral, recently 
restored, with its slender tower (280' in height, erected 1452), 
is a fine Gothic edifice (founded in 1285, completed in 1500), 
with some remarkable reliefs on the portals. 

The 'Organ, one of the finest in Europe, with 67 stops and 7800 
pipes, some of them 33' in length, was built by Al. Mooter (d. 1839), 
whose bust has been placed under the instrument to the right. — Perfor- 
mances on it may be heard every evening in summer after dusk, except 
on Saturdays and the eves of festivals, when the hour is 1.30 p.m.; 
tickets at the hotels 1 fr. each (fee for a concert at other times 60 fr. for 
a party of 1-12 persons; 5 fr. each additional person.). — The old carved 
Stalls deserve notice. The second chapel on the S. side contains a fine 
modern picture by Desehwanden, representing St. Anne and St. Mary. The 
choir possesses three modern stained-glass windows (St. Nicholas and other 
saints). A tablet on the S. pillar at the entrance to the choir is to the 
memory of Peter Canisius (d. 1597), the first German Jesuit, celebrated 
for his theological writings. 

The Stadthaus, or Town Hall, near the church, occupies the 
site of the palace of the dukes of Zahringen. Adjacent is the Rath- 
haus, or Council Hall with a clock-tower. In front of these build- 
ings stands an aged lime-tree, 14' in circumference, partly support- 
ed by stone pillars. According to tradition, this venerable tree was 
originally a twig, borne by a young native of Freiburg when he ar- 
rived in the town breathless and exhausted from loss of blood , to 
announce to his fellow-citizens the victory of Morat. 'Victory' was 
the only word he could summon strength to utter, and having thus 
fulfilled his mission , he expired. Adjoining the square by the old 
lime stands the Monument of Father Oregoire Oirard (b. at Frei- 
burg 1765, d. 1850). 

A long flight of steps leads from the Council Hall to the 
lower part of the town and the river. The pavement of the Rue 
Grand - Fontaine serves as a roof to the houses of the Court- 
Chemin, while the arch over the street is a conduit for conveying 
water to. the lower portion of the town in case of fire. 

Near the Gate of Morat is the Jesuits' College, founded by 
Father Canisius (see above) in 1584, and suppressed after the war 
of the Separate League in 1847. The extensive building occu- 
pies the highest and most conspicuous site in the town. Near 
it is the extensive and loftily situated Priests'' Seminary. 

The Hermitage of St. Magdalena, on the Sarine, 3'/2 M. below the town, 
a cell and chapel hewn in the rock, frequently attracts the curious, but 
is scarcely worthy of a visit. 

Fbom Fkeibuko to Yveedon, 28>/2 M., by railway in 2'/ 2 brs.; fares 
4 fr. 5c, 3 fr. Near (4 M.) Belfanx a lofty embankment is passed, above 
which the Sornaz is carried by means of an aqueduct 150 yds. in length. 
Stations Orolley, Mchelles, Corcellet, and (14 M.) Pat/erne (p. 169), junction 
of the 'Ligne de l!roye\ The train crosses the Broye and the Glane and 
near Estavayer approaches the lake of Neuchatel, which it skirts to 
Yvonand and (28>/2 M.) Yverdon (p. 177). 

Railway Journey. Beyond Freiburg the finest views are always 
to the left, the Moleson (p. 161) being the most prominent feature 



to Lausanne. 



ROMONT. 40. Route. 167 



in the landscape. The Glane , with its perpendicular banks , and 
a four-arched bridge, are also seen to the left. Stations Matran, 
Neyruz , Cottens , Chenens, Villaz-St. Pierre. Then to the left the 
fertile and well peopled slopes of the Oibloux (3947'). To the left, 
near Romont, lies the nunnery of La Fille Dieu ; beyond it rise the 
mountains of Savoy. 

36 M. Romont ( '2542' ; Cerf; Couronne; Croix Blanche; Restau- 
rant near the station), on the Glane, the principal place in this 
district, is picturesquely situated on an eminence, and surrounded 
by ancient walls and watch-towers. The CaMe on the S. side, 
founded by the Burgundian kings in the 10th cent. , is now the 
residence of the 'Amtmann, or prefect of the district. The old 
tlothic Church contains choir-stalls with grotesque carving. At the 
S. end of the hill rises a massive round tower, adjoining which 
there is a public promenade commanding a pleasing view. 

From IIomdnt to Bulls (p. 1G1) 1231., branch-lin;' in 3/ 4 hr. (fares 1 fr. 65, 
1 fr. '.ft e. ; stations Vuisternens, Sales, Vunlnit), of which travellers bound fur 
Chateau d'Oex. or intending to ascend the Moleson , may avail themselves. 

Beyond Komont a tine mountain view is obtained, Mont Blanc 
and the Dent du Midi being most conspicuous; to the left are the 
Dent de daman and the Moleson. Stations (39 M.J Siviriez and 
(4l'/2 M.) Vauderens , beyond which the train commands a fine 
prospect, to the right, of an undulating, fertile district, bounded by 
the Jura range. On a height above the Broye, in the foreground to 
the right, is situated the picturesque little town of Rue (p. 168). At 
(46M.) Oron-le-Chatel ('2378') the train passes through,the rocks 
of the castle-hill, on the S. side of which is the station; Oron- la- 
Ville lies below, to the right (see p. 168). The train now descends, 
crossing the Mionnaz and the Broye. 48 M. Palezieux- Granges is 
the junction of the Broye line (to Payerne, etc. ; see R. 41). The 
Corbeiron is then crossed (to the W. , near the railway , the small 
Lac de Bret) to (5'2 M.) Chexbres, the station for Vevey (see below). 

Beyond the next tunnel a **View of singular beauty, embracing 
the greater part of the Lake of Geneva and the surrounding 
mountains, is suddenly disclosed. In the direction of Vevey, 
which is not itself visible, are the Pleiades, the Dent de Jaman, 
the valley of the Rhone, and the mountains of Savoy ; the fore- 
ground consists of numerous villages in the midst of vineyards. 
Beyond stat. Grand-Vaux (Cully), the villages of Lutry, Pully, and 
Ouchy on the bank of the lake become visible, and, to the right, 
Lausanne. Beyond another tunnel and a viaduct the train reaches 
stat. La Conversion (Lutry) , and soon crosses the valley of the 
Paud'eze by the Pont de la Rochelte, a long viaduct of nine arches. 
Below it is an iron viaduct of the Western line. After another short 
tunnel, the train reaches Lausanne, where the Oron-line unites with 
the Western. 

61 M. Lausanne, see p. 11)7 ; thence to Geneva, or to the valley 
of the Rhone, by steamboat or by the Western line, see R. 49. 



IDS Route 41. PAYERNE. 

From Chexbres to Vevey. 

C'otup. Map, p. ISi. 

3'/s M. — Station Kivai (St. Saphorin) on the Western line, bs- 
low the village of Chexbres to the S. E., is D/2 M. nearer. The diligence, 
which leaves Vevey V/^-2 hrs. before the arrival of the trains at 
Chexbres , ascends in I ', 1 hr. Beautiful views, especially on the descent 
to Vevey. 

The view from the station is limited ; the mountains of .Savoy 
only are visible, and to the left, in the background of the Rhone 
valley, Mont Catogne On leaving the station , the road ascends 
for Y2 M-i then descends about '/ 4 M- *° the large village of Chex- 
bres (1903'); f/4 M. farther it crosses the Western line, and soon 
reaches the Lausanne and Vevey road. To Vevey (p. 199), 1'/., M. 
more, the last part of the way between vineyard-walls, uninteresting. 

■View. During the descent a superb prospect, not inferior to that 
commanded by the railway to Lausanne, above described, though dis- 
closing itself more gradually, is enjoyed. The best point of view is tin' 
"Signal de Chexbres (1919'; - H6tel du Siynal, with garden), >/» M. from the 
Chexbres station. At the spectator's feet lies the greater part of the Lake 
of Geneva; to the left Vevey; above it from left to right extends the saddle 
of the Pas de Jaman, commanded by the Dent de Jaman, so called from its 
tooth-like form, and the broad back of the Rochers de Naye ; then the twin 
peaks of the Tour d'Ay and de Morges, rising from the mountain which 
bounds the lake; farther back the Grand-Moveran and the Dent de Morcles. 
In the centre the background is formed by the pyramid of Mont Catogne, on 
the left of which rises the snowy cone of Mont Velan ; then the mountains 
of Savoy, the highest of which is the Dent d'Oche with its broad back. 
As Vevey is approached, the Grand-Moveran in the Rhone Valley to the left 
seems to recede, and the long, indented, and partially snow -clad crest of 
the Dent du Midi, to the right, behind the mountains of Savoy, to advance. 

41. From Lausanne to Lyss via Payerne. 

63 M. Railway (Litjue de Brvye) in 4>/«-7'/2 hrs.; fares 7 fr. 55, 
5 fr. 90 c. 

From Lausanne to Palezieux ( 13 M.), see p. ll>7. The train 
follows the pleasant valley of the Broye. Stations Chatillem 
C/ 2 M- ^ w - ot " Oron-la-Vil/c. p. 167), (19 M.) Ecublens-Rue. 
The little town of Eue (2323'; .Unison de Ville; Fleur de Lys) is 
picturesquely situated on a hill to the right, commanded by an old 
chateau with pinnacled walls. 

The valley contracts, and the Broye is crossed several times. 
Stations Bressonnz and (24 M.) Moudon, Ger. Mi Iden (1690' ; Hotel 
du Pont ; Couronne; Hotel de Ville), an old town (2400 inhab. ) 
with the chateaux of Carowje and liochefort , the Roman Mino- 
dunum, and during the middle' ages the capital of the Pays de 
Vaud. Handsome Gothic church. 

The following stations are Lucens ( Ger. Lobsinyen), with an 
old hunting chateau , Henniez , and Uranyes-Mnrniind, where the 
valley expands. 

36 1 /._> M. Payerne, or Peterlinyen ( I486' ; *Ottrs ; Croix Blanche), 
the Paterniacum(T) of the Romans, an ancient town with 3260 in- 
hab., was in the early middle ages a frequent residence of the 



AVENCHES. 41. Route. 169 

Kings of Burgundy. In the 10th cent. Bertha , the Queen of Ru- 
dolph II., erected a church and Benedictine abbey here; the former 
is now a granary, the latter an educational establishment. Her 
bones, together with those of her husband and her son Conrad, 
were discovered in 1817 below a tower of the ancient church, and 
were buried in the present Parish Church, where the saddle of the 
queen with a hole for her distaff is shown. To this day, in alluding 
to the departure of the good old times, the French Swiss frequent- 
ly use the expression : 'Ce n'est plus le temps oft Berthe fllait' . 

From Payerne to Freiburg and 1'verdon, see p. 166. 

Beyond Payerne the valley of the Broye becomes broad and 
marshy. Stations Corcelles, Dompierre, Domdidier. 

43 J /'2 M. Avenches, Ger. Wiflisburg (1519'; Maison de Ville; 
(,'ouronne), the Horn. Aventicum, the capital of the Helvetii, known 
as early as the time of C.esar, now a small Prot. town (pop. 1835"). 
The remains of the areat Amphitheatre and other public buildings, 
and especially the Walls, still easily traced , bear testimony to the 
former magnificence of the city ; and as it was the largest Roman 
settlement in Switzerland, so it is now the richest field for anti- 
quarian research. Most of the antiquities found here have been re- 
moved to the museums of Bern and Lausanne. Recent investi- 
gations have brought to light mosaic pavements , fragments of 
pillars, inscriptions, utensils of all sorts, and other interesting rel- 
ics, which are preserved in a Museum near the Amphitheatre. 

Close to the town, on the N.W. side, is a solitary marble column 
of the Corinthian order, 39' high, supposed to be a remnant of a 
temple of Apollo, and now called Le Cigognier, from a stork's nest 
having occupied its capital for many ages. 

' By a lone wall a lonelier column rears 
A grey and grief-worn aspect ol' old days.' 1 

Oh. Har. Pil. Cant, iii., 65. 

For centuries a tradition was current that a tombstone to the memory of 
a daughter of Julius Alpinus had been discovered at Avenches, the supposed 
inscription on which Lord Byron describes as a most affecting composition 
(see Ch. Har. Pil., iii., 66, 67l ; but modern investigations have rudely 
dispelled the illusion. A certain Paulus Guilelmus, who lived in the 16th 
cent., is said to have imposed upon the credulity of posterity by inventing 
both monument and inscription. 

Fkom Avenches to Fueibueg diligence twice daily in 2 1 /-.' lirs. via 
Belfaux (p. 166); to the steamboat-station Cudkefin twice daily in li/i hr. 
via Bellerive. 

Near stat. Faoug, Ger. Pfauen ( Sonne ; Wicky) , the train ap- 
proaches the Lake of Morat (1428'), called in the middle ages the 
Uecht-See (comp. p. 165), the Lacus Aventicensis of the Romans, 
6 M. long, and 3 M. wide, and separated from the Lake of Neu- 
chatel by the narrow Mont Vully towards the N., and the Char- 
montel to the S., but connected with it by the river Broye. 

48 M. Morat, Ger. Marten (1522'; * Couronne or Post; Aigle; 
Lion, on the lake), a thriving little town, with 2328 inhab. (120 
Rom. Cath.), is situated on the lake to which it gives its name. 



170 Route 41. AARBERG. 

Its narrow arcaded streets are overshadowed by an ancient Castle, 
which in 1476, with a garrison of 1500 Bernese under Adrian von 
Bubenberg , resisted the artillery of Charles the Bold for ten days. 

The Battle of Morat , fought on 22nd June , 1476 , was the bloodiest 
of those three disastrous contests (Grandson, Morat, and Nancy) , in which 
the puissant Duke of Burgundy successively lost his treasure, his courage, 
and his life ('Gut, Muth, und Bluf). The Burgundians sustained a loss of 
15,000 men, with the whole of their ammunition and baggage. A story 
is current at Morat, that Napoleon I., when on his way to the Congress 
of Rastadt in 1797, visited the field of battle , and remarked to a young 
Swiss officer of his guard: 'Jeune Capitaine, si jamais nous livrons bataille 
en ces lieux, sotjez persuade que nous ne prendrons pas le lac pour retraite.'' 
A marble Obelisk, 65' high , was erected on the battle-field in 1822, V/-i M. 
to the S. of Morat. — The Gymnasium, or grammar-school, contains a col- 
lection of ancient Burgundian weapons. 

From Morat to Neuchatel steamboat twice daily in 2 hrs. The 
steamer steers due N. from Morat across the lake towards Mont Vullp 
(2267'), which on the side towards the Lake of Morat is covered with 
vines , and on that towards the Lake of Neuchatel with forest. Near 
Htigiez, where the Itroye issues from the Lake of Morat, the funnel is 
lowered to allow the steamboat to pass under a wooden bridge. To the 
W. extends the Jura chain, from the Weissenstein near Solenre to a 
point S. of Neuchatel. The Broyo, which connects the Lakes of Morat 
and Neuchatel (the level of the latter being 4 inches below the former), 
and flows round Mont Vully on the N. , is the channel by which the 
steamboat enters the Lake of Neuchatel near La Sauge, steering first S.W. 
to Cudrefin, and afterwards N.W. to Neuchatel (see below). — Diligence 
from Morat to Neuchatel twice daily in 2 hrs. via, Ins, Fr. Anet; to 
Freiburg 3 times daily in 2'Ai hrs. 

The train reaches the N. extremity of the lake near stat. Oal- 
mitz, Fr. Charmey (to the left is the extensive Aarberger Moos). 
Stations Kerzers, Frnschcls, and Kallnach. 

61 M. A art erg (1479'; Krone), an old town situated on a hill 
which is entirely surrounded by the Aare when swollen. The 
church is adjoined by the ancient palace of the counts of Aarberg, 
who sold their town to Bern in 1351. 

From Aarberg to Bern diligence daily in 3 hrs. via Frienisberg, once 
a Cistercian monastery, now a Deaf and Dumb asylum, Maikirch, and 
Orlschwaben. 

63 M. Lyss is the junction of the line to Bienne and Bern 
(p. 9). 

42. Neuchatel and the Chaumont. 

Hotels. * Bellevue, in an open situation on the lake, R. 3-4 fr., B. '/s, 
D. 4-5, L. 1, A. 1 fr. , omnibus 1 fr. ; ~Grani> Hotel du Mont Blanc, on 
the lake, R. from 2'/2, B. l>/ 2 , L. and A. l> ■, fr. ; Grand Hotel do Lac, 
near the lake , R. from 2, D. 31/2 , L. and A. l'/ 2 , omnibus »/« fr. ; "Hotel 
du Lac (with cafe), on the quay; Faucon, in the town, commercial; Ho- 
tel do Commerce, near the post-office; Hotel des Raisins, moderate. — 
Restaurant de la Balance; Cercle du Musee, in the Hotel Dupeyron (p. 171). 

Railway - Station high above the town to the N.E., l l /t M. from the 
steamboat-pier. Pedestrians should quit the hot, dusty road near the station, 
and descend to the lake by the shady walks to the left. — Omnibus to or 
from the station 30 c. , box (under 50 lbs.) 15 c. — Steamboat to Yvefdon 
see p. 177, to Morat see above. 

Swimming Baths at the harbour, bath 40 c. 

Wines. The wine of Neuchatel is much esteemed ; the best red wine 



NEUCHATEL. 42. Route. 171 

is grown at Cortaillod (p. 17S) and Derriere-Moulins, the best wMte between 
St. Blaise (p. 12) and Auvernier (p. 175), and at Bevaix (p. 179). Sparkling 
wine is also manufactured here. 

Watches. The manufacture of watches is the most important branch 
of industry in the canton, particularly at La Chaux-de-Fonds and Le Lode 
(R. 43), where many of the watches sold at Geneva are made. — Ladies' 
and gentlemen's watches (works warranted) may be purchased of Jean- 
jnquet <<• Co., in the Grand Hotel du Lac, Place du Pont, and of Rod. 
Schmid, Place de Puvy. 

The Principality of Xkioiiatel belonged to Burgundy down to the 
1 1th cent., when it was united to the German Empire. In 12SS it was ceded by 
the Emperor Rudolph of Hapsburg to John of Chalons, whose great-grandson 
John III. became Prince of Orange liy marriage. After the Chalons family 
had become extinct, the principality came inlo the possession of the Counts 
of Freiburg and Ilorlibei 'g. In 1503 il subsequently descended by marriage 
to the house of Orleans - Longuevillc , which also became extinct in H07. 
It was then adjudged by the estates to Frederick I. of Prussia, who was 
selected from among fifteen competitors as being descended on the mother's 
side from John III. of Orange, and it thus formed one of the possessions of 
the crown of Prussia for a century. In 1806 Napoleon, who had obtained pos- 
session of the principality, created Alexander Jlertliier, one of his marshals, 
Prince of Neuchatel, but eight years later it was restored to Prussia. 
The following year (1815) rJcuehfitcl, which as early as 1406 had been 
in close alliance with several Swiss towns, and had often fought on their 
side, formally joined the Confederacy as the 21st canton , though it still 
remained under Prussian protection. The bond which connected it with 
Prussia was finally dissolved by a treaty signed at Paris, 26th May, 1857. 

Neuchatel (1433'), the capital of the canton of that name, with 
13,321 inhab., is built on a somewhat steep slope of the Jura, ris- 
ing in the form of an amphitheatre, with the lake, 27 M. long, 
and 6 M. wide, at its base. The modern part of the town, with 
its handsome houses, grounds, and *quay nearly i /. i M. long, is sit- 
uated on the lake, on a strip of land formed by the deposit brought 
down by the Seyon from the Chasseral. In order to gain space 
for building purposes, a new channel was constructed for the 
Seyon above the town by means of a tunnel (Tunnel de la Trouee 
du Seyon, p. 175), 176 yds. in length. 

The Chateau, on an eminence, is the seat of the cantonal gov- 
ernment. Near it is the Temple du Haut, erected in the 12th 
century. The choir contains a handsome Gothic monument with 
15 life-size figures in stone, erected in 1372 by a Count of 
Neuchatel, and restored in 1840. There are also memorial stones 
to the Prussian Governor General von Zastrow (A. 1836), and the 
reformer Farel (d. 1565). 

The College, a large new edifice on the lake, contains a rich 
natural history collection founded by Professor Agassiz (comp. p. 
140; d. in America, 1873). 

In the vicinity, in the open square to the S., facing the 
lake, a bronze *Statue of David de Pury (d. 1786), a wealthy 
philanthropist and native of Neuchatel, who bequeathed 4y 2 million 
francs to the town, was erected in 1855. 

The *Picture Gallery in the Hulel Dupeyron ('Cercle du 
Muse'e', the former Palais Rongemont), in the N.E. suburb, consists 



172 Route 4 J. NEUCHATEL. 

chiefly of modern Swiss works , some of them of great merit. 
(Ailm. '/2 ft.; Sundays 1-4 gratis.) 

The Entrance Hall contains casts. — 1st Room. 18. K. Oirardet, Crom 
well reproached by his daughter Mrs. Claypole lor the condemnation of 
Charles I. ; 23. Grosclaude, the Doge Marino Falieri; 50. Robert, The basilica 
of S. Paolo fuori le Mura near Rome, after the fire of 1823; "Neapolitan 
fishermen, by the same; : 16. Oirardet, A Huguenot assembly surprised by 
Rom. Cath. soldiery; 12. I'alame (d. 1864), Kosenlaui Glacier; 22. Gi- 
ro rdet, The good-for-nothing; 37. Meuron , Pastures between Iseltwald 
and the Faulhorn ; 33. Jecktiu , Lake of Wallenstadt. — 2nd Room 
(right). Over the door: 8. Bertliout, Young Savoyard; 24. Grosclatide, 
'Vive le vin de 1834!'; 19. Oirardet, A Father's blessing; Leopold Robert, 
Roman oxen; 56. Txchaijijeitu , Mother and child pursued by a bull; 
'57. Tsehagijemj , Flemish bridal procession of the 17th cent.; 40. Morilz, 
Henry II. of Longuevillc in the castle of Colomhier; 32. M. de Meuron, 
View of Rome from the palace of the emperors, with the palace itself and 
the Baths of Caracalla; ,:i,;, 13. Calame, Monte Rosa. — 3rd Room. Portraits 
of Prussian regents and generals; Marie d'Orleans in her 4th year, and 
at a later age ; Henry II. of Orleans. — 4th Room. Drawings and water- 
colours. 

The adjacent building contains the *Musee Challande, formerly 
at Bern, an interesting collection of stuffed Alpine animals. 

The new Observatory , erected for the benefit of the watch- 
manufacturers, is in telegraphic communication with La Chaux-de- 
Fonds and Le Locle (p. 174). 

The Charitable Institutions of Neuchatel are in high repute. 
The most important are the Municipal Hospital, founded by David 
de Pury, the Pourtal'es Hospital, near the Bern gate , and the 
Prefargiers Lunatic Asylum, 3 M. from Neuchatel, erected by 
M. de Meuron in 1844 at a cost of l'/2 million ft., and pre- 
sented to the canton. 

The Chaumont (3845'), a spur of the Jura chain, rising to the N. of 
the town, commands the most beautiful view in the vicinity of Neuchatel, 
embracing the lakes of Neuchatel, Morat, and Bienne, the towns of Soleure, 
Bern, Freiburg, and the fertile hill-country lying between them, with the 
entire Alpine chain from the Sentis to Mont Blanc in the background. 
The afternoon light is the most favourable, but a perfectly clear horizon 
is unfortunately rare. Hotel du C/iaumout, 1/4 hr. below the summit. The 
footpath diverges from the Chaux-de-Fonds road I 1 , 4 M. from Neuchatel, 
and leads to the summit in i'/a hr. ; the carriage-road diverges lVi M. farther 
on, leading to the s ummit in 2 hrs. Char-a-bancs there and back 10 fr. 

43. From Neuchatel to Le Locle by La Chaux-de- 
Fonds, and by St. Imier to Bienne. 

Railway (Jura <(■ Rem IJne) from Neuchatel to (21 M.) Le Locle by 
La Chaux-de-Fonds in 2'/ 4 hrs.; fares 5 fr. 70, '( fr. 10, 3 fr. 20 c. From 
l.es Conver,-. to (27 M.) ISienne l>v St. Imier in 1 3 ,4 hr. ; fares 4 fr. 50, 
3 fr. 15, 2 fr. 25 c. 

The railway -journey from Neuchatel to stat. Hauts Ceneveys ( 1701V 
above the lake of Neuchatel) is very pleasant in clear weather, as it 
commands beautiful views of the lake, the Bernese Alps, and Mont Blanc. 
The traveller should secure a seat on the left (S. E.) side. — The journey 
round the Chasseral , through the peculiar scenery of the Val St. Imier, 
is also interesting, particularly towards the end. 

Neuchatel station, see p. 170. The train skirts the heights 



LA CHAUX-DE-FONDS. 43. Route. 1 73 

behind the town and the castle, running for some distance parallel 
to the Pontarlier and Lausanne lines. To the left, below, is the 
Tunnel de la Trouee du Seyon (p. 177). The train crosses the 
Seyon and passes through a tunnel, 660 yds. long, immediately 
above the two viaducts (p. 175) over the gorge of Serrieres. Beyond 
it, a beautiful *view of the lake and the Alps is gradually disclosed, 
the Bernese Alps to the E., and Mont Blanc, towering above the 
Alps to the S., being the most conspicuous mountains. First stat. 
Corcelles; the village (1879', p. 174) lies to the right, higher up. 

7 M. Chambrelien (a village lying to the N.E. , nearly above 
the last tunnel) occupies a very curious situation. To the S., 
almost perpendicularly below it , runs the Pontarlier line (at a 
horizontal distance of about 250 yds.) through the valley of the 
Reuse (p. 176). Fine view near the refreshment-room. This 
station is a terminus , out of which the train is backed . The 
view, however, still continues on the same side, as the train 
now proceeds nearly in the opposite direction. It then skirts a 
wooded eminence; to the right is the green and fertile Veil de Ruz, 
3 M. wide, with its numerous villages; beyond it, to the E., 
the Chaumont (3845', p. 172). 

10'/ 2 M. Les Geneveys-sur-Coffrane (2870'). Before reaching 
(12y 2 M.) Les Hauts-Geneveys (3136'; Hotel Renaud) the train 
crosses the road from Neuchatel to La Chaux-de-Fonds , on the 
S.E. side of the Tete de Rang (4668'). 

The road from Neuchatel to La Chaux-de-Fonds, which passes through 
Valangin (.2443'), or Vallengin (Couronne), in the valley (if the Seyoti t 
traverses the Val de Ruz , and leads by Boudevillers (2487') to Les Hauts- 
Geneveys, then ascends to the N.W. for 4'/'i M. by steep zigzags to the -Col 
des Loges (4219' ; "Hotel « la Vue des Alpes) , which commands an exten- 
sive view of the Vosges , the Jura , and the entire Alpine chain as far as 
Mont Blanc. The descent to La Chaux-de-Fonds is a drive of I hr. 

The Hauts-Geneveys station, the highest point of view 
on the line, commands an imposing prospect of Mont Blanc. 
The train shortly after enters a tunnel, l 3 / 4 M. in length 
(7 min.) under the Col des Loges. 16 M. Convers (Inn) , at the 
end of the tunnel, stands amidst wild scenery, surrounded on the 
N. by almost perpendicular rocks, through a small opening in which 
the road leads to the unimportant village of Les Convers, 1 M. 
distant (railway to St. lmier and Bienne, see p. 174). The train 
then passes through a tunnel, s /^ M. long (3 min.), under Mont 
Sagne, and through another near — 

18'/. 2 M. La Chaux-de-Fonds (3254'; *Fleur de Lys, adjoining 
the post-office, R. 2!/ 2 , B. 1 fr.; Quillaume Tell; Balance; Lion 
d'Or). The traveller will be surprised to find in this remote and 
sterile Alpine valley, situated as high as the top of Snowdon, and 
imperfectly supplied with water, an important town with handsome 
houses, containing 19,930 inhab. , whose skill and industry enable 
them to defy the rigours of a climate in which corn only ripens in 
the warmest summers. The division of labour is here carried out 



174 Route 43. LE LOCLE. 

to its fullest extent, each portion of the mechanism of the watch 
being confided to a separate class of workmen , while another class 
is employed in giving the finishing touches to the completed work. 
The watchmakers are almost exclusively natives of the canton, 
whilst the other artizans come from other districts, chiefly 
from German Switzerland. The hotels are chiefly frequented 
by commercial travellers, and several firms at Hamburg, Trieste, 
etc. have agents constantly resident in the town. 

The traveller detained here may visit the Church with its 
artistically vaulted ceiling, and the subterranean Mills. At the N.W. 
end of the town is the spacious School-House, near which many 
ofher handsome edifices have recently sprung up. 

Near La Chaiix-de-Fonds the railway makes a sharp bend to- 
wards the S.W., and traverses a monotonous green Alpine valley 
(stat. Eplatures, halfway) to — 

231/2 M. Le Locle (3021' ; Hotel du Jura; Trois Rois~), a town 
similar in character to the last , which was entirely burned down 
a few years ago , but has since been re-erected, with 10,333 inhab. 
(1015 Rom. Cath.), most of whom are watchmakers. 

The 'Koche Fendue , 2 M. to the W. of Locle on the French frontier, 
is a cutting in the rock , begun in 1799, and lately completed , by which 
the road from Locle to* Besancon effects a saving of 6 M., and avoids 
the steep ascent of Les Brenels "(see below). A visit may be paid to the 
neighbouring subterranean Mills of Gul des Roches (Inn) , situated one 
above another in the face of a perpendicular precipice, and worked by 
the water of the Bied, which descends from a height of 100', working 
each mill in succession. (Inspection of the mills 1 fr., of no great inter- 
est.) On the road to the Eoche Fendue stands Les Billodes, a school for 
poor children. 

The Saut du Doubs, a picturesque waterfall, 80' high (several inns), 
41/2 M. to the N. W. of Le Locle , also deserves a visit (1 hr. by char-a- 
bancs, 5 fr.). It is best seen from the French side. The route leads to 
Les Brenels ( ,i: Couronne; 'Linn d'Or), 3 M. to the W. of Le Locle (omnibus 
at the station; one-horse carr. there and back 7fr.), and we are conveyed 
thence to the waterfall by a steamboat. Above the waterfall the river 
expands, resembling a lake (Lac des Brenels); below, it flows for 6 M. 
through a rocky gorge 1000' in depth, forming the frontier between France 
and Switzerland. The pedestrian may here enjoy a charming variety 
of rock and river scenery, and also lower down, as far as Goumois and 
Ste. Ursanne (p. 7). 

From Le Locle to Neucti.vtel bt Les Fonts, diligence daily in 4 hrs. 
(4 fr. 25 c.). The road traverses a monotonous valley (to the rij;ht La 
Chaux-du- Milieu), and descends to (P/ 4 M.) Les Fonts (3389'; HUel de la 
Lot/ante, moderate) , where the road crosses the Sagne valley. From Let 
Petits I'onls a road runs to the S.W. into the valley of Travers, which it 
reaches between the railway-stations of Noiraigue and Travers (p. 176). 
Near La Tourne (3710'; -Inn) the road reaches the crest of the mountain 
(view) , and then descends to Monlmollin, where it crosses the line from 
Ncuehatel to Chaux-de-Fonds (p. 173). It next leads to Corcelles (1883'; 
p. 173), 1'eseu.r, and lastly to (l'J'/a M.) Neuchatel (p. 170). 



Kkom Oonveks to Biknnk. The Yallon de St. Imier, 18 M. 
in length, is wild and sterile, but picturesque in its upper region, 
while in its lower part it is a broad and pleasant grassy dalel 
Watch-manufactories abound here. 



AUVERNIER, U. Route. 175 

Stat. Convers, see p. 173. The train runs through woods and 
rooky scenery , past the village of Les Convers , to stat. Renan 
(2940'") , a considerable village (1939 inhab.) on the left bank of 
the ,Suze (or Sclieuns'), which rises l»/ 2 M. to the S.W. — Stat. 
Sonvillier (2522 inhab. '), lying in a green basin, is another thriving 
place. Beyond it, on a pine-clad rock to the right, is the picturesque 
ruined chateau of Erguel. 

9 M. St. Imier (2671'; *Couronne; Maison de Ville), the 
capital of the valley (5714 inhab.) , the chief centre of the watch 
trade, possesses two churches, handsome streets, and good shops. 
Ascent of the Chasseral (p. 12), 2'/ 2 -3 hrs. (guide advisable). 

Near stat. Yilltret (2 128') a brook is precipitated from a deep 
gorge descending from the Chasseral. The valley expands, and 
cultivated land and cattle begin to appear. Near stat. Courtelary 
(2290'; Sauvage; Ours J, the seat of the Amtmaun or prefect of 
the valley (1233 inhab. ), with a chateau, the train crosses the 
Suze, and recrosses it beyond Corte'bert. The village of Corgemont 
(p. 8) remains on the left, and the line soon unites with the 
Tavannes and Souceboz railway. 

18 AI. Sonceboz, and thence to (27 M.) Bienne, see p. 8. 

44. From Neuchatel to Pontarlier through the Val 
de Travers. 

33 M. Railway ('Franco- Suisse') in 2-2 3 /i hrs.; fares G fr. 10, 4 fr. 70, 
3 fr. 55 c. (comp. Introd. X). — This is the direct route from \V . Switzer- 
land to Paris, by Dole, Auxonne, Dijon, etc. 

This Jura-railway (comp. p. 172) is another very interesting line, tra- 
versing a heautiful country for a considerable distance. A seat should be 
selected on the left IS. E.) side. The most interesting parts of the line 
are between NciKluitel and Noiraigue , between Boveresse and the last 
tunnel above St. Sulpice, and between St. Pierre de la Cluse and Pontarlier. 
The other parts of the line traverse green valleys, overshadowed by the 
fir-clad mountains of the Jura range. 

The Pontarlier line, running parallel with that to Yverdon 
("p. 176) as far as stat. Auvernier, crosses the Seyon, and passes 
through a short tunnel under the high-road to the Val de Tra- 
vers and Le Locle. Beyond the tunnel we enjoy a beautiful *view 
of the lake and the Alps (comp. p. 173). The train traverses vine- 
clad slopes at a considerable height, and crosses the Gorge of 
Serrieres by a lofty viaduct. Above the latter stands the small 
castle of Beauregard. 

The train now descends to stat. Auvernier (1479' ; Hotel du 
Lac, moderate, 1'^ M. from the hydropathic establishment of 
Chanelaz , pension 6-8 fr.), where the Yverdon railway (p. 178) 
diverges to the left; then, again ascending, it commands an ad- 
mirable view of the lake and the Alps. At the entrance to the 
wooded ravine of the Reuse (the left bank of which the line follows 
through the Val de Travers to its source near St. Sulpice, see below), 
the lofty viaduct of the Yverdon line is visible far below to the left. 



176 Route 44. FLEURIER. 

The last glimpse of the lake down this romantic valley is particularly 
picturesque. The train then enters a tunnel, high on the N. slope 
of the valley, with the little river below to the left, almost under 
the station of Chamhrelien (p. 173) on the Neuchatel and Chaux- 
de-Fonds line. After passing through four more tunnels, we reach 
(12 M.) stat. Noiraigue (2359'), at the N. base of the Creux du 
Vent (see below). The valley, which from this point to St. Sulpice 
is called Val de Travers , now suddenly changes its character, and 
the Keuse flows between comparatively level meadows. 

Pedestrians may ascend the Creux du Vent (4806') in 2 hrs. by a 
steep path from Noiraigue, and descend to Boudry or SI. Aubiu (p. 178). 
The view is far more striking when the ascent is made from this side 
than from the lake. 

The line now traverses level meadow-land , with the wooded 
heights of the Jura on either side. Along the hill-side to the right 
the road to Le Locle by Les Ponts winds upwards (comp. p. 174); 
the road through the Val de Travers to Neuchatel has already been 
visible from above Noiraigue. 14 AT. Stat. Travers (2392') and 
near it a tunnel. On the opposite side of the valley, near (16 ' •_> .M. ) 
Couvet (2418'), a picturesque little town, are mines of asphalt. 
Here, and at Motiers (see below), excellent absynthe is manu- 
factured. Diligence to Motiers twice daily ; to Le Locle, see p. 174. 

The line again ascends the N. slope of the valley. Far below, on 
the opposite side, lies Motiers (-Travers) (2415'), where Rousseau 
spent some time by permission of the Prussian governor Lord 
Keith, after his expulsion from Yverdon by the government of Bern, 
and wrote his 'Lettres de la Montague'. 

The lofty stat. Boveresse is situated below, to the N.W. of the 
village of that name. In the valley, farther on, lies Fleurier 
(2454'; Couronne) , with extensive watch-manufactories. The train 
passes through a long tunnel, beyond which St. Sulpice (2557') lies 
below to the left. The scenery is again extremely picturesque. In 
the defile of La Chuine , the Reuse , which probably flows by a 
subterranean course from the Lac des Taillires 4l/ 2 M. to the N.E., 
rises in the form of a considerable stream. 

The line here attains its highest point; beyond the last tunnel 
it enters a level green valley. At (25 .VI.) Verrieres (Les Verritre) 
Suisses, 3061'), the last Swiss village, the French army of the 
East under Hourbaki crossed the frontier in Feb., 1S71. The line 
crosses the French frontier before Les Verrieres de Joux, or \'errihrt» 
J'mncaises (3015'). Near St. Pierre de La Cluse the scenery again 
becomes interesting. The defile of T.a Cluse, which both the rail- 
way and the high-road traverse, is fortified; on the left rises the 
ancient Fort de Joux , which was destroyed by an explosion of 
dynamite in 1S77, overtopped by a new fort on a rock to the right. 
Mirabeau was imprisoned here in 1775 through the influence of his 
lather; and the negro chieftain Tonssaint l'Ouverture of Hayti died 
i lithe Fort de loux, where he had been confined l>y order of Napoleon. 



ESTAVAYER. 45. Route. 177 

The line crosses the Doubs, which emerges from a valley to 
the left, and drains the Lake of St. Point, 3% M. to the S.W. 
and skirts its left bank as far as Pontarlier. Scenery pictu- 
resque. 

33 M. Pontarlier (2854'; Hotel de la Poste, R. 2, B. l'/ 4 , D. 
3 l /-2, L- and A. 3 /' 4 fr. ; Hotel National; Croix Blanche), a small 
French town on the Doubs. On arriving, passengers' luggage is 
examined at the station. Opposite the station are the College and 
the Telegraph Office. The large building with a turret, to the 
right as the station is approached, is the Hospital. 

45. From Neuchatel to Lausanne and Geneva, 
Lake of Neuchatel. 

85 M. Westkkk Railway. To Lausanne 2-21/2, to Geneva 2 3 /t-5 
lirs. ; fares to Lausanne 8 fr. 20, 5 fr. 95, 4 fr. 35 c, to Geneva 13 fr. 40, 
9 fr. 50, 6 fr. 95 c. (eomp. Introd. x). Some of the trains (express) go to 
Lausanne, others to Morges ; the former correspond with the trains from 
Lausanne to Geneva, the lalter with those from Morges to Geneva and 
Lausanne. — The Steamboat on the Lake of Neuchatel plies between 
Neuchatel and Morat (in 2 hrs., fare 2 or 1V 2 fr.), and between Neuchatel 
and Estavayer only (in l'/s hr., fare 2 or i'/a fr.). 

The Steamboat on the Lake of Geneva from Lausanne (Ouchy) or 
Morges to Geneva (in 3 and 2"j hrs. respectively) is far preferable to the 
railway, affording a more complete survey of the beautiful scenery. — The 
railway from Yverdon to Bussigny (where Mont Blanc and the mountains 
of Savoy first become visible) is uninteresting. Between Neuchatel and 
Geneva a seat on the left should be selected (between Bussigny and 
Lausanne on the right). 

The Lake of Neuchatel ( 1427'), the Lacus Eburodunensis of 
the Romans, is far inferior to the lakes of the higher Alps; but 
the N. bank, with its vine-clad slopes, overtopped by the pre- 
cipitous Jura Mts., commands an admirable survey of the Alpine 
chain from the Bernese Oberland to Mont Blanc. The lake is 
24 M. in length, and 5 M. in width at its broadest part between 
Auvernier and Port Alban, where it also attains its greatest depth 
(500'). It lies 3 '/ 2 inches lower than the lake of Morat, and 3 ft. 
higher than that of Bienne. 

At the N. end of the lake is St. Blaise, V/ 2 M - to the E. of 
which the Thiile issues from it ; in the background rises the Joli- 
mont (p. 12). About 3 M. farther S.E. is the influx of the Broye 
(p. 170). The next steamboat-stations are Cudrefin and — 

Estavayer (1538'; Maison de Ville; Cerf), a small town of 
some importance , with the architecturally interesting chateau of 
Chilnaux. The following stations on the S.E. bank are Font and 
Cheires; on the opposite side Concise and Corcelles, see p. 179. 
On a promontory extending far into the lake, lies Yvonand, where 
Roman mosaic pavements have been found, one of which is pre- 
served in the Museum at Yverdon. At the end of the promontory 
the Merdue falls into the lake. 

Yverdon ("1433'; *Ilf>tel de Londres. R. 2, B. l'/ 2 fr. ; *Crnix 

BakpEKKK, Su itYiii'liiiul Till Kilitiitn. J v> 



178 Route 45. COLOMBIKH. From Neuchatel 

Federate'), with 5889 inhab. (561 Roin. Oath.), the Roman Ebu- 
rodunum, situated at the 8. end of the Lake of Neuchatel, at the 
influx of the Toile, or Thiele, affords several picturesque walks and 
fine views. This town was for twenty years ( 1805-25) the scene 
of the labours of the philanthropic Pestalozzi. 

This truly practical philosopher, a native of Ziirich, first devoted 
himself to theology and jurisprudence, but soon abandoned these pursuits, 
and interested himself exclusively in ameliorating the condition of the 
lowest classes. His method of teaching consists in directly addressing the 
youthful sensations and conceptions, and constantly calling all the powers 
of the child into exercise. His exertions were not attended with the 
success they merited during his lifetime; but his method has since been 
extensively adopted, and its advantages are now thoroughly appreciated. 

The ancient Castle, where Pestalozzi's school was established, 
erected by Conrad of Zahringen in 1135, now contains the public 
schools, the Town Library, and a Museum with numerous objects 
from the ancient Swiss lake-villages, and Roman and other antiqui- 
ties. Near the town there is a Sulphur-Bath (Hotel and Pension), 
adjoining which is the Pension la Prairie, with extensive grounds. 

The Chasseron (5285'), which rises from the Jura range to the X.W. of 
Yverdon, deserves a visit for the sake of the line view from its summit. 
Diligence twice daily in 3>/4 hrs. to Ste. Croix (2 hrs. from the top), a 
place noted for the manufacture of musical boxes, of which upwards of 
50,000 are exported annually. — The Aiguille de Bemilmes (5128') and the 
Mont Suchel (5236') are also "fine points of view , which may be ascended 
in 3'/2-4 hrs. 

The Railway from Neuchatel to the first stat. Auvernier 
has been described at p. 175. The line here quits the lake 
(the Pontarlier branch diverges to the right), to which it returns 
beyond Bevaix (see below). 5 M. Colombier (1510'; Maison de 
Ville) produces one of the most esteemed Neuchatel white wines 
(p. 171). Some interesting remains of Roman buildings have re- 
cently been discovered in the neighbourhood. Beyond the village, 
on the bank of the lake, lies the manufactory of Le Pied. Beyond 
the station for Boudry (6>/ 4 M.), the train crosses the deep valley 
of the Reuse (p. 176), which to the left, near Cortaillod, falls into 
the lake. The best red wine in the canton is produced here. Near 
the village of Troisrods (1092'), immediately above the station 
and below the Pontarlier line, is a large stalactite grotto. The little 
town of Boudry (1542'; Maison de Ville), the birthplace of Marat, 
lies on the right bank of the Reuse, 1 M. to the left of the line. 

The Creux flu Vent (4807't, rising to the YV., is frequently ascended from 
Iioudry in 3 hrs. ( conip. p. 176 ). The summit is in the form of a basin, 
500' in depth, shaped like a horse-shoe, and nearly 3 M. in circumference. 
AVhen the weather is about to change, this crater-like basin is filled with 
surging clouds of white vapour, which rise and fall like the steam in a 
boiling cauldron, but do not quit the hollow. The phenomenon seldom 
lasts above an hour. A gun-shot produces a rattling echo, resembling that 
of ;i volley of musketry. The current 'it' air which prevails in this l hollow 
of the wind', is frequently so violent as to force back objects of considerable 
weight thrown from the hrink. The rare plants and minerals found here 
arc a source of attraction to the scicntilic. 



to Geneva. GRANDSON. 45. Route. 179 

Beyond (9 M.) Bevaix (1568') the line re-approaches the lake, 
and follows its bank to Yverdon. The Creux du Vent may also he 
ascended from the next stat. Gorgier-St. Aubin (1555'). Oppos- 
ite, on the S.E. bank, lies the little town of Estavayer (p. 177). 
Next stat. Vaumarcus , with the well-preserved castle of that name 
on the hill to the right. Farther on, to the right, is La Lance, 
formerly a Carthusian monastery, now a chateau and park of Count 
Pourtales. At (16'/ 4 M.) Concise (1453' ; Ecu de France), where 
the line crosses part of the lake on an embankment, a number of 
ancient flint axes, saws, chisels, and other relics of the lake-villages 
('Pfahlbauten') were found in the lake in 1811. Near Corcelles, 
which lies to the right on the high road, a little farther on, rise 
three rude blocks of granite, 5 to 8' in height, placed in the form 
of a triangle, but not visible from the line. According to some 
authorities they were erected by the Swiss in commemoration ot 
the battle of Grandson which was fought in the vicinity , but 
they are more probably of Celtic origin. 

Battle of Grandson. When Charles the Bold of Burgundy had gained 
possession of the castle of Grandson by treachery , and , contrary to 
the stipulation, put the Swiss garrison to death, he abandoned his secure 
position at Grandson, and seized the castle of Vaumarcus , which com- 
mands the road. Here, on 3rd March, 1476, he was surprised and signally 
defeated by the Swiss, justly infuriated by his cruel breach of faith. An 
enormous booty, valued at upwards of 250,000^. sterl., fell into the hands 
of the victors, together with numerous trophies now distributed among 
the various arsenals of the Confederation. Among the treasures were two 
diamonds of almost incalculable value from the crown-jewels , one of 
which now adorns the French, the other the papal crown. 

The bank of the lake here is flat. Stat. Onnens-Bonvillars lies 
to the rishtj, above the line. Beyond (21^ M.) Grandson (Lion 
d'Or; Croix Rouge) the line skirts the bank of the lake, and passes 
through the precincts of a picturesque old Chateau with ivy-clad 
towers , containing a small collection of antiquities and natural 
history specimens. The ancient Church, the pillars of which 
have quaint capitals, once belonged to a Benedictine abbey. 
The feudal proprietors of the castle were among the most power- 
ful in Switzerland as early as the 9th cent. 

The train skirts the S.W. end of the lake, crosses the Thiele, 
and enters the station of Yverdon which lies on the lake. 

24 M. Yverdon, see p. 177. — Branch-line to Payerne and 
Freiburg, p. 1(36. 

The train now quits the Lake of Ncuchatel , and enters the 
broad valley of the Toile, or Thiele, which is formed by the con- 
fluence of the Orbe (p. 181) and Talent, near stat. Ependes. To the 
W. rises the loug chain of the Jura: the Aiguille de Beaulmes and 
Mont Sachet (p. 178) , and between them in the distance the Mont 
d'Or, Dent de Vaulion(j>. 182), and Mont Tendre. Beyond stations 
Vharomay - Orbe (p. 181), Eclepens-la-Sarraz, and (38 M.) 
Cossonay (Hotel d'Angleterre), a small town on the hill, beautifully 
situated in wood , the train enters the picturesque, wooded valley 

12* 



180 Route 4f>. NYON. 

of the Venoge , which is connected with the Toile by a canal. 
(Railway from Cossonay to Vallorbe, see R. 46. J 

Where the valley expands , a distant prospect of the long 
chain of the mountains of Savoy is obtained. Beyond (43 M.) Bus- 
signy a branch-line diverges to the right to Morges (see below"). 
Stat. Renens and — 

47 J / 2 M. Lausanne, see p. 197. — Steamboat from Lausanne 
(Ouchy) to Geneva, see p. 194. 

Railway to Geneva. The train from Lausanne to Geneva 
returns by stat. Renens. Near (5572 M.) Morges (p. 197), where 
it approaches the Lake of Geneva , a glimpse is obtained in clear 
weather of the snow-fields of Montblanc. The station of Morges is 
nearly l /-> M. from the steamboat quay (p. 197). In the distance to 
the N.W., above the valley of the Morges, which is here crossed, 
rises the chateau of Vufflens (p. 197). Stat. St. Prex, the next 
village, lies to the left, on a promontory extending into the lake. 
Aubonne- Allaman is the station (omnibus 40 c.) for Aubonne, sit- 
uated on the hill, li/ 2 M. to the N. As (65 M.) Rolle (p. 1%) 
is approached, the Signal de Bougy (p. 196), a celebrated point 
of view , rises to the right. The district between the Aubonne 
and the Promenthouse, which the line crosses beyond stat. Gland, 
is called La Cote, and is noted for its white wine, one of the best 
in Switzerland. 

Near (72 M.) Nyon (p. 195) the train skirts Prangins with its 
chateau, and again approaches the lake. To the right rises the 
Dole (5505'; p. 196). Stations Celigny , Coppet, and Yersoix 
(p. 195). The narrowest part of the lake is at stat. Oenthod-Bellevue 
(comp. p. 194). Chambesy, the last station before Geneva, is only 
IV2 M. from the French frontier. On the opposite bank the wooded 
hills and picturesque villas in the environs of Geneva become 
visible, and above them, in clear weather, Mont Blanc and the 
Savoy range. The station at Geneva occupies a lofty position on 
the right bank of the Rhone, at the end of the Rue du Mont- 
blanc, which leads direct to the lake. 

<% M. Geneva, see p. 1S'2. 

The traveller bound for Germany via Xeuchatel, if already acquainted 
with the above route, may vary the journey by proceeding from Rolle 
(p. 190) by Burtigny and Longirod to St. Georges (3067'), where the roads 
from Kyun, Rolle, and Aubonne unite, situated at the foot of the Col de Mar- 
cheiruz, M M. to theN.W. of Rolle. A good road ascends thence to the (4 31.) 
Asile de Mareheivut (4757'), and descends to (5 31.) Le Brassus (3412'; 'Hotel 
de la Lande; 'Hotel de France). The ascent from .St. Georges to the Col 
affords a succession of magnificent views of the Lake of Geneva and the 
Rhone Valley, and the descent to I.e Brassus commands the Lac de Jon\ 
and the Dent de Yaulion. 

From Le Brassus a road leads on (he W. bank of the Lac tie Jour to 
I.e Lieu and (9 31.) Le Pont (p. 18'J ; diligence between Le Brassus and Le 
font twice daily in '2 hrs. ; one horse can-. 10 ft-.). It is, however, pre- 
ferable to perform this journey by water, from /..< Rentier, a village at 
the S.W. end of the lake, 2 jl. from Le Brassus (in '2 his , boat with 
one lower j IV. I. I'Voni Le Pont to Vallorbe and L'ossonav, see below. 



181 

46. From Cossonay to Vallorbe. Lac de Joux. 
Dent de Vaulion. 

IO'/vj M. Railway (Ligne de Jougne) from Cossonay to Vallorhe in 
l'/a hr. (lares 3 fr. 50, 2 fr. 45, 1 fr. 75 c). From Romainmotier by Vau- 
lion to the summit of the Dent de Vaulion 3 hrs. ; descent to Le Pont 

1 hr. ; from Le Pont to the source of the Orbe and Vallorbe I1/2 hr. 
(a pleasant excursion). Travellers bound for the Lake of Geneva may 
proceed on the second day by Le Brassus and the Col de Marcheiruz to 
Rolle (p. 180). Diligence between Le Pont and Le Brassus twice daily in 

2 hrs. (see above). 

Cossonay, see p. 179. The line runs parallel with the Yver- 
don line for a short distance, diverges to the left at Villars-Lussery, 
and leads by Eclepens to (5M.) La Sarraz (1647'; Maison de Ville), 
a handsome village with an old chateau. Near Orny (on the right) 
wc cross the Nozon, a tributary of the Toile. About 8/4 M. to the N. 
of (8M.) stat. Arnex-Orbe (1791') lies the picturesquely situated old 
town of Orbe (1483'; Deux Poissons), with 1843 inhab. (76 Roin. 
Cath.), on the Orbe, which is crossed here by two bridges. Early 
ill the middle ages Orbe was the capital of Little Burgundy , to 
which period the two towers of the chateau (view from the terrace) 
and a mosaic pavement discovered near the town belong. The 
first orthopedic establishment in Europe was founded here by 
Vcnel towards the close of the last century. — Post-omnibus to 
stat. Chavornay (p. 179) six times daily in ^2 nr - 

The line then leads in long windings by Bofflens to (12 M.) 
stat. Croy-Romainmotier, 1^2 M. from Romainmotier (2296'; Cou- 
ronne), a very ancient place, in the half-ruined abbey chuTch of 
which (founded in 753) the nuptials of Margaret of Austria and 
PMlibert, Duke of Savoy, were celebrated in 1501. She had already 
been affianced to Louis , Dauphin of France , and to the Infanta 
of Spain, to which circumstance she jestingly alludes in an epitapli 
she composed on herself during a stormy passage to Spain ('Ci git 
Margot la gente damoiselle qu'eut deux maris et se mourut pucelW). 

Fjtoji Romainmotier to Le Pont (9 M.). The road leads by(4'/-iM.) 
Vatilion, from which the Dent de Vaulion (see below) is ascended without 
difficulty in IV2 hr. Le Pont (see below) is 3 M. farther. 

Beyond stat. Croy the train skirts wooded hills, commanding 
picturesque views of the deep valley of the Orbe to the right, high 
on the left bank of which lie the villages of Lignerolles and Bal- 
laigues. Near Vallorbe the line crosses the Orbe above .the in- 
flux of the Jougnenaz. 

19'/2 M. Vallorbe (2520'; Hotel de Geneve at the station, new; 
Maison de Ville, in the town), a considerable watch-making place 
at the base of the Mont d'Or. 

The Jougne Line proceeds by Hopitavx-Jougne , the French frontier 
station (custom-house), and Frmnbourg to (16 M.) Pontarlier (p. 177). 

The road from Vallorbe to (I 1 /* M.) Le Pont ascends the W. 
slope of the Dent de Vaulion to the (3 M.) top of the pass 
(3344'), whence the summit of the Dent maybe reached after a 
steep ascent of 1 hr. through woods and pastures. From this road, 



182 Route 47. GENEVA. Hotels. 

about 1 M. from Vallorbe, a path to the right leads in 1/4 hr. to 
the so-called Source of the Orbe (25(39'), which issues from the 
rocks in considerable volume , and is doubtless the subterranean 
discharge of the Lac de Joux (see below). From the top of the pass 
the road then descends to (IV2 M.) — 

Le Pont (*Truite), a small village at the N. end of the Lac de 
Joux (3310'), which is 6 M. long, l 1 /? M. wide, and is separated 
from the little Lac Brenet by an embankment with a bridge, whence 
the village has its name. On the N. side of the Lac Brenet are a 
number of apertures (entonnoirs) in the rocks, serving to drain the 
lake, the waters of which, after a subterranean course of 3 M., form 
the source of the Orbe (see above), 750' lower. 

Le Pont lies on the S. slope of the *Dent de Vaulion (4S7f>'). 
the W. side of which presents a barren and rugged precipice, 
1000' high, while the E. side is a gentle, grassy slope. The 
summit is reached in 13/ 4 hr. from Le Pont, and in Vj-> hr. from 
Vaulion (guide desirable). The view embraces the Lac <le Joux. 
the Lac des Rousses, the Noirmont, and the Dole; to the S.E. a 
considerable part of the Lake of Geneva, and beyond it Mont 
Blanc and the Alps of the Valais ; and lastly the Bernese Oberland. 

On the E. bank of the Lac de Joux, about 1 M. to the S. of I.e V.>nt, 
lies L ' Abbaye (Inn), with an old church and a suppressed Premonstraten 
sian monastery. The "Mont Tendre (5512 1 ), a fine point of view, may he 
ascended thence in 2 hrs. 

From Le Pont to Le Brass-its and over the Col de ilarelieiruz to Itolle, 
see p. 180; to Les Rmisses, see p. 196. 

47. Geneva. 

Fr. Geneve, Ger. Genf, Ital. Ginevra. 

Hotels. On the Left Bank: "Hotel de i.a Metrocoi.e (PI. a), opposite 
the Jardin du Lac, B. facing the lake 4, B. 1> 2 , D. at 1, 5, and 7.3(1 
o'clock 5, L. and A. 2, pension 8 fr. ; "Ecu de Geneve (PI. fl, It. 3, U. 
5, L. and A. P/., fr. ; "Coukonne (PI. g), It. 2V2-3 fr., B. IV2, 1). 34, I,. 
and A. 2 fr. ; these three large establishments command a view of the 
lake. — -Hotel du Lac (PL i) ; "Hotel de Pakis (PL k), with view of 
the lake; "Hotel Garni de la Poste (PL h), R. 3, B. 1 >■'•.>, 1>. 3>'-.-i, L. 
and A. l>/a fr. ; Balance (PL o). — Grand Aigli; (PL p), B. and L. 2'/- fr. ; 
Lion u'Oii (PL q), small, both in the Rue du Rhone. 

The hotels on the Right Bank of the Rhone (those on the Quays com- 
mand a view of the Alps) are sheltered in winter from the 'ISise' (N. wind). 
"Hotel des Bekgues (PL b), opposite Rousseau's island; Hotel de 
ItcssiE (PL c), elegantly fitted up, in the building which was formerly the 
Palais Fazy, tjuai du Montblanc, It. from 3, B. I1/2, 1>. 5-7, L. and A. 
2 fr. ; Hotel de la Paix (PL e), (,juai du Montblanc; Hotel Beau Ri- 
vage (PL d) and Hotel p'Angleteeke, on the ljuai des Paquis; at these 
three, It. from 3, B. 1 ','■-', D. 5, L. and A. 2 fr. — "Hotel National, 
higher up, a large new house, well situated. — Hotel .Suisse (PL 111), 
'Hotel Victoria (PI. 1), and 'Hotel de Geneve (PL n) in the Rue du Mont- 
blanc; Hotel iocs iJimtke Saisons, Hue des Alpes; Hotel du Boulevard 
I PI. rl; Hotel de la Uaiik (PL s); these five less expensive, and all near 
the station. 

Pensions Alimentaires, very numerous owing to the great inllux of 
strangers; 85 to 31X) fr. per month, b'or families and single persons: Mmf- 
Huscarlet (200-250 fr.). Ouai du Montblanc 9: iinrrt |2<I0 IV. 1. Avenue des 




EgKses : 
YL.Jnglazse . 

12. Cathedrale S? Pierre 

13 . des £mtx- Ycves 
14*. de la Made/sine 

15. NotreDctme 

16 . des Paquis 
1?. SfGervais 
IS. StJosepk . 

X3 . ChapelU Russe . 

20. Tewle dc UtTusterie . 

21. Israelite 

22. Entrepot. . 

23. Sospice Cantonal. 
2*. rfftf Orphelins 
25.ffoleldeVu7e . . 

26 . Jar dot Botamaue 

27 .JLkJotu hydraidujue. 

Z&.Maison de Calvin, 

29 . ■ rfe t£ J. Rousseau 

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31. Monument de VEsralade. 

32. * • National 

33. r ' tie Rousseau 
34. 

35. JAma* /W 

36. " ArM 

37. ObsaTaloire 

38. Octroi - 

39. Palais Electoral 
W. Justice 

41. ZWr tt Telegraphs 

42. Prison dc I'Kvcche' 

43. Temple Jtaroii/iiuue 
4t. Theatre 



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"Wagner ^ Debes. Leipzig. 



Baths. GENEVA. 47. Route. 183 

Paquis; Windsor, Placodes Alpes; Mme. Waleff, Rue Tlialberg 2; Pension 
des Alpes, Huber-Kohler, both in the Square des Alpes ; W!i«i', Quai des 
Eaux-Vives 88 ; Picaud (85-200 fr.), Quai des Eaux-Vives ; Mme. E. Magnenat 
(200 fr.), Quai des Eaux-Vives 2; Baud (180 fr.), Chemin Pre LEveque ; 
Flaegel, Rue Pierre Fatio ; Mmes. Lire! el Gobel , Cours de Rive 18; Do- 
menjoz, Place du Port ; Hugueiiin, line du Rhone 92 ; Mme. Vignier , Pension 
de VAcademie, Pension Vesarzens, and Labarthe, all near the university: 
Fromont- Jackson, Rue Pradier 3; Trinacria, Boul. de Lausanne, near the 
station; Mme. Richardet, Rue du Montblanc 8; Pernoud, Rue Chantepoulet ; 
Vre. Piccard (150 fr.), Place de la Metropole 2; Vve. Flouck, Rue du 
Rhone 9; Beau-Sejour, in the Champel ; Kern en , Route de Lyon (anx 
Charmilles). — For students chiefly: Mme. Roussy (85-100 fr.), Rue du 
Rhone 29 ; Mayor , Rue Centrale 2. 

Cafes. On the Left Bank: "Cafe du Nord, Cafe de la Couronne, and 
Cafe' de Geneve, all on the Grand Quai ; "du Muse'e, Corraterie, opposite the 
Musee Rath, with garden ; du Theatre, with garden; de VAcademie, Rond 
Point de Plainpalais; du Boulevard, Boul. de Plainpalais ; Claret; du 
Globe , Rue du Rhone 36 ; du Levant , Place du Port ; cafe in the Jardin 
du Lac. — On the Right Bank : Cafe de la Posle, near the English Church ; 
Jardin des Alpes , at the corner of the Rue Bonivard and Rue des Alpes ; 
Balmer and Chantepoulet, both in the Rue Chantepoulet. — Beer. Bavarian 
at Ackermann^s, Rue du Rhone 92; Stadtmann, Rue du Rhone ; Jutz, Che- 
min des Eaux-Vives 6 ; Eberbach, Rue de Chantepoulet and Rue de rEntre- 
pot 1 ; Bavaria , Place du Temple Israelite. Most of the cafes also sell 
beer. Geneva beer at the breweries outside the gates : Treiber, Route de 
Chene, with a pleasant shaded terrace (PI. C, 7). — Restaurants. Left 
Bank: Cafe du Nord; Bellinger, Place de la Fusterie 4; Cafe du Rhune, 
Rue du Rhone 10 ; Yizioz , Place du Rhone ; also at the different hotels. 
— Right Bank: Railway Restaurant; Romann, Rue Chantepoulet. 

Baths. De la Poste , Rue du Stand, well fitted up, hot, cold, shower, 
vapour baths, etc. ; Canel, Rue de THotel de Ville 11, etc. — Lake Baths. 
Swimming-school and separate baths (PI. 5) at the new quay on the left 
bank, outside the harbour, Route de Thonon ; and also by the pier on the 
opposite bank (PL 10). — Rhone Baths (PI. 6) below the Pont de la 
Coulouvreniere. — Baths in the Aeve, very cold, Chemin de TArve, 424 
and 473, s/ 4 M. from the Place Neuve. 

Railway Station for Switzerland and France (Lyons, Chambery, etc.), 
at the upper end of the Rue du Montblanc, right bank. 

Post and Telegraph Offices, Quai de la Coulouvreniere (PI. 21). Branch 
Offices opposite the railway station, and Rue du Rhone 53, all open from 
7 a.m. to 8 p.m. 

Diligences to Chamouny (the best those of the Messageries Nationales, 
Grand Quai 10) daily. Four different vehicles start from the Grand Quai 
at 7 a.m., and another from Grand Quai 28 at 4. 30 p.m.; see p. 218. To 
Annecy (p. 217) daily at 7 a.m. and 3 p.m., from Grand Quai 10. To Samoens 
and Sixt (p. 229) daily at 10 a.m. and 3 p.m. from the Rue de Rive 13. 

Omnibuses from every hotel to the station, and also from the post- 
office , fare 30 c. ; each article of luggage 15 c. ; to Fernex (every hour) 
50 c, Place Cornavin ; Morne.r and Monnetier (p. 193), from Grand Quai 28 
(in summer) at 8. 30 and 11. 30 a.m. and 6. 30 p.m. from the Rue de la 
Croix d'Or 18, fare to Mornex 1 fr. 30 c., to Monnetier 2 fr. To the 
Voirons or Bons (p. 193) in summer Thurs. and Sund. at 5 a.m., Sat. 
at 4 p.m., from Rue Winkelried 4, near the Hotel des Bergues. 

Tramway from Carouge through the town to Chene, with a branch to 
the railway station, diverging at the Place du Molard. Fare from Carouge 
to Chene 40c.; from the theatre through the town and from the railway 
station to the Place du Molard 10c. 

Voituriers. Kblliker, on the Paquis ; Regard, on the Terrassiere ; SociHe 
Genevoise (Achard d- Co.), Rue des Paquis 35. One-horse carr. 15, two- 
horse 30 fr. per day, fee included. — Fiacre per hour 2^2, per drive 
within the town t l /2 fr. 

Steamboats, fiiriss Bank (N.), p. 194; Saroy Bank (S.), p. 209. Piers of 
both at the Jardin du Lac (p. 185). The express-steamers 'Bonivard" and 



181 Route 47. GENEVA. I'lii/sii-hiiif. 

others (p. 104) start from the Quai du Montblanc. opposite the Hotel do 
Russie. — Small steamers at lower fares, called 'Jlouches\ ply between 
the Quai des Eaux-Vives, Hermance, and Coppet. 

Boats for excursions on the lake (with boatman 2-3 fr. per hour, 
without boatman 80 c), near the Jardin du Lac, the Quai du Mnntblaiic, 
and the two jetties near the lighthouses. The English '■canots' are steadier 
than the ' voilliers* or sailing-boats. The smaller boats used within the 
harbour are called ' nacelles.* Bowers are prohibited to approach the 
Pont des Bergues on account of the dangerous rapidity of the stream. 

Shops. The most attractive are those on the Grand Quai, the Rue du 
Illume, the Rue de la Corraterie (left bank), the Quai des Bergues, and the 
Rue du Montblanc (right bank). Geneva is celebrated for its watches and 
jewellery ; the latter is chiefly exported to Italy and the Levant. In 
Geneva 110,000 watches are manufactured annually. Among the watch- 
makers of repute may be mentioned fee. Vacheron tt Co., Rue Tour de Tile 
3; Patek, Philippe & Co., Golay-Leresclte, Ekegren, and Fleischmann d- Co., 
all on the Grand Quai; Badollet tt- Co., near the post-office; Rossel-Bautle. 
Rue du Rhone. — Engraver, M. L. Bovy, chiefly for medals, Rue (hante- 
poulet. Mountain-shoes: Mutter, Place du Molard. Trunks and other 
travelling requisites: Isenring, Place, du Lac 2. Carved wood, musical 
boxes, etc. : Maucltain, next door to the Me'tropole. 

Booksellers. Oeorg, Rue de la Corraterie 10; Monroe, Place des 
Bergues 1 ; Mem, Place du Molard 2. 

Newspapers, periodicals, etc., in the Socielc de Lecture, Grand' Rue 11 ; 
cards of admission procured from members. 

Education Agents {^Office du Professorat"), Demonl A- Boeder. Rue de 
la Cite 11. 

Exhibition of Art of the Socieli des Amis des Beaux-Arts, in the Athe- 
nee (p. 188). Admission 1 fr. 

Organ Concert at the Cathedral (p. 187) on Mond., Wed., and Sat. ; 
tickets (1 fr. each) obtainable from the concierge and at the hotels. 

Physicians. Dr. Metcalf, Quai du Montblanc 3; Br. L. Appin, Rue 
des Chanoines 5 ; Dr. Odier, Corraterie 8. — Chemists. Geo. Bake,; Place 
des Bergues 3; Hahn, Place Longemalle ; Schmidt, Rue du Montblanc: 
llabel, Place du Rhone, etc. 

Hydropathic Establishment, 'sous Champer, on the Arve. well lilted 
up. The lofty terrace, to which strangers are admitted, commands a tine 
view of the Arve and the town. 

English Church on the right bank, near the Hotel des Bergues (PI. a). 
— American C/turch, Rue du Rhone. 

Geneva (12-13'), the capital of one of the smallest cantons, 
with 47,581 inhab. (20,695 Rom. Cath.), is the richest and most 
populous town in Switzerland. It lies at the S. end of the lake, 
at the point where the blue waters of the Rhone emerge from it 
with the swiftness of an arrow, and a little above the confluence 
of the Rhone and the .lire (p. 192). The Rhone surrounds the 
little Qunrtier de Vile, and divides the town into two parts: on 
the left bank lies the principal part of the town, the Geneva of 
history, the seat of government and centre of traffic ; on the right 
bank is the small Quartier St. (iervais, formerly a mere suburb 
chiefly inhabited by the poorer classes, but considerably improved 
since the opening of the railway. Since the removal of the old 
fortifications, '•< part of which only has been preserved on the S.K. 
side, and is used as a promenade, the town has extended rapidly, 
especially on the right bank, where great improvements have been 
effected since the construction of the railway. 

Seen from the lake, Geneva presents a very imposing appear- 



(Juai du Mont Blanc. GENEVA. 47. Route. 185 

ance , the banks of the Rhone being flanked with broad quays 
and substantial buildings, but the interior of the old town by 
no means produces a corresponding effect, the streets, with a 
few exceptions, being narrow, steep, and crooked. La Corraterie, 
the ancient fosse, celebrated in the annals of the towny, the 
Hues Basses , a series of streets which intersect the town from 
E. to W. {Rue des Allemands, du Marche, etc.), and the Rue 
du Rhone are the only broad streets in this part of the town. 

The two halves of the city separated by the Rhone are con- 
nected by means of six bridges. The highest of these, the hand- 
some *Font du Mont Blanc, completed in 1862, leads from the 
Rue du Mont Blanc, a broad street descending from the railway- 
station, to the Jardin du Lac (see below), and with the latter 
forms the central point of attraction to visitors in summer. Be- 
tween the Pont du Mont Blanc and the Pont des Bergues is Rous- 
seau's Island, united to the latter by a small chain bridge, and 
planted with trees (small cafe'). In the centre stands the bronze 
statue of the 'wild self-torturing sophist' himself, executed by 
Pradier in 1834. 

Handsome quays with numerous shops extend along both 
banks of the river near these bridges, the principal being the 
Quai des Bergues on the right , and the Orand Quai on the left 
bank. The Quai du Mont Blanc, extending from the Pont du Mont 
Blanc towards the N.E. , on the right bank of the lake, affords a 
beautiful survey of the *Mont Blanc group, which is visible 
almost in its entire extent , and presents a strikingly majestic 
appearance on clear evenings. 

An idea of the relative heights of the dilferent peaks is obtained 
from this point of view much better than at Chamouny itself. Thus 
Mont. Blanc itself is 15,781' in height, whilst the Aiguilles du Midi on 
the left are 12,608' only. Farther to the left are the Grandcs Jorasses 
and the Dent du Geant; in front of the Mont Blanc group are the Aiguil- 
les Rouges; then, more in the foreground, the Mole, an isolated pyramid 
riiiing from the plain; near it the snowy summit of the Aiguille d'Argen- 
tiere; then the broad Buct ; to the extreme left the long crest of the. 
Voirons, which terminate the panorama on the left, while the opposite 
extremity is formed by the Great and Little Saleve. 

In the Square des Alpes a sumptuous monument (PI. 34) in the 
style of the celebrated Tombs of the Scaligers at Verona is now 
being erected to the Duke Charles II. of Brunswick (d. 1873), 
who bequeathed his large fortune to the town of Geneva. 



f On the night of 11th Dec, 1602, the Savoyards attempted to obtain 
possession of Geneva, and would have scaled the wall of the Corraterie 
if the citizens had not promptly repulsed them. A Fountain (PI. 25) in 
granite (designed by Leeb of Munich), erected in 1857 at the W. end of 
the Rue des Allemands, commemorates this event. Beneath arc two 
reliefs representing the defeat of the assailants, and Thc'od. de Bez« 
returning thanks to God ; above, a group of soldiers scaling the walls, 
surmounted by a statue (emblematical of the town of Geneva), armed with 
lance and buckler. 



186 Route 47. GENEVA. Cathedral 

To the right, in the Rue du Mont Blanc, is the English Church 
(PL 11), a small and tasteful Gothic structure. 

The Quai des Paquis, planted with trees, forms the continua- 
tion of the Quai du Mont Blanc, and extends to the Jetee, or pier, 
which is also adorned with trees and provided with seats. The lat- 
ter affords another fine view of the Alps and of the city itself. From 
the pier to the Villa Plantamour extends the new Quai du Umnn. 

Near the Pont de la Machine, the next bridge below the island, 
is a large building containing a Hydraulic Machine (PI. 27j which 
supplies the public fountains and many of the dwelling-houses 
with river water. At the end of the island are the former Slaugh- 
ter-Houses, now a market, at the entrance to which are five eagles 
in a cage, the heraldic emblems of the canton. 

On the S. bank of the lake (left bank of the Rhone), to the left 
as the traveller approaches from the Pont du Montblano, rises the 
National Monument (PI. 32), a bronze group of Helwti.i and 
Geneva on a lofty pedestal, by JJorer, commemorating the union of 
Geneva with the Confederation in 1814. — Farther up the Jake are 
the pleasant grounds of the Jardin du Lac with a neat fountain in 
the centre. To the left of the entrance is a column with a baro- 
meter, thermometer, and 'limnimetre' (for measuring the height of 
the lake). The Kiosque, opposite the Hotel de laMetropole. contains 
an interesting *Eelief of Mont Blanc (Snnd. and Thurs. 11-3 gratis; 
at other times '/.^ fr.), carved in lime-wood, 26' in length, affording 
a good general idea of the relative heights of the 'monarch of 
mountains' and his vassals. 

In the neighbourhood, above the surface of the lake, appear 
two granite blocks called the Pierres du Niton, on which , ac- 
cording to tradition, the Romans once offered sacrifices to Nep- 
tune. They are doubtless erratic blocks, similar to those on the 
Sale.ve and other places in the vicinity (see Introd. xiv). 

If we follow the side -street which leads away from the 
Grand Quai opposite the above-mentioned Kiosque, and ascend a 
few paces, we reach the well-shaded Promenades de St. Antoine, 
laid out on part of the old ramparts, and affording a view of the 
lake. To the left (E.) is the Observatory (PI. 37), and on an 
eminence farther distant (S.E.) rises the new Russian Church 
(PI. 1i>), with its glittering gilded domes, erected by contributions 
from the Imperial and other Russian families. The interior is 
worthy of inspection. 

The *Cathedral {St. Pierre, PL 12) was completed in 1024 by 
the Emperor Conrad II. in the purest Romanesque style, but 
was much altered in the 1 2th and 13th centuries, and finally 
disfigured in the ISth by the addition of a Corinthian portico. 
The n,nrieriie li\es at the back of the church; or he may be 
found in the Hrnje du crnrierye' adjoining the church (fee '/•> '"'■)• 

Interior. Stained -class windows and carved stalls of Hie 15th century- 
Monnment of Duke llinri i/< litthaii (leader ol' the I'rotestants under Louis 



Hotel de Ville. GENEVA. 47. Route. 187 

XIII.), who fell at Rheinfelden (p. 18) in 1638, of his wife Marg. de Sully, 
and his son Tancride ; the black marble sarcophagus rests on two lions ; 
the statue of the duke in plaster is in a sitting posture ; the monument has 
been restored since its destruction in 1798. Beneath a black marble 
tombstone in the nave lies Jean de Brognier (d. 1426) , president of the 
Council of Constance. A black stone in the S. aisle is sacred to the 
memory of Agrippe d'Aubigne' (d. 1630), the confidant of Henry IV. of France, 
erected to him by the Republic of Geneva, where he died in exile, in 
gratitude for his services. The pulpit contains a chair once used by Calvin. 
Admirable Organ (concerts, see p. 184). 

No. 1 i Rue des Chanoines , to the W. of the Cathedral , is 
the House of Calvin (PI. 28), occupied by him from 1543 until 
his death in 1564. He was interred in the cemetery of Plain - 
Palais, but the spot is unknown, as the great reformer expressly 
forbade that any monument should be erected to him. 

In the neighbourhood, Grand' Rue No. 40, is the house where 
Jean Jacques Rousseau was born (1712, d. 1778). 

The Musee Fol (PI. 35), Grand' Rue 11, founded by M. W. Vol, 
contains (in the court to the right) a collection of Greek and Etruscan 
antiquities, the yield of recent excavations, and mediaeval and 
Renaissance curiosities. Admission daily, 9-3 ; fee 50 c. 

I. Saloon. Etruscan, Creek, and Roman Vases in terracotta (the best 
arc Nos. 131, 235, 236, 290). 833. Wounded warrior (Etruscan); reliefs 
in terracotta (838. Fragment of a frieze; 840, 841. Gladiators; 843, 844. 
Fauns; 854. Victory). In the Wall-cabinets Etruscan, Latin, Greek and 
Roman terracottas (in Cab. II. No. 239. Cup from Kola; Cab. III. No. 156. 
Amphora from Falerii). — Double Glass-cases: Etruscan and Greek clay- 
vessels, vases, lamps, statuettes, etc. — II. Saloon. 1044, 1045. Bronze 
candelabra; 129. Crater (mixing vessel). Wall-cabinets: Utensils of different 
kinds, trinkets, etc.; in the double glass-cases, bronzes (900, 916, 917. Etruscan 
mirrors ; 1002, 1003. Cinerary urns). — III. Saloon. Marble works : 1347. 
Bust of Nero ; 1316. Apollo Sauroctonus (ancient copy of the statue in 
the Vatican); 1317. Diana; 1339. Ariadne; 1333. Head, perhaps of one of 
the sons of Laocoon (in the Vatican): 1329. Flora; 1324. Youthful Bac- 
chus; 1321. Venus (from Tivoli). — Paintings: 3841. Taddeo Gaddl, 
Adoration of the Virgin; 3841, 3842. Inn. da Imola, Angels; 3829. Holy 
Family (from Imola; 14th cent.). — Frieze from the Villa of Crescentius 
near Rome (children and Cupids, etc.); 3868. Diana; 3845. Female figure. 
Flemish tapestry; carved chests and cabinets (16th-17th cent.): faiences, 
enamels, statuettes, etc. (16th cent.); objects from Japan, China, and 
Persia. — IV. Saloon. Pictures of different schools (of no importance); 
ancient frescoes (3792. Centaur; 2793. Gazelle); in the glass-cabinets a col- 
lection of book-covers, etc. — V. Saloon. Ancient and mediaeval glass 
and cut stones. 

On the first and second floor is the Societe de Lecture (p. 184). 

The Hotel de Ville (PI. 25), a massive building in the Flo- 
rentine style, is only remarkable for the inclined planes in the 
interior, substituted for staircases, by which arrangement the 
councillors in ancient times were enabled to ride , or be 
conveyed in litters, to or from the council-chambers. The edifice, 
which has been recently restored, now contains the cantonal and 
municipal offices. 

Opposite the Hotel de Ville is the Arsenal (PI. 3), contain- 
ing ancient and modern arms, the ladders used at the 'escalade' 
(p. 185), etc. (adm. gratis on Sund. and Thurs., 11-3). 



188 Route 47. (iKNKVA. Muste Rath. 

In the vicinity, Rue de l'Hotel de Villc 12, is M. Reviliod's Col- 
lection (shown daily, except Sund.) of valuable pictures and anti- 
quities (containing a *Raphael, Madonna with the finch). 

A gateway adjoining the Hotel de Ville leads to the shady pro- 
menade of La Treille, which affords a beautiful view of the Saleve. 
Adjoining this terrace is the Botanic Garden (PI. 26), laid out in 
1816 by the celebrated De Candolle. It is entered from the Bastion 
promenade and also affords a pleasant walk. The facade of the 
green-house is adorned with marble busts of the celebrated Geneveso, 
Chabrey, Trembley, Rousseau, Ch. Bonnet, De Saussurc. and Senc- 
bier, and a bronze bust of De Candolle. In the grounds is a statue 
of David by Chaponniire. 

The Athenee (PI. 4), situated to the S.E. of the Botanical Gar- 
den , is a handsome Renaissance edifice , the facade of which is 
adorned with busts of nine celebrated citizens of Geneva ( in front. 
Fabri, Ungues, Roset, Rousseau, and Bonnet; on the right, Saussurc. 
Lullin, and Pictet). It was erected by the wife of the 'philhelle- 
nist' Eynard, and presented to the Societe des Beaux-Arts. It con- 
tains lecture-rooms, a library of works on the history of art, and an 
exhibition of works of art (see p. 184). 

The Theatre (PI. 44). in the Place Neuve, to the N.W., erected 
in 1782, is generally closed in summer. A larger one is now being 
built opposite to it. 

Theatrical performances were long forbidden at Geneva by Ilia 
austere regulations of Calvin. When Voltaire caused his pieces to lie 
performed at Kerne x (p. 192), almost in sight of the Ccnevcsc, Kwisseau 
thus remonstrated with his great contemporary: 'Je ne vous aiine pas: 
vous avez corrompu ma rcpublique en lui donnant des spectacles'. 

The *Musee Bath (PI. 36), opposite the theatre, containing 
a collection of pictures, casts, etc., was founded by the Russian 
general Rath, a native of Geneva, and presented to the city by 
his sisters. It has since been greatly extended. Admission in 
summer on Sund. 11-1, Thurs. 11-3, and on Mond., Tues., AVcd., 
and b'rid. 1-3, gratis; at other times, fee '/o fr. 

Vkstiui-le. In the centre, bust of Xccker, by Ilovdon; bronze-bust 
of Duke Charles II. of Brunswick (p. 185). Casts from antiques; 115. 116. 
designs of the Fontaine Molicre at Paris, liv l'l-ndU-r. On the left, busts 
etc. by Pradirr; Toepffer, Zingarella ; 93. Itiilmf, David; U4. Pradier, 
Venus and Cupid: on the right, '68 Clioponnii're , Captive Creek girl; 
73. Caiiora, Plato; h)7. Prmlirv. Flora; 92. Imliof, Eve (original at Bern, 
p. 101); casts of the gates of the P.aplislery at Florence by Ghilierti, etc. 

- I. Saloon. 19-22. Calante, The four seasons (20. Summer); Corot, 
Landscape; 132. Kallmann, Landscape; :: 1S. Colume, Forest at the Handcck; 
•12. /Yiivk, Portrait of General Dufour; 113. Tltuillier, Lake of Annecy : 
III. 112. Pourbus, Portraits; 114, I If). De la Hive, Landscapes; 142. Ad. 
l\><pffrr, Coming from church in winter; 33. Diday , Forest in a storm ; 

\.VX Ximon, The poacher: ")!). Jioruung, Death of Calvin; 60. Hornunf, 
Catharine de Mcdicis regarding the bead of Admiral Coligny: 6. Anker, 
Village council: 109. I III. I'm-Iembunj, Itiblical landscapes: S3. Liotard, 
ihe Kmpress .Maria Theresa of Austria: So. Liotard, Porlrail of himself; 
Sll. /.«./,(/,/<■«, Arnold of ab-lchthal; 39. K. Ihn-al, the Xile: 71. Laireue, 
Itacchannlian; 66. Ch. Humbert, Cattle drinking; 73. Largilliire, St. John; 
'Vim Mnijdai, Pifl'crari : 31- 35. DiJaii, Giessbach and Pissevache Falls; 



Academy-Building. GENEVA. 47. Route. 189 

Corot, Landscape; 38. Durand, After the review. In the centre of the hall 
a bust of General Rath. — II. Saloon. 53. Guercino, Charity; 136. Le Sueur, 
Plague-stricken persons at the tomb of St. Charles ; !: 134. Snyder* , Dog 
and heron ; 113. Rigaud, Portrait of the Princess Palatine Elizabeth Char- 
lotte, Duchess of Orleans (d. 1722) ; 167. Rubens, Slaughter of the innocents ; 
30. Danby, St. Peter walking on the sea; 54. Guido Reni(1), St. Sebastian ; 
16. Bourdon, Beggars; 68. K. du Jardin, Cavalier; 29. CuypC>), Cows; 
124. Rubens, Nymphs and Satyrs ; 4. Agasse and A. Toepffer, Horse-market; 
99, 100, 120. Molenaer and Ryckaert, Tavern scenes; 117, 116. L. Robert. 
Italian and Bernese girls; 26. Ph. de Champaigne, Dead nun; 51. Greuze. 
Head of a child; 28. Jf. Coy pel, Bacchus and Ariadne; 126. St. Ours, 
Olympic games; 146, 147. Velasquez, Pnilip IV. of Spain and Mary Anne 
of Austria; 69. K. du Jardin, Crucifixion; 36. Domenichino , Triumph of 
David; 24. Caruvaggio, Four men singing; 107. Oudry, Dog and crane. — 
Busts of lime, de Stael, John Brown (the American abolitionist), B. Con- 
stant, Jer. Bentham, E. Dumont and General Dufour. In the centre of 
the hall a copy in marble of the Venus Medici by Bartolini. - III. Room. 
138. Tenters the Younger. Smoker; 141. Titian, Miracles of St. Anthony; 
96. Mignard, Portrait; 84. Liotard, Mme. d'Epinay; 98. Mierevelt, Female 
portrait; *9. Fra Bartolommeo and Mariotto Albertinelli, Annunciation (in 
two sections); "58. Van der Heist, Portrait; ! 148. Velasquez^!), Singer; 
150. J. Vernet, Sea-piece; Lalour, Portrait of Rousseau; 165. Holbein ^t), 
Portrait; 12. Berghem, The prodigal; 18. Berghem, Abraham and Sarah; 
etc. This room contains also a collection of miniature portraits in enamel 
by Thouron , Ptliiot , Arlaud , etc. — IV. Room. Casts from antiques : 
Laocoon, the children of Niobe, Venus of Milo, Apollo Belvedere, etc. ; 
in the centre a copy of Canova's Hebe. 

On the S.W. side of the Place Neuve is the Conservatoire de 
Musique (PI. 9), behind which stands the handsome Eglise du 
Sucre Coeur (PI. 21), formerly the Masonic Lodge. To the S. of this 
is the new Palais Electoral (PI. 3'J)< on which is inscribed the 
motto of Geneva, 'Post tenebras lux \ 

The new University-Building (PL '2), on the bastion prome- 
nade opposite the Botanic Garden, erected in 1867-71 by the city 
and the canton at a cost of i l / t million fr. , consists of three 
different parts connected by two glass galleries. The central part, 
containing the lecture-rooms , laboratories , and the collection of 
antiquities, coins, and medals, bears the inscription : 'Le peuple 
de Geneve en consacrant cet e'diflce aux e'tudes superieures rend 
hommage aux bienfaits de l'instruction garantie fondamentale de 
ses libertes. Loi du '26. Juin, 1867'. The right wing contains 
the Library, the left the Museum of Natural History. 

The BiBLioxHtQUE Publique, at present containing 90,000 vols., founded 
by Bonivard, the prisoner of Chillon (p. 203) in 1551, is of spacious di- 
mensions and handsomely fitted up. The first floor contains the reading- 
room, which is open on week-days from 10 to 4. A hall on the ground- 
floor , to the right of the entrance , contains valuable ancient and modern 
portraits of princes, reformers , and Genevese and French statesmen and 
scholars, chiefly of the time of the Reformation. (On the left : 56. Necker ; 
155. Lafontaine ; 153. Descartes; 158. Winckelmann, by A. Kauffmaiin ; 83. 
De Saussure; 61. Turquet de Mayerne, attributed to Rubens; 79. Ch. Bon- 
net, by Juehl; l~8. Sismondi : 89. De Oandolle, by Hornting ; 91. Humbert; 
76. Euler; 121. D'Aubignc ; 1. Farel ; 8. De Beza ; 2. Calvin; 157. Di- 
derot; 138. Knox; 4. Zwingli; 118. Admiral (Joliguy; 149. Rabelais, etc.) 
This apartment also contains a collection of MSS. , including autographs 
of Calvin and Rousseau. The most valuable MSS. are exposed to view in 
glas.s cases: homilies of St. Augustine on papyrus (6th cent.); housekeep- 
ing accounts of Philip le liel I I'JOS); many wilh miniatures, some of which 



190 Route 47. GENEVA. History. 

formed part of the booty taken from Charles the Bold at Grandson (p. 173). 
On an old reading-desk is a French Bible (printed at Geneva in 1588), 
richly bound in red morocco, and bearing the arms of France and Navarre, 
which was destined by the Council of Geneva as a gift to Henry IV., but 
never presented owing to his abjuration of Protestantism. The concierge 
expects a fee for showing this apartment. 

The Natural History Museum, admirably arranged by the late F. J. 
Pictet, contains the famous collection of conchylia of B. Delessert (formerly 
Duke Massena), which has been described by Lamark ; Pictet's collection 
of fossils; De Saussure's geological collection, described in his 'Voyages 
dans les Alpes' ; Melly's collection of about 35,000 coleoptera; a valuable 
rock crystal from the Tiefengletscher (p. 143), presented by M. Reviliod, 
etc. — Admission to the Museum on week days (except Sat.) 1-3, Sund. 
11-1 gratis ; at other times on application to the concierge (fee). 

Leaving the Place Neuve, and passing the Synagogue (PI. 43), 
an edifice in the Moorish style (interior very plain), we may now 
cross the Pont de la Coulouvreniere, the lowest of the bridges, and 
passing the simple and handsome Rom. Cath. church of Notre Dame 
(PI. 15), proceed direct to the railway-station. 

History. The sights of Geneva may easily be inspected in A day. The 
town possesses few monuments, and is chiefly interesting on account of its 
importance in the history of intellectual and social progress. The prin- 
ciples which since the 16th cent, have shaken Europe to its foundation, 
have emanated chiefly from Geneva. Calvin, who resided at Geneva from 
1536 to 1564, and Rousseau, who was born at Geneva in 1712, were the 
great advocates , one of religious, the other of social reform ; but, though 
kindred in genius, these two illustrious men had no other qualities in 
common. The former, after Luther the most eminent of the old refor- 
mers, directed his whole energy to the propagation of the reformed re- 
ligion , while the other employed his transcendant powers of mind in dis- 
seminating principles, generally considered to conduce neither to the good 
nor the happiness of mankind. Geneva has also given birth to the natura- 
lists De Luc , Bonnet, and de Saussure , the botanists De Candolle and 
E. Boissier, the political economist Say, the historian Sismondi, the natural 
philosophers De la Rive, J. Pictet, and many other distinguished savants. 
iVecker, the minister of Louis XVI., and his daughter, Madame de Stael, were 
also natives of Geneva. A country so limited in extent (the canton being only 
15 miles long by as many broad) could never have much prominence in a 
political point of view. ' When I shake my wig, I powder the whole republic', 
was the well known sarcasm of Voltaire. '/( is a tempest in a glass of water' , 
was the contemptuous exclamation of the Emperor Paul, on hearing of 
some commotion in the little republic. 

The history of this miniature state may be thus briefly summed up. 
We find it mentioned for the first time by Csesar: '■Extremum oppidum 
Allobrogum est proximumquc Helvetiorum finibus Geneva. Ex eo oppido pons 
ad Helvetios pevtinel , quern Caesar jubet rescindV, etc. (de Bello Gall. i. 
6-8). With the Allobrogi, Geneva fell under Roman rule; in 482, 
owing to the decay of the Roman Empire , it became subject to Burgundy ; 
in the following century the Franks gained possession of it, and retained 
their footing until the division of the empire. After subduing Burgundy 
(1031), the Emperor Conrad II. caused himself to be proclaimed king here 
for the second time, and was crowned by the Archbishop of Milan. 

Succeeding ages witnessed a series of struggles between the Bishops 
of Ueneva, who aimed at the temporal power, the Counts of Geneva, In 
their capacity of Prefects of the Empire, and the Counts or Dukes of Savoy, 
who contrived that the episcopal throne should always be occupied by » 
member of their own family. In the midst of these dissensions, the citfcens 
ol'Cciieva concluded an .alliance with Freiburg (1518) and Bern (1526). Two 
parlies were thus formed in the town, the Confederates (Her. Fidgenossen, 
pronounced by the French 'Higuenns', whence the term 'Huguenots'), and the 
Miwuilukcs, partisan* of the IIousc of Savov. 



History. GENEVA. 47. Route. 191 

Out of these discords, which the treaty of St. Julien in 1530 only par- 
tially allayed, sprang the Reformation, to which Geneva immediately at- 
tached itself. In 1535 the Bishop transferred his seat to Gex. From that 
time the supremacy of the Romish Church ceased at Geneva; the new 
doctrines were vigorously and successfully propagated by Farel, and the 
Bishop was deprived of his power. 

About this time the theologian Jean Calvin (properly Caul pin, or Chau- 
pin), who was born at Noyon in Picardy in 1509, and had been expelled 
from France on account of his tenets , sought refuge at Geneva. He at- 
tached himself to Farel, and soon obtained so great an influence in all the 
affairs of church and state, that he may be said to have exercised a com- 
plete sway in Geneva , and he maintained his authority until his death 
(1564). He was indefatigable in preaching, and his zeal againstthe corruptions 
of the Romish Church was unboimded ; his rhetorical powers were of the 
highest order , and he exercised an irresistible influence over his fellow- 
citizens. Austere in his own mode of life, he imposed a most rigorous code 
upon others, and if the Bishop's sway had been tyrannical, Calvin's was 
not less so. But while vindicating the liberty of conscience , he too fre- 
quently forgot his own principles and the behests of the Gospel he advo- 
cated. Castellio , one of his earliest friends and fellow-labourers , having 
ventured to differ from him on the doctrine of predestination, was banished 
by him in 1540. Michael Servetus, a Spanish physician who had fled from 
Yienne in Dauphine in consequence of having written a treatise on the 
doctrine of the Trinity (de Trinilatis erroribus) , and who had only 
sojourned in Geneva for a short time , was arrested in 1553 by Calvin's 
order and condemned to the stake , a judicial murder which has left an 
indelible stain upon the memory of the stern and unforgiving reformer. 
The execution took place on the Champel, a hill to the S. of the town. 

The attempts made by the Dukes of Savoy at the beginning of the 
17th cent, to recover possession of Geneva were abortive. Many Protestant 
princes, who recognised Geneva as the bulwark of the Reformed church, con- 
tributed considerable sums of money towards the fortification of the town. 

In the 18th cent. Geneva was greatly weakened by intestine troubles. 
Jean Jacques Rousseau, the son of a watchmaker, was born here in 1712, 
and remained in his native town during his early youth. His writings, 
which exhibit ability of the highest order, exercised a great influence on 
the opinions of his age, but their tendency was highly injurious to society, 
and he passed a troubled and agitated life. At the instigation of 
Voltaire and the university of Paris, and by order of the magistrates of 
Geneva, his 'Entile 1 and 'Coutrat Social 1 were burnt in 1763 by the hang- 
man, as being 'teme'raires, scandaleux, iinpies et tendants a dHn/irc la re- 
ligion chrelienne et tons les gouvernements". He died at Ermenonvillc,. near- 
Paris, in 177S. 

On 15th April, 1708, the French entered Geneva, annexed the town 
to the French Republic , and made it the capital of the Departement du 
Lvman. The events of 1814 having restored it to liberty, it was in- 
corporated with the Swiss Confederation, of which it became the 22nd 
Canton. The later history of Geneva, the rise of Radicalism in 1846, 
the ascendancy of James Fazy and his fall in 1864 , are probably already 
familiar to the reader. 



48. Environs of Geneva. Fernex. Saleve. Voirons. 

CotnjK Map, p. 194. 

Omnibuses and other conveyances, see p. 184. 

Ill the vicinity of Geneva , both banks of the lake are stud- 
ded with a succession of villas , many of which display consid- 
erable taste. The Villa Rothschild at Pregiiy (see below") is 
one of the few which may be visited without special permission. 

Right (W.) Bank. At Les Dilkes , the Villa Tronchin , property of 



192 Route 48. SALKVK. 

Voltaire from l'ibb to 1760; at Varemht, Mac (Julloch (-Chateau de l'lni- 
peratrice', formerly occupied by the Empress Josephine, and afterwards 
by Lola Mmte/.): at Le Rivage , the Villa o! the Countess Gasparin; at 
Prcgny, Adolf Rothschild (.an imposing chateau recently built, visible from 
the lake; magnificent ! view of Mont Blanc from the pavilion; admission 
in absence of the proprietor on Tuesd. and Frid., 2-G, by cards , procured 
gratis at the hotels at Geneva). The road to it from Geneva leads to the 
left by the station and passes under the line, this being also the road to 
Fernex , which is followed as far as a (1 M.j garden-pavilion, where a 
finger-post indicates the way to Pregny to the right. The entrance to the 
garden is lV'-j M. farther. Adjacent is the Cttmpuyiie F«vrr . also com- 
manding a line view of Mont Blanc (always accessible). 

Left (E.) Bank. At Les Eaux Vire*, Favre de la Grange (a magnifi- 
cent chateau, containing the Parting of Venus and Adonis, an early work 
of Canova); Diodati (Villa of Lord Byron |. 

Walks. The most beautiful are on the right bank by Petit and 
Grand-Sacconnex along the brow of the hill, which commands a 
view of the lake and Mont Blanc, as far as Versoix (p. 19:")) on 
the bank of the lake, whence Geneva may be regained either by 
railway or steamboat. — On the left bank : from the Jardin dn Lai- 
(p. 186) along the quay, through the avenue of plane-trees, skirt- 
ing the lake as far as (3M.) Vesenaz (Inn with garden by the lake): 
return by Cologny (*Restaurant at the Chalet Suisse, beautiful view 
of Geneva and the lake), or farther to the E. by Chougny. From 
both these roads Mont Blanc is visible. 

Omnibuses (p. 183) leave the Place Cornavin (near the station) 
every hour for Fernex (Truite), which lies 4'/2 M - *° tne N - w - ot 
Geneva. On the road, from a hill near Petit Sacconnex, there 
is a charming view of Geneva , the lake, and Mont Blanc. Kemex 
is in French territory. Voltaire may be regarded as the founder 
of this little town. He purchased the land in 1T;VJ, attracted 
industrious colonists, founded manufactories, built a chateau for him- 
self, and erected a church, over the portal of which he affixed 
the ostentatious inscription : Deo erexit Voltaire. The chateau, 
which has been much altered , still contains a few rooms with 
reminiscences of the founder. Fine view from the garden-terrace 
(no admittance on Sundays). 

Carouge, to which a tramway runs from the Place Neuve in 
Geneva (15c.|, see p. 218. 

The *Bois de la Batie, at ihe confluence of the Rhone and the 
Arve, also affords a pleasant walk. We reach it in '/'2 ' ,r - ^ 
following the Rhone down to the new Bridge orer the Arre, whence 
we ascend through the wood to a Hestntintnt , which a (lords a line 
survey of the town and environs. 

The *Saleve (Petit and Grand), a long hill of limestone rock, 
rises 4 i\I. S.K. of (leneva. in the territory of Savoy (France). Oil 
the N. W. side it is nearly perpendicular, while on the S.K. it pre- 
sents a gentle slope, covered with pastures and numerous habi- 
tations. The Petit-Satire (2'.t")il'|. its N. extremity, extends to the 
Arve. It affords a beautiful view, greatly surpassed however by that 
fi-iiin (lie (,'miii/-Nii/; i-f li'.'IH'l. which embraces the Mont Ul.inc 



LES VOIRONS. 48. Route. 193 

chain, the Lake of Geneva, the Jura , the Cantons of Geneva and 
Vaud , and part of France. At the top are the taverns des Treize 
Arbres and U la Vue du Montblanc. The still higher prolongation 
of the Saleve to the right is called Les Pitons (4528'), the highest 
point of which is marked by a stone tower. 

The direct route to the Grand-Saleve (3 hrs.) from Geneva is by 
Carouge, Crevin, and then through the Grande Gorge by a wind- 
ing path. The carriage-road leads by Chine (p. 219) to (7 M.) 
Mornex (Bellevue) , a charming village on the S. slope of the Petit- 
Saleve, and a favourite summer resort of the Genevese ; and thence 
to (l*/2 M.) Monnetier (2336'; * Hotel-Pension de la Reconnais- 
sance) , situated in a defile between the Petit and Grand-Saleve. 
The ruined towers at the end of the new road have been converted 
into a pension (Ch&teau de Monnetier). From this point the ascent 
of the Petit-Saleve occupies ^ hr., that of the Grand-Saleve l l /% hr. 

Omnibus from Geneva to Mornex, starting from Grand Quai 28, at 8.30, 
11.30, and 6.30; fare 1 fr. 30 c, to Monnetier 2 fr. (comp. p. 183). Don- 
keys at Mornex and Monnetier 1 fr. per hr. Pedestrians may descend by 
the steps on the N. side ('■Pas tie VEchelle") to (>/2hr. ) Veyrier, whence 
Carouge (p. 218) is 2 M. distant. Tramway thence to Geneva. 

*Les Voirons (4777'; omnibus to the base, see p. 183), along 
mountain to the N.E. of Geneva (see p. 185), affords a very 
pleasing prospect, extending from the Dentd'Oche to the mountains 
of the Lake of Annecy , and embracing the Mont Blanc chain. 
Near the top is the Hotel de VErmitaye (unpretending), in the 
midst of pine-wood. Charming walks hence to the (10 min.) 
Calvaire , the highest point (4856') , with its pavilion ; to the 
(20 min.) old monastery on the N.W. slope; to the Crete d'Audoz, 
an eminence !/ 2 hr. to the S. W. ; and to the (1 hr.) Pralaire (4633'), 
the S. peak. 

The most frequented road to the mountain from Geneva is by (13'/2 M.) 
Boris (omnibus, p. 183), from which we may walk or drive to the summit 
by the Col de Saxel in 2>/2-3 hrs. — The shortest route is by La Bergue 
on the road to the Val de Sixt, reached by carriage in l'/u hr. ; thence by 
a good bridle-path on the W. side of the mountain, commanding a beau- 
tiful view of the lake and environs of Geneva, to the hotel in 2 l /i> hrs. — 
Or the same road may be followed to Boege, on the E. side of the moun- 
tain, 7'/2 M. from La Bergue , whence the hotel may be reached in 2 hrs. 
by a road practicable for light char-a-bancs, but steep and rough at places. 

The Fort de VEcluse and Perte du Rhone (in France) may be 
reached by the Geneva and Lyons railway in 1 hr., see p. 214. 

49. From Geneva to Martigny by Lausanne and 
Villeneuve. Lake of Geneva (Northern Bank). 

Railway. In 41/4 -5</a hrs. [to Lausanne l l /t-2 l /.i, to Vevey 2'/4-3V4, to 
Sion (R. 63) 5'/ 4 -6V2 hrs.] ; fares 13 fr. 80, 9 fr. GO, 6 fr. 90 c. (to Lausanne 
6 fr. 35, 4 fr. 45, 3 fr. 20 c. ; to Vevey 8 fr. 30, 5 fr. 80, 4 fr. 20 c. ; to Sion 16 fr. 
80, 11 fr. 60, 8 fr. 40c). Prom Geneva to St. Maurice, and from Bouveret 
to Sion (comp. R. 63) return - tickets, available for the same day only, are 
issued (on Sundays to Bex at reduced fares, available for two days). 

Bakdkker, Switzerland. 7th Edition. 13 



194 Route 49. LAKE OF GENEVA. From Geneva 

Steamboats ('Helvetie', 'Leman', 'Aigle', 'Bonivard', and ' Winkelried'), 
along the Northern Bank far preferable to the railway: to Morges (4 fr., 
1 fr. 70 c.) in 2'/2 hrs., to Ouchy (Lausanne, 5 fr., 2 fr.) in 3 hrs., to Vevey 
(6 fr. 50 , 2 fr. 70 c.) in 31/2-4 hrs. , to Villeneuve (7 fr. 50, 3 fr.) in 4»/«- 
4'/» hrs. ; to Bouveret (5 fr., 2>/2 fr.) in 4 3 /4-5 hrs. Return-tickets for two 
days at. a fare and a half, available also for the return-route by railway. 
The cabin-tickets are available for the second class only ; but if the hold- 
er desires to travel in the first class he may obtain a supplementary 
ticket from the guard. Landing and embarcation free. — Stations on the 
N. bank (those in capitals have piers) : Versoix , Vo]>]>et , CHigwy , Nyon, 
Rolle, Morges, Ouchy (Lausanne) , Lutry , Cully, Vorsier , Vevey (piers 
at the Grand Hotel de Vevey, at the chateau of 31. Couvreu, and at the 
lintel Monnet) , Clauens-Monti:ei x , Territet-Chillon , Villeneuve. — 
The fsteamboats 'Chillon' and 'Guillaume Tell' ply between the U. and S. 
banks , and between Evian and Geneva twice daily (the 'Chablais', 'Ville 
de Geneve', and 'Monlblanc' also make the latter trip twice daily, see 
p. 209); Stations: Belolle, Bellerire , Anieres , Hermance, Nernier , T/ionon. 
(From Evian to Morges or Ouchy 2 fr. , or 1 fr.) — Service along the 
Southern Bank (from Geneva to Bouveret, steamers 'Simplon' and 'Italie'), 
see p. 209. There is no table d'hote on board these boats, but a plain dinner 
may be procured for 2'/2-3 fr. — The route along the N. bank is preferable 
to-the S. (R. 50), as it affords a more extensive view of the Alps. 

The Lake of Geneva and Chamouny may be visited from Geneva, 
without retracing any part of the route, in 3-4 days, at a moderate cost. 1st 
Day. By the first steamer along the S. bank (R. 50) to Bouveret and thence 
by railway to Martigny , or from Geneva to Martigny direct by the first 
train ; arriving at Martigny at noon, the traveller has still time , in the 
height of summer, to cross the Col de Balme (R. 55) or the Tete Noire 
(R. 54) to Argentiere in the valley of Chamouny. — 2nd Day. Early in the 
morning by Les Tines to the Chapeau, over the Mer de Glace to Montanvert 
and Chamouny. In the afternoon to the Flegere , returning to Chamouny 
in the evening (R. 53). — 3rd Day. By diligence to Geneva (R. 52). Ex- 
cursion-tickets, see p. 218. 

The Lake of Geneva (1230'), Fr. Lac Leman, Ger. Oenfer See, 
the Lacus Lemanus of the Romans, is 55 M. in length along 
the N. bank, and 48>/2 M. along the (S. bank; 9 M. wide be- 
tween Rolle and Thonon, 8 M. between Ouchy and Evian, and 
l'/2 M. between the Pointe de Genthod and Bellerive ; 500' 
deep near Chillon, 1014' near Meillerie, and 300' between Nyon 
and Geneva. The area is about 225 sq. M., being 15 sq. M. more 
than that of the Lake of Constance. In shape it resembles a half- 
moon , with the horns turned towards the S. ; this form is most 
distinctly and beautifully observed from the Signal de Bougy 
(p. 197). The E. horn formerly extended 9 M. farther towards 
Bex , but the deposit brought down by the Rhone has gradu- 
ally rilled up this part of the lake, and the alluvial soil thus 
formed daily increases in extent. 

The Lake of Geneva differs from the other Swiss lakes in its deep blue 
colour, most of the other lakes being of a greenish hue. This blue tint is 
ascribed by Sir Humphrey Davy (who lived some years at Geneva, and 
died there in 1828), to the presence of iodine; a view which the Swiss 
scientific men do not accept. Fish are not abundant. There are twenty-one 
different kinds, the most esteemed of which are the Ferraz, the 'Felchen' 
of the Lake of Constance. The navigation of the lake is inconsiderable, 
the largest of the barges carrying 180 tons only. The graceful lateen sail 
used here, and rarely seen except on the Mediterranean and on the Scottish 
lakes (where they are called 'goose-wings'), has a very picturesque ap- 



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to Martigny. COPPET. 49. Route. 195 

pearance. The banks are clothed with the sweet and wild chestnut, the 
walnut, the magnolia, the cedar of Lebanon, and the vine. 

The Lake of Geneva, like that of Constance, is subject to occasional 
changes of level (seyches). At particular spots, especially where the bed of 
the lake contracts, the water rises several feet without any apparent cause 
or previous commotion, remains at this height for a period of 25 min. at 
most, and then subsides to its original level. This phenomenon is generally 
attributed to some unusual atmospheric pressure on the surface of the water ; 
it occurs more frequently at night than during the day , and in spring and 
autumn oftener than in summer, and is most marked when the sun sud- 
denly begins to shine brightly from amidst heavy clouds. The waves of 
the lake in stormy weather are called by the natives 'moutons\ In the 
early months of the year the water is lowest ; in July, August, and September 
the melting of the snow occasions a rise of 5 or 6'. The currents (ar- 
dyres) caused by the rising of subterranean springs are frequently so strong, 
that no oarsman can make way against them. Waterspouts also occur oc- 
casionally. It has been ascertained that when the temperature of the lake 
at the surface is 76° Fahr. , at a depth of 923' it is only 46". The lake has 
never been entirely frozen over. 

The Lake has for centuries been a favourite theme with writers of all 
countries. Its connection with some of the greatest names of modern times 
is universally known; Voltaire and Goethe speak of it with enthusiasm; 
Rousseau makes it the scene of his impassioned romance, the 'Nouvelle 
Heloise ' ; the exquisite stanzas of Byron, who spent some time on its 
shores, describe its varied beauties ; and Alexander Dumas deems it worthy 
of comparison with the bay of Naples. It must, however, be admitted that 
it is rivalled by the lake of Zurich in picturesqueness, while in grandeur 
it is far surpassed by the Lake of Lucerne. Mont Blanc is visible from 
the W. bank only, from Geneva, Nyon, Rolle, and particularly from 
Morges (p. 197). 

Steamboats, seep. 194; departure, see p. 183. The banks of 
the lake are beautifully planted , and studded with numerous 
and attractive villas. 

Versoix (Lion d'Or), a considerable village, once belonged to 
France. Choiseul, the minister of Louis XV., being hostile to Ge- 
neva, contemplated founding a rival city here. The streets were 
even mapped out, but the design was afterwards abandoned. 

Coppet (Croix Blanche; Ange; Hotel-Pension du Lac), opposite 
Hermance (p. 210). The chateau formerly belonged to Necker, 
a native of Geneva, who became a banker at Paris and minister 
of finance to Louis XVI. In 1790 he quitted Paris and retired 
to Coppet, where he died in 1804. His daughter, the celebrated 
Madame de Sta'el (d. 1817), the first lady-writer of her age, also 
resided at the chateau for some years. Her desk, her portrait 
by David, and a bust of Necker are shown to visitors. The father 
and daughter, with other members of the family, are buried in 
a chapel concealed by a group of trees and enclosed by a wall to 
the W. of the castle. 

From Coppet a carriage-road leads N.W. by Commugny and Chavannes 
de Bogis to (8 3 /i M.) Divonne ("Dr. VidarVs hydropathic establishment, 
well fitted up, R. from l'/s, pension 7 fr.), charmingly situated beyond 
the French frontier in the Pays de Oex (from Nyon 5 M., diligence in 
connection with the express trains in 40 min. ; from Geneva 12 31. , two- 
horse carr. 12 fr.). 

Nyon ( *Beaurivage ; *Ange), the Colonia Julia Equestris, or JVo- 
viodunum, of the Romans. The ancient castle in the Romanesque 

13* 



196 Route 49. ROLLE. From Geneva 

style, with walls 10' in thickness, and five towers, now the prop- 
erty of the town, was built in the 12th century. Carnot (d. 1823), 
the able and devoted adherent of Napoleon, found a refuge here. 
Farther on, among the trees, stands the chateau of Prangins, for- 
merly occupied by Joseph Bonaparte. A considerable part of the 
estate of La Bergerie , or Chalet de Prangins , which formerly be- 
longed to him, is now the property of Prince Jerome Napole'on. 
The old chateau itself was purchased in 1873 by the Moravians, who 
have transferred hither their boys' school which was formerly at 
Lausanne. 

On a promontory stands Promenthoux, and on the opposite 
bank, 3 M. distant, Yvoire (p. 210). The Jura mountains gradually 
recede. The most conspicuous peaks are the Dole (see below), 
and to the N. of this the Noir-Mont (5118'). The lake forms 
a semicircular bay from the mouth of the Promenthouse to the 
Aubonne beyond Rolle, and here attains its greatest width (see 
p. 194). The banks of this bay, called La Cote, yield one of 
the best Swiss wines (p. 180). 

Ascent of the Dole , a pleasant excursion in clear weather. Omni- 
bus from Nyon in 3 hrs. (fare 2'/2 fr.).to St. Cergues (3432'; Hdtel du Canton 
de Vaud; Union; Pension Delaigue , and several others; the *Observatoire, a 
hotel and pension on an eminence, 5 min. from the post - office , between 
the old chateau of St. Cergues and the Noirmont, commands an admirable 
view), a village at the N.E. base of the Dole, two-thirds of the way 
from the top, frequently visited in summer on account of the fresh- 
ness of the air. The road from Nyon to St. Cergues leads by (3 M. ) 
Tre'lex, at the foot of the bills. The traveller should drive (6 fr.) as far as 
the beginning of the well -shaded old road, l'/j JI. beyond Trelex, which 
follows the telegraph wires, and leads straight to St. Cergues (4 M.). One- 
horse carr. to Trelex 4, to St. Cergues 12 fr. and fee. From St. Cergues 
the summit of the 'Dole (5505') is reached in 2 hrs. (guide 5 fr. , not 
absolutely necessary). The view is picturesque and extensive, and the 
majestic Mont Blanc is seen to great advantage. — From Oingins, l l /2 M. 
to the W. of Trelex, a road leads to the (6 51.) Chalets de la Divonne, i/j hr. 
from the top of the Dole. — A better route for pedestrians leads by La 
Rippe, 4'/2 M. to the W. of Nyon, and l'/s "■ t0 th e N. of Divonne (see 
above), and ( 3 / 4 M.) VendOrne, at the foot of the hill, from which a pleasant 
forest-path ascends to the summit in 3 hrs. 

Diligence from St. Cergues by Les Rousses, a small French frontier- 
fort, and Le Brassus, to the Lac de Joux, Le Lieu, and Le Pont, a pleasant 
route (comp. R. 46). 

Rolle (*Tete Noire, with view ; Couronne) , the birthplace of 
the Russian general Laharpe, tutor of the Emp. Alexander I., 
and one of the most zealous advocates of the separation of the 
canton of Vaud from Bern (1798). An Obelisk has been erected 
to his memory on a small island in the lake. 

On a vine -clad hill, 1 hr. to the N. of Rolle, above the village of 
Bougy , is a famous point of view called the "Signal de Bougy (2910'), 
which commands the lake, the mountains of Savoy, and .Mont Blanc tower- 
ing behind them. Aubonne ("Couronne), a very old village, lies 2)1. E. of 
the Signal. The church contains a monument to the French Admiral 
Duquesne (d. 1687). Omnibus from Aubonne to (l'/j M.) stat. Allaman. 

The bank of the lake between Rolle and Lausanne is almost 
flat. On a promontory lies the village of St. Prex, ; then, in a 



to Martigny. LAUSANNE. 49. Route. 197 

wide bay, Morges (Hotel des Alpes, on the quay , pension 5 fr. ; 
Hotel du Port; Couronne), a small manufacturing town, with a 
harbour, and an old chateau now used as an arsenal. The mediseval 
chateau of Vufflens, on an eminence at some distance to the N., 
is said to have been erected by Queen Bertha (p. 169). From this 
point *Mont Blanc is -visible in clear weather in all its majesty to 
the right, through an opening in the mountains. 

The steamboat next reaches Ouchy (1230'; *H6tel Beaurivage, 
with pleasant garden, baths, etc., R. 3-5, B. l l /%, D. 5, L. and 
A. 2 fr. ; *Hdtel a" Angleterre, less expensive ; Hotel du Port, small ; 
all on the lake; Pension Villa Roseneck; *Lake Baths, 50 c. ; boat 
50 c. per hour, or with boatman iy 2 fr.), formerly Rive, the port 
of Lausanne. 

The Railway Station of the Swiss W. line (p. 180) is about 3 /4 M. 
from Ouchy, and Lausanne lies l U M. higher (comp. the Plan). Railway 
from Ouchy to Lausanne (station at Ouchy on the W. side of the village, 
near the lake ; station at Lausanne under the Grand-Pont) in 6 min. (trains 
ascend and descend every 2 hours; fare 25 c. ; intermediate stations Jordils 
and Ste. Luce, the latter for the station of the Swiss W. railway; see above). 

Lausanne (1689'). — Hotels. "Hotel Gibbon (PI. h), opposite the 
post office ; in the garden behind the dining-room the historian Gibbon wrote 
the concluding portion of his great work in 1787; "Faccon (PI. a), R. 
from 2'/2 fr., B. I1/2, D. 3-4, L. and A. f/2 fr- ; "Hotel do Gkand Pont 
(PI. d), near the bridge, R. 2, B. l>/ 4 fr. ; "Bellevue, D. 3, A. 1/2 fr- , a 
cafe - below ; Hotel Riche Mont (PI. e) ; :> Hotel et Pension Belvedere 
(PI. f), well situated near the 'Belvedere' promenade, R. 2V2 fr., D. 3 fr., 
L. and A. 1 fr. — "Hotel du Nohd (PI. g), Rue du Bourg, with cafe, R. 
and A. 2'/2, B. l'/4 fr. — Pensions : Beaustjour, Chevallier, ffallett, Lar- 
guier, and many others. Those in the Avenues de la Gare, du The'atre, de 
Rumine, and other new streets near the station are the best situated — 
"Restaurant Deriaz, Place St. Laurent, moderate ; Brasserie des Alpes, Rue 
du Petit Chene, near the station. 

Omnibus from the station into the town , >/2 fr. , box 1/2 fr. — Fiacres 
dear : to the station 2 fr. 

Booksellers. Roussy, Rue du Bourg 7; Benda, Rue Centrale 3. 

Post and Telegraph Office, at the entrance to the town from the station. 

English Service in the church erected by Mr. Haldimand. 

Lausanne, the Lausonium of the Romans, with 26,520 inhab. 
(3517 Rom. Cath.), the capital of the Canton de Vaud, occupies a 
beautiful and commanding situation on the terraced slopes of Mont 
Jorat, overshadowed by its cathedral on one side, and its castle 
on the other. The interior of the town is less prepossessing. 
The streets are hilly and irregular, and the houses in the older 
part insignificant. The two quarters are connected by the hand- 
some *Orand-Pont, erected in 1839-44, also named the Pont- 
Pichard after the architect who designed it. The nearly level 
street constructed by him intersects the town and passes under 
the castle by a tunnel, 50 paces long, near the Place de la Riponne. 
The new quarters of the town contain a number of handsome houses. 

The *Cathedral (PI. 6; Prot.), erected in 1235-75, and con- 
secrated by Gregory X. in the presence of Rudolph of Hapsburg, is 
a Gothic edifice of simple but massive construction. The terrace 
on which it stands is approached from the market-place by a flight 



198 Route 49. LAUSANNE. From Geneva 

of 160 steps of mean appearance. The sacristan (marguillier) lives 
to the left (N.) of the principal entrance, No. 5. 

In 1536 a celebrated Disputation took place in this church , in which 
Calvin, Farel, and Viret participated, and which resulted in the removal of the 
episcopal see to Freiburg, the separation of Vaud from the Romish Church, 
and the suppression of the supremacy of Savoy. The Interior (352' long, 
150' wide) is remarkable for its symmetry of proportion. The vaulting 
of the nave, 66' in height, is supported by 20 clustered columns of dif- 
ferent designs. Above the graceful triforium runs another arcade, which 
serves as a framework for the windows. The choir contains a semicircular 
colonnade. In the arcades which surround it appears an ancient form of 
pilaster, a relic of the Burgundian-Romanesque style of architecture. The 
beautiful rose window and the W. and S. portals, with their carving, also 
merit inspection. Above the cupola rises a clock-tower, covered with iron. 
The finest "Monuments are those of Duke Victor Amadeus VIII. of Savov 
(d. 1451), whom the Council of Bale (p. 2) elected pope under the title of 
Felix V. ; farther on in the choir are monuments to Otto of Grandson (?) 
who fell in a judicial duel (the absence of hands to the figure has no sym- 
bolical signification); the bishop Guillaume de Menthonex (d. 1406); the Rus- 
sian Princess Orlow (d. 1782); the Duchess Caroline of Curland (d. 1783); 
Harriet Stratford-Canning (d. 1818), first wife of Lord Stratford de Red- 
cliffe, at that period ambassador in Switzerland (by Bartolini, not, as is 
commonly believed, by Canova) ; Countess Wallmoden-Gimborn (d. 1783), 
mother of the Baroness of Stein, the wife of the celebrated Prussian mi- 
nister, etc. A tablet on the wall of the N. transept near these monuments 
bears the following inscription : '■A la mi-moire du Major Davel , mart sur 
Vichafaud en 1723, le 24 Avril, martyr des droits et de la liberti du peuple 
Vaudois\ a tribute paid to his memory by Laharpe (p. 196), who succeeded 
in effecting that for which Davel was beheaded as a traitor. 

The Terrace (formerly the churchyard) commands a fine *vie\v 
of the town, the lake, and the Alps of Savoy; the prospect is still 
more extensive from the summit of the tower, 162' in height. The 
adjoining episcopal palace (Eveche) is now used as a prison and 
court of justice. The view from the ancient episcopal Castle 
(PI. 7; now the Cantonal Council Hall) which stands higher up, 
is also very fine. It was erected in the 13th cent., but has been 
repeatedly altered. 

The Cantonal Museum (PI. 1 ; open Wed. and Sat. 10-4, Sund. 
11-2 o'clock) in the College near the cathedral, contains a cabinet 
of natural history, a valuable collection of freshwater conchylia, 
presented by M. de Charpentier (d. 1855), relics from Aventicum 
(p. 169) and Vidy, the ancient Lausanne, and valuable Celtic an- 
tiquities from the ancient lake-dwellings. 

The Musee Arlaud (PI. 19), founded by an artist of that name 
in 1846 , in a large building on the Riponne opposite the corn- 
exchange (Grenette), is open on Sund., Wed., and Sat. 11-3, 
gratis ; at other times fee 1 fr. It contains a few pictures by old 
masters and several good modern works: Calame, Lake of Brienz; 
Diday, Rosenlaui; Gleyre, Execution of Major Davel (see above), 
etc. — In the vicinity, Rue Chaucran 16, is the Musee Industriel 
Elementaire , with well arranged industrial collections (admission 
on Wed. and Sat. 12-3«/ 2 , Sund. 11-12 o'clock). 

The admirably organised Blind Asylum (Asile des Aveugles), 
s j-> M. from the town, on the high-road to France, was founded 



to Martigny. VEVEY. 49. Route. 199 

by the wealthy and benevolent Mr. Haldimand (d. 1862), who 
amassed a considerable fortune in England. The Blumer In- 
stitution, for children physically or mentally diseased, at the 
chateau of Vermes, is l 4 /2 M. above Lausanne, on the road to 
Bern. The Penitentiary, erected in 1828, is a model of good 
order. The Schools of Lausanne also enjoy a high reputation. 

The Montbenon, an eminence immediately to the W. of the 
town, and on a level with it, is laid out with avenues commanding 
a charming view of the lake, and used as a promenade , an exer- 
cising-ground, and a place for public meetings. The environs of 
Lausanne are better wooded than those of the towns on the E. bay 
of the Lake of Geneva. 

The -'Signal (2126'), , fr hr. walk above the town, commands a justly 
celebrated view. From the post-office to the castle '/< nr - , then follow the 
road for about 100 paces ; ascend to the right by a paved path, and thence 
by a flight of steps on the left to the carriage-road ; follow this to the right- 
till the summer-house and pleasure-grounds are seen on the right, and 
finally enter them by a footpath. The view embraces a great part of the 
lake. Mont Blanc is not visible from this point , but is seen from the 
Orandes Roches {i 1 /? M. from the town, to the right of the Yverdon road), 
another charming point of view. (Indifferent inn.) 

The steep and lofty slopes at the base of which lie the villages 
of Lutry, Cully, and St. Saphorin , bear the name of La Vaux, 
and yield one of the best Swiss white wines. Between Pully and 
Lutry, higher up, is the lofty viaduct of the Lausanne -Freiburg 
line, across the valley of the Paudeze. The amphitheatre of moun- 
tains becomes grander as the steamboat advances : the Moleson, the 
Dent de Jaman , the Rochers de Naye , the Tour d'Ay and Tour de 
Mayen , the Dent de Morcles and the Dent du Midi are visible ; 
between these, to the S., Mont Catogne, and in the background the 
snowy pyramid of Mt. Velan. Stat. Corsier, then — 

Vevey (Engl. Vevay), Ger. Vivis , the Vibiscus of the Romans. 

Hotels. "Hotel Monnet, or Trois Couronnrs; "Grand Hotel de Vevet, 
to the W. of the town; 'Grand Hotel du Lac, to the E. of the Hotel 
Monnet ; these three hotels, all on the lake, are spacious and comfortable ; 
R. from 3, B. iy 2 , D. 5, L. and A. 2 fr. ; pension from 15th Oct. to 
1st May. — "Hotel d'Anoleterre and :, Hotf.l Leman, also on the lake, 
charges more moderate ; Hotel du Fauoon, opposite the Hotel Monnet, 
smaller, well spoken of; Trois Rois, not far from the station, moderate, no 
view; Croix Blanche, near the post-office; Hotel du Pont, at the station, 
unpretending; Hotel de la Poste, in the town. — Pensions see p. 201. 

Cafes. ~Caf& du Lac; Bellevue ; National; Des Alpes; all on the quay, 
with terraces. — Rinsoz, dealer in preserved meats, etc., Rue du Lac. 

Baths at the E. end of the town ; small bath-houses on the lake (50 c); 
farther on, a swimming-bath (7-12 a.m. for ladies only). 

Station on the N. side of the town , on the left bank of the Veveyse. 

Post Office, Place de FAncien Port. — Telegraph Office opposite the 
N. side of the Hotel de Ville. — Bankers : Geo. Olas, Place de la Maison 
de Ville; A. Cutnod Churchill, Place du March^ 21. 

Omnibus from the railway station to the hotels 20, box 10 c. ; to La 
Tour-de-Peilz 30 , box 15 c. ; to Chexbres from the post-office 1 fr. (see 
p. 168). — Carriage with one horse , half-a-day 8 fr. and 2 fr. driver's fee. 

Bowing-boats may be hired at the quay and the Place du Marche, 
1 fr. per hr., with one rower 2, with two rowers 3 fr. ; to Chillon , with 
one rower 6, with two rowers 10 fr. ; to St. Oingolph (p. 211) same 



2U0 Route 49. VEVEY From Geneva 

charges; to the rucks of Meillerie (p. 211) with two rowers 12, with three 
rowers 15 fr. 

Bookseller. Benda, at the Hotel Monnet (also music, etc.). 

Physicians. Drs. De Mantel, Cnrchod , Giiisan, Mvret , and Rosier. — 
Grape-cure, p. 202. 

English Church Service at the Church of St. Clair. 

Vevey. charmingly situated at the influx of the Veveyse (1263'), 
is the second town in the Canton de Vaud, with 7887 inhah. (1393 
Rom. Oath.). Rousseau has contributed greatly to immortalise this 
spot. The views from the small terrace by the market , the quay, 
and the new Chateau of M. Couvreu (beautiful *garden with plants 
of southern growth, fee 1 fr.) embrace the whole scene of the 'A'om- 
velle Helo'ise', the 'burning pages' of which accurately depict this 
lovely neighbourhood. To the E. the Tour de Peilz, Clarens, Mon- 
treux, and Ohillon are visible; next, Villeneuve and the mouth of 
the Rhone ; in the background the Alps of Valais, the Dent du 
Midi, Mont Velan (adjoining the Great St.. Bernard), and Mont Ca- 
togne (the 'Sugar-loaf); on the S. bank of the lake, the rocks of 
Meillerie , overshadowed by the Dent d'Oche ; at the foot of the 
mountains the village of St. Gingolph (p. 211). The Quai Sina and 
Perdonnet afford a beautiful walk, sheltered from the N. wind. 
Near the station are the new Russian Chapel with its gilded dome 
and the handsome Rom. Catholic Church in the Gothic style. 

The Church of St. Martin, erected in 1498, on an eminence 
(the l Terrasse du Panorama,' ) among vineyards outside the town, 
surrounded by lime and chestnut trees, commands a charming pro- 
spect. It is only used for service in summer. An l lndicateur des 
Montagnes' has been placed here. 

In the church repose the remains of the regicides Ludlow ( l potestalis 
arbitrariae oppugnator acerrimus\ as the marble tablet records) and Brough- 
ton. The republicanism of Ludlow was of the purest kind; he opposed 
the ambitious views of Cromwell, and was free alike from hypocrisy and 
fanaticism. Broughton read the sentence to King Charles ('dignatus fuit 
sentenliam regis regum prof art, quam ob causam expvlsus patria sua" is 
the inscription on his monument). On the restoration of Charles II. 
he demanded the extradition of the refugees, a request with which the 
Swiss government firmly refused to comply. Ludlow's House, which 
stood at the E. end of the town , has been removed to make way for an 
addition to the Hotel do Lac. The original inscription chosen by himself, 
'Omne solum forti palria' ', was purchased and removed by one of his de- 
scendants. 

In the best wine years the guild of vintners (VAbbaije des Yignerons) 
celebrates a curious festival at Vevey, probably a relic of the superstitions 
of the Koman age. The last occasion of the kind was in 1865, when 
thousands of visitors were attracted by the novelty of the spectacle. The 
principal feature of the ceremony consists in a grand allegorical pro- 
cession, in which sacred and mythological subjects are often blended 
with absurd incongruity. 

The chateau of Hauteville, 2 M. to the N.E. of Vevey, with an 
admirably kept park, commands a beautiful view from the terrace and 
temple. In the same direction, 2 31. higher, is the mediieval chateau of 
Blonay, which has been in possession of the family of that name for 
centuries. The road from Hauteville to Blonay passes through the villages 
of >S7. Legier and La t'hiHaz, many houses in which arc adorned with 
interesting designs by Jl. Be'guin, a native artist. In returning, the path to 



to Martigny. CLARENS. 49. Route. 201 

the right beyond the bridge may be descended to the carriage-road below, 
which leads to the (1 M.) bridge below Chdtelard (see below). About 
1 hr. to the N.E. of Blonay are the Pleiades (properly PUyaux, 4488'), a 
celebrated point of view, at the E. base of which are the small sulphur- 
baths of VAlliaz (3428'). 

To the E. of Vevey, on the left, is M. Sillig's Bellerive School, 
to the right of which is the manege or riding-school, with the play 
and gymnastic ground. The little fleet belonging to the pupils is 
visible from the Hotel Monnet, lying at anchor or cruising about on 
the lake. The tower among the trees beyond, the Tour de Peilz 
( Turris Peliana), said to have been built by Peter of Savoy in the 
13th cent., was used as a prison before the separation of the can- 
tons of Vaud and Bern. The neighbouring chateau of M. Rigaud 
contains a collection of ancient weapons. 

From Vevey to Freiburg, see R. 40; over the Jaman to Chateau d'Oex, 
R. 39. — A pleasant excursion to St. Gingolph (lVa hr. by boat) and Novel 
(on foot) , in the valley of the Morge , thence ascending the Blanchard 
(p. 211). Inns at St. Gingolph and Novel very poor; the traveller should 
therefore bring refreshments from Vevey. 

Pedestrians proceeding from Vevey to Montreux and Chillon (7>/2 M.) 
should avoid the hot and dusty high-road , and select the shady path 
along the slope of the hill, winding among villas and gardens , and com- 
manding lovely views of the lake. It is now crossed by the railway 
in many places, and is therefore somewhat difficult to find. We take the 
first vineyard-path to the left, 1 M. beyond La Tour, and bear to the right ; 
in 12 min. to the left; 12 min., finger-post (p. 163) to the right to Mala- 
deyre and Clarens ; 7 min. to the left ; to the right a new chateau ; im- 
mediately afterwards we cross a bridge; 17 min., cross-way, but we still 
follow the broad path; 3 min., we pass below the chateau of Chdtelard, built 
towards the end of the 15th century ; we then cross a bridge to the right 
and descend the paved path; 5 min., to the left, and ascend slightly; 
3 min., Churchyard of Clarens (with several handsome monuments), com- 
manding a fine view ; the path continues at the same height , traverses 
a grove of walnuts , and leads to the (1/2 hr.) church of Montreux , thence 
to Veytaux, and down to the high-road. 

Not far from the lake, 3 3 / 4 M. from Vevey, lies the beautiful 
village of Clarens, immortalised by Rousseau. On a promontory to 
the W. is situated Les Cretes, a chestnut copse, sometimes called 
the 'Bosquet de Julie'. Rousseau's 'Bosquet', however, has long 
since disappeared, having been, according to the indignant com- 
ments of Lord Byron, uprooted by the monks of St. Bernard to make 
way for their vineyards. Beautiful view from above Clarens, near 
the churchyard (see above). 

Pensions (see Introd. III.). On this favourite S.E. boy of the Lake of 
Geneva numerous boarding-houses have been established. The best-known 
are here mentioned in their order from Vevey. At Vevey : Pension du 
Chdteau (6-8 fr.), three houses to the E. of the Hotel Monnet, with a large 
shady garden on the lake; a few houses farther, Pension du Quai; then 
Pension Maillard (5 fr.), all with a view of the lake; Pension Wolff (4-6 fr.), 
Rue des Promenades, recommended to ladies; Pension du Panorama, at 
the back of the town; Pension Chemenin, 10 min. above the town, charm- 
ing view (5-6 fr:). Farther up (at St. Le'gier) Pension Biguin, (at Blonay) 
Pension Majonnier (4-5 fr.). — At La Tour de" Peilz, near Vevey: Pension 
Victoria, on the lake ; adjoining it, Pension du Paradis ; Pension Burckhardt, 
in the little town of La Tour ; Bellevue, pleasant garden, fine view ; Du 
Rivage (Pr(laz); Beausijour ; Riant-Site; Mon Dt.sir. — An Basset, near 
Clarens: * Pension Rollandais ; *Clos du Lac; * Ketterer, sheltered. The gay 



202 Route 49. MONTRKUX. From Geneva 

cluster of villas near Clarens was built and fitted up by M. Dubochet 
of Paris (d. 1876), who presented them to the parish of Clarens. — At Cla- 
rens : to the left, Beausite ; to the right, "Ermitage , on the lake; on the 
left , Pension Gabtrel (5-6 fr.) ; on the right , Pension Mury-Monney (5 fr.), 
unpretending; on the left, 'Pension Moser (5 fr.) ; Beauregard; Maison 
Puinzieux , suites of apartments of 4 rooms , kitchen , servants 1 room , bed 
and table-linen, at 150-200 fr. per month. In the village : Major (3'/i fr.). 
Between the village and the railway-station : Oenton (5 fr.). Near the 
station: "H6iel des Cretes (5-6 fr.), well shaded; H6tel du Chdtelard. — Be- 
tween Clarens and Veknex (all on the lake): "Hotel Roth, near the station 
and steamboat quay, with garden on the lake ; Hdtel Roy, new, delight- 
fully situated; Germann; Clarentzia; Villa Richelieu (5-8 fr.); "Lorius 
(three bouses), adjoining the residence of Dr. Carrard. — At Chailli 
"Pension Benker (shaded by fruit and walnut-trees; 4 fr.); at Chernex 
higher up (above Vernex) , several pensions (Du/our, etc.) at 4 fr., well 
shaded. — At Vernex: on the right, "Cygne, pension 6-8 fr., also a hotel 
(K. 21/2, B. I'/-.', A. 3/ 4 f r .), boat to Chillon (2>/ 2 hrs. incl. stay) with one 
rower 272 fr. ; on the left, Hdtel de la Poste; at the station, Hdlel et Pen- 
sion de Montreux (4'/2-6'/2 fr.). — Between Vernex and Territet, on the 
bank of the lake: to the right, Monney (4>/2-6'/2 fr.); "Beau- Sdjour au Lac, 
new; Hdtel Suisse; Bellevue (41/2 fr.); on the left, Plaint de Montreux 
(4 5 fr.) , opposite the steamboat-pier ; on the left , above the road , Haute- 
Rive (4-5 fr.); farther on, right, Beau-Rivage and Bon Port (5-6 fr.) , the 
three last commanding a fine view. At Montreux : Pension Visinand; 'Mile. 
Mooser (5 fr.), with pleasant view; "Vautier (6 fr.); Pension Buret; Hdtel 
National, new. — At Territet : "Hdtel des Alpes, containing 90 rooms (from 
2 fr.) and 'Salons' (5-10 fr.) , a favourite rendezvous of visitors, 1). 5 fr. , 
pension from 7 fr. ; dependanee in the garden , in which suites of apart- 
ments may be hired for 200-400 fr. per month ; Hdtel du Lac , small ; 
"Hdtel d'Angletene ; on the right, Mounoud, 3V2-4 fr. ; "Hotel Bonivard, R. 
from 2, B. I'/a, A. and L. 1 fr. — At Veytaux, "Masson (4-5 fr.); "Pension 
Chillon, near the castle. — Between Chillon and Villeneuve, "La Prin- 
tannierc (4-6 fr.), shady walks ; also the handsome "Hdtel Huron (R. 3, 
D. 4-5, L. and A. 1 fr.). — Near Glion (2254'), in a healthy and beautiful 
situation, "Hdtel Right Vaudois (R. from 3 fr., B. l'/2, D. 4 fr., pension 
10 fr.) , recommended for the whey-cure , reached by a good carriage-road 
(l ! /< M., one-horse carr. 6 fr., two-horse 11 fr. incl. fee), and a steep foot- 
path (20 min.). Adjoining it, Hdtel Bellevue (4-5 fr.). At Glion: Hdtel 
Victoria (8 fr.), beautifully situated; "Hdtel du Midi (4 fr.), and other pen- 
sions at moderate charges. 

Most of these pensions receive passing travellers at hotel prices, but 
in autumn they are often full. The grape-cure generally begins at the end 
of September and lasts about a month. Grapes charged ','2 fr. per lb. — 
Aigle (p. 205) and Bex (p. 206) have lately become places of considerable 
resort. In the height of summer when the heat on the lake and in the 
valley of the Rhone becomes overpowering, the pensions at Chateau d'Oei 
(p. lt>3) are much frequented. There are also similar pensions at Geneva, 
see p. 182. 

Clarens , Chernex , Vernex, Glion, Colonges , Veytaux, and the 
other villages which lie scattered about, partly on the lake and 
partly on the hill-side, are in the parish of Montreux. This district 
is divided into two parts by the brook of Montreux, the groups of 
houses op the right bank being named collectively Chdtelard (p. 201), 
those on the left Les Planches. Montreux (Hotel de I'Vnion, Pont. 
both poor; pensions see above; Benda's book-shop and reading- 
room), lying in the centre of these scattered hamlets, on the lake, 
possesses a handsome church which commands a superb *view of 
the lake, from the mouth of the Rhone to a point far beyond Lau- 
sanne. Kigs, pomegranates, and laurels flourish here in the open 



to Martigny. CHILLON. 49. Route. 203 

air, and the wine is much esteemed. Consumptive patients are 
frequently sent to Montreux owing to its sheltered situation. 

Excursions from Montreux. -Rocners de Naye (6706')] the S. neigh- 
bour of the Jaman , ascent 4 , descent 3 hrs. , view embracing the whole of 
the Bernese mountains, Valais, and Savoy; Mont Blanc only partially visible. 
Easiest ascent, by Glion and Mont Cau; but most picturesque over the 
wooded ridge of Mont Sonchaud, for which last a guide is desirable. — 
Mont Cvbli (3940'), N.E. of Sonzier, to the summit and back in 4 hrs. — 
To Les Avnnts ("Hot. des Avants), l'/a hr., see p. 163. — To the "Gorge 
du Chavdron^ a profound wooded ravine, with groups of rocks and water- 
falls, between Glion and Sonzier. The whole valley is called La Bate de 
Montreux. The walk to the gorge from the bridge at Montreux and back 
occupies 1 hr., or returning by Glion 2Va hrs. — By Chernex and Chaulin 
to the Bains de V Alliaz and the PUlades , returning by Blonay (p. 200), 
8 hrs. — To the Val d Illiez, see p. 212. — By Aigle to the Ormonts, see 
R. 38. — Ascent of the Jaman, see p. 162. Mules may be hired. — To 
the Pissevache and Gorge du Trient (p. 208) by railway, and back in one day. 

Stat. Territet-ChiUon (Restaurant, see p. 205). The *Castle of 
Chillon, with its massive walls and towers, 1^2 M. from Montreux, 
stands on an isolated rock 22 yds. from the bank, with which it is 
connected by a bridge. Boats are in readiness to convey passengers 
from the steamboat-pier to the castle. 

"Chillon ! thy prison is a holy place, 
And thy sad floor an altar, — for 'twas trod, 
Until his very steps have left a trace, 
Worn, as if the cold pavement were a sod, 
By Bonivard ! — may none those marks efface, 
For they appeal from tyranny to God." 
The author of these beautiful lines has invested this spot with 
much of the peculiar interest which attaches to it, but it is an error to 
identify Bonivard, the victim to .the tyranny of the Duke of Savoy, and 
confined by him in these gloomy dungeons for six years, with Byron's 
'Prisoner of Chillon'. The author calls his poem a Fable, and when he 
composed it he was not aware of the history of Bonivard , or he would, 
as he himself states, have attempted to dignify the subject by an endeavour 
to celebrate his courage and virtue. Francis Bonivard was born in 1496. 
He was the son of Louis Bonivard, Lord of Lune, and at the age of sixteen in- 
herited from his uncle the rich priory of St. Victor , close to the walls of 
Geneva. The Duke of Savoy having attacked the republic of Geneva, Bonivard 
warmly espoused its cause, and thereby incurred the relentless hostility of 
the Duke , who caused him to be seized and imprisoned in the castle of 
Grolee, where he remained two years. On regaining his liberty he returned 
to his priory , but in 1528 he was again in arms against those who had 
seized his ecclesiastical revenues. The city of Geneva supplied him with 
munitions of war, in return for which Bonivard parted with his birthright, 
the revenues of which were applied by the Genevese to the support of 
the city hospital. He was afterwards employed in the service of the repu- 
blic, and in 1530 when travelling between Moudon and Lausanne fell into 
the power of his old enemy , the Duke of Savoy , who caused him to be 
confined in the castle of Chillon. In 1536 he was restored to liberty by the 
Bernese and Genevese forces under Nogelin , and having returned to the 
republic, he spi-nt the remainder of his life as a highly respected citizen. 
He died in 1571 at the age of 75 years. 

Above the Castellan's entrance are the words, 'Oott der Herr 
segne den Ein- und Ausgang' (God bless all who come in and go 
out) inscribed by the Bernese in 1643. The rooms with their old 
wooden ceilings, the dungeons with their pillars and arches, and 
the other reminiscences of the time of the dukes of Savoy are inter- 



204 Route 49. VILLENEUVE. From Geneva 

esting (fee 1 fr.). The steps of Bonivard and other illustrious cap- 
tives have left their traces on the pavement. A fine effect is pro- 
duced by the beams of the setting sun streaming through the narrow 
loopholes into these sombre precincts. Among the thousands of 
names inscribed on the pillars are those of Byron, Eugene Sue, and 
Victor Hugo. 

It is an historical fact that in the year 830 Louis le Debonnaire in- 
carcerated the Abbe Wala of Corvey, who instigated his sons to rebellion, 
in a castle from which only the sky, the Alps, and Lake Leman were 
visible (Pertz, Monum. ii. p. 556); this could have been no other than 
the Castle of Chillon. Count Peter of Savoy improved and fortified the 
castle in the 13th cent., and it now stands much as he left it. The strong 
pillars in the vaults are in the early Romanesque style, and belonged to the 
original edifice. The Counts of Savoy frequently resided in the castle, 
and it was subsequently converted into a state-prison. Since 1798 it has 
been used as a military arsenal. 

Between Chillon and Villeneuve, on the slope of the hill, is the 
*H6tel Byron (p. 202). The He de Paix, an islet 30 paces long and 
20 wide, '/ 2 M. to the W- of Villeneuve, commanding a complete 
panoramic view, was laid out and planted with three elms by a lady 
a century ago, and recalls Byron's lines : 

'And then there was a little isle, 
Which in my very face did smile, 
The only one in view.' 

Prisoner of Chillon. S. xm. 

In the E. bay of the lake (1230'), 9 M. from Vevey, l</ 2 M- from 
Chillon, lies Villeneuve (Hotel de Ville), a small town surrounded 
by a wall, the Pennilucus, or Penneloci of the Romans. The railway 
station is behind the town, to the E. (see below). Footpath to 
Montbovon (p. 162) over the Col de la Tiniere (5341') in 4'/ 2 hrs., 
to Chateau d'Oex (p. 163) in 6 hrs. 



Railway Journey (comp. p. 195) from Geneva to (3~i/ 2 M.) 
Lausanne, see p. 180. Lausanne, see p. 197. 

The train skirts the lake the greater part of the way to Ville- 
neuve ; a seat should therefore be selected on the right (S.) side. 
After the station at Lausanne is quitted, the Freiburg railway (p. 180) 
diverges to the left. Before (4 1 i/o M.) Lutry, the train crosses the 
Paudeze (the viaduct of the Freiburg line with its nine arches is 
above, to the left), passes through a short tunnel, and winds round 
the vine-clad slopes of La Vaux (p. 199). On the opposite (S.) 
bunk are the rocks of Meillerie (p. 211). Then another tunnel. The 
high-road traverses vineyards to the right, lower down. 

From (43</ 2 M.) Cully (p. 199) to (46>/ 2 M.) Rivaz St. Sa- 
phorin the train runs close to the lake. (The train from Lausanne 
to Freiburg, which has been gradually ascending, here leaves the 
bank of the lake, and turns inland to the N.E.) Nenr Vevey the 
train quits the lake, crosses the Yeveyxe, and stops at the — 

50 M. Vevey station (p. 199), which lies behind the town. 

50'/ 2 M. La Tour-de-Peilz (p. 201). The train skirts the foot 



to Martigny. AIGLE. 49. Route. 205 

of the hills for some distance to (51!/ 2 M.) Burier , and passes 
through a tunnel near (52 M.) Clarens (p. 201), on emerging from 
which it commands a fine view of Montreux, Chillon, and the E. bay 
of the lake. Beyond stat. Vernex-Montreux (p. 202; *Cafe de la 
Oare), which lies at a considerable height above the lake, we again 
approach the lake. Stat. Veytaux-Chillon (p. 203) is l J2 M. from 
the castle of Chillon {^Cafe Einholtz, near the station). 

57 M. Villeneuve, see above. The train passes behind the town, 
and enters the Rhone Valley, here 3 M. wide, and bounded by high 
mountains. The valley is flat, and in most parts marshy. 

The Rhone flows into the lake on the W- side of the valley, near 
Bouveret. Its grey waters , the deposit of which in the course of 
ages has formed an extensive tract of marshy alluvial soil, present 
a marked contrast to the crystalline azure of the same river where 
it rushes through the bridges at Geneva. 

The first station in the valley of the Rhone is Roche. Part of the 
mountain near Yvorne (1561') was precipitated on the village below 
by an earthquake in 1584. Excellent wine is grown in the gorge. 
The large and thriving village extends along a vine-clad hill near 
Aigle , a little to the left of the railway. On the right is seen the 
jagged and snow-clad Dent du Midi (p. 212). 

63 M. Stat. Aigle (1375'). — Grand Hotel des Bains on the hill 
above Aigle, iy 2 M. from the railway, R. 2'/i, B. l>/ 2 , D. 4, L. and A. l>/2, 
pension 10 fr. — ~Beau Site at the station , comfortable , pension 6 fr. ; 
*Mon Sejouk, also recommended, 2 min. from the station; '"Victoria, 
2 min. farther, opposite the post and diligence office; these three hotels 
have baths and pleasant grounds. — 4 H6tel du Midi and Hotel do Nord, 
both commercial, in the town, l /\ M. from the station. 

Aigle, situated on the impetuous Grande-Eau (p. 161), was 
the Aquila or Aquileja of the Romans , and one of their cavalry 
stations, and is now a favourite summer resort (3307 inhab.). The 
village is built of the black marble found in the neighbourhood. — 
Pleasant walk C/2 hr.) to the *Plantour, an eminence between Aigle 
and Ollon, with charming views up and down the Rhone Valley. 

To the Okmonts (p. 160) , a pleasant excursion , driving as far as 
Sepey , or the whule way to Les Plans (one - horse carriage there and 
back 15 fr. , fee 1 fr. ; diligence to Sepey daily in 2*/« hrs. , to Ormont- 
dessus in 4'A hrs.; comp. p. 159). Pedestrians may prefer to walk via. 
Leysin (4147') to (3'/2 hrs.) Sepey; beautiful views of the neighbouring 
mountains (the Tour d'Ay anl de Mayen, Famelon, etc.) and of the Ormont 
valleys. In returning, the shady path along the left bank of the Grande 
Eau (72 hr. longer) may be selected. 

To Villard, a very favourite point, 3 ! /4 hrs. from Aigle, 2 ! /2 hrs. above 
Ollon (see below), one-horse carr. 15, two-horse 25 fr. and fee. High road 
to (2'/4 M.) Ollon , thence a good carriage-road in numerous windings. 
Pedestrians follow the old road , which diverges to the left from the new 
immediately above Ollon. About 3 min. farther the path divides into three, 
of which we follow that to the extreme right. At (50 min.) La Pousaz 
we take the path to the left ; 35 min. Huemoz (pron. Wems by the natives), 
charmingly situated ; V2 hr. Chesiere ( ::: H6tel du Chamossaire), with beautiful 
view; l /i hr. Villard (4003'; "Grand Muveran; Chalet ; "Bellevue; pension in 
each 6-8 fr.), an insignificant hamlet with several much frequented pensions. 
Admirable view of the Rhone valley , as well as of the Grand Moveran (or 



206 Route 49. BEX. From Geneva 

Muveran), the Dent de Morcles, the Dent du Midi, etc. ; pleasant park-like 
environs, affording a variety of walks. — The principal excursion hence is 
the ascent (2 hrs. , carriage-road nearly to the top) of the ChamOBsaire 
(6953'), which commands a remarkably picturesque view, including the Bernese 
Alps, the Weisshorn, the Diablerets, Grand Moveran, Dent de Jlorcles, Mont 
Blanc, Dent du Midi, valley of the Rhone, Sepey, and the Ormonfs. 

From Villahd to Obmokt-Dessus over the Pas de la Croix (5174'), 
3 hrs. ; descent on the farther side to Les Plans steep and rough ; guide 
unnecessary , if the traveller is shown the 1" eginning of the route (comp. 
p. 160). — From Villard by Arveyes to Oryon (p. 255), 35 min. 

From Aigle a road (one-horse carr. 10 fr.) leads by Yvorne (see above) 
to (2 hrs.) Corbeyrier (3235'; *H6lel-Pens. Dvbitis , 5-5'/ 2 fr.), a handsome 
village in a sheltered situation. The Signal ('/< hr.) commands a survey of 
the Rhone valley from St. Maurice to the Lake of Geneva; more extensive 
view, particularly of the Tour Sallieres and Dent du Midi, from the plateau 
Avx Agittes (4997'; bridle-path, l'/ 2 hr.). The ascent of the Tour a" 1 Ay 
(7818') and the Tour de Mayen (7621') should not be attempted except by 
experienced and steady climbers. 

On an isolated wooded eminence, rising from the valley of the 
Rhone near stat. Ollon-St. Triphon, stands a tower, CO' in height, 
of Roman origin , the fragment of an ancient castle. The small vil- 
lage of St. Triphon is nearly '/ 2 M. from the railway; Olion (Hotel 
de Ville, rustic) lies at the foot of the hills, l>/ 4 M. farther distant. 
A finger-post indicates the road to the right to Colombey (p. 211) 
on the left bank of the Rhone , which is connected with the right 
bank by a suspension-bridge. 

Interesting excursion to the Blocs Erratiques, near (3 M.) Monthey in 
the Val d'llliez. Ascent of the Dent du Midi, see p. 212. 

68 M. Bex (1427'; *Grand Hotel des Salines, with baths, well 
situated, pension 10-15 fr. ; Union; Hotel des Bains; *Bellevue, the 
nearest to the station; *Quatre Saisons, new; Pension Meylan; 
Pension Crochet, 5-6 fr. ; Rail. Restaurant], pronounced Buy, a 
small town on the Aven$ on , lies 3 / 4 M . from the station (omnibus 
50 c. ). The considerable saltworks of Devens and Bevieux, 3 M. to 
the N.E., approached by a shady path of gradual ascent, may be 
inspected in half a day (guide 5 fr.). Visitors usually drive to Devens, 
see the salt-works, and then visit the mines, where the salt is 
obtained from the saline, argillaceous slate by steeping it in fresh 
water. — A hill to the S.E., 3 / 4 hr. from Bex., crowned by the 
Tuined Tour de Duin, commands a pleasing survey of the Val d'llliez. 
the Dent du Midi, Dent de Morcles, etc. 

From Bex to Sion by the Col de C/idville , see R. 60; to Freniere and 
Les Plans, see p. 255. 

The train now approaches the Rhone , crosses it by a wooden 
bridge, and joins the railway on the S. bank (Bouveret- Sion, 
p. 211). Before entering a tunnel through the rock which descends 
towards the Rhone near St. Maurice, scarcely leaving room for the 
high road , the train commands a good survey of the picturesque 
situation of the little town. The fortifications were built in 1832 
and 1847, before the war of the Separate League. The single-arched 
stone bridge , with its span of 70', by which the high-road crosses 
the Rhone, constructed in the 15th cent. , rests with its E. buttress 



to Martigny. ST. MAUKICE. 49. Route. 207 

on a spur of the Dent tie Hordes (9639'), and its W. end on one of 
the Dent du Midi (10,450'; see p. 212). Above the castle, half- 
way up the hill , is the Grotte aux Fees, a stalactite cavern nearly 
1 M. long. Cards of admission (1 fr. , lamp 20 c.) are sold by the 
castellan of the fortress. 

On emerging from the tunnel beyond the town, of which little 
is seen from the line, the train stops at stat. St. Maurice. To the 
right, halfway up the apparently inaccessible precipice at the foot of 
which the station stands, is perched the hermitage of Notre-Dame- 
du-Sex (sax, i. e. rock), to which a narrow footpath has been hewn 
in the rock. 

71 M. St. Maurice (1342' ; Ecu du Valais, tolerable ; Hotel des 
Alpes; Dent du Midi; *Eestaurant des Alpes, opposite the station), 
a picturesque old town with very narrow streets , on a delta be- 
tween the river and the cliffs, the Agaunum of the Romans, capital 
of the Nantuates, is said to derive its name from St. Maurice, the 
commander of the Theban legion, who, according to tradition, suf- 
fered martyrdom here in 302 (near the Chapelle de Verolliaz, see 
below). The abbey, probably the most ancient religious house on 
this side of the Alps , is said to have been founded at the end of the 
4th cent, by St. Theodore. It is now occupied by Augustinian 
monks, and contains some interesting old works of art. Among 
these are a vase of Saracenic workmanship , a crozier in gold with 
elaborately wrought figures, each 1/2 * n - in height, a chalice of agate, 
Queen Bertha's chalice, and a rich MS. of the Gospels, said to have 
been presented to the abbey by Charlemagne. On the walls of the 
churchyard and on the tower of the ancient church are Roman in- 
scriptions. 

The Baths of La vet (1420') , on the right bank of the Rhone, l'/2 M. 
to the S., above the bridge of St. Maurice, are much frequented. The 
warm spring (100° Fahr.), first discovered in 1831, containing chloride of 
sodium and sulphate of soda, rises in the bed of the Rhone. 

Beyond this, to the right of the line, is the Chapelle de Verolliaz, 
with rude frescoes , marking the traditional spot where the 6000 
soldiers of the Theban legion suffered martyrdom. On the opposite 
bank of the Rhone are the Baths of Lavey (see above). The line now 
approaches the Rhone, and winds round the spot where a gigantic 
stream of mud from the Dent du Midi inundated the valley in Au- 
gust, 1835, covering it with huge blocks of stone and debris. 

75 M. Evionnaz occupies the site of the town of Epaunum, 
which was destroyed by a similar mud-stream in 563. A great Coun- 
cil met here in 517. Before us rises the broad snow-clad Mont Velan 
(p. 242). Near the little village of La Barma the railway and high- 
road wind round a projecting rock close to the Rhone, and the beau- 
tiful waterfall of the *Pissevache becomes visible on the right. This 
is a fall of the Sallenche, which drains the glaciers of the Dent du 
Midi, and here precipitates itself into the valley of the Bhone from 
a height of 220' (iy 2 M. from Vernayaz, the nearest station). The 



208 Route 49. MARTIGNY. 

path ascending on the right side of the waterfall is protected by a 
balustrade (1 fr.). 

77y 2 M. Stat. Vernayaz (1535'; Hotel des Gorges du Trient; 
des Alpes and de la Poste, poor; Cafe at the station, dear), is the 
starting point of the new route to Chamouny viaSalvan and Triquent 
(see p. 232), and now possesses a staff of guides and horses (same 
charges as at Martigny: guide to Le Chatelard 6, to the Cascade du 
Dailly 4 fr.). 

About 3 / 4 M. beyond Vernayaz, on the right, we perceive the 
barren rocks at the mouth of the *Gorge du Trient, which may be 
ascended for nearly t/ 2 M. to a point where the gorge widens, by 
means of a wooden gallery, like that at Pfaffers (p. 306), attached 
to the rocks above the foaming stream (adm. 1 fr.'). At the entrance 
is the *Qrand Hotel des Gorges du Trient (not to be confounded 
with the inn of that name at Vernayaz). 

The view at the entrance to the gorge is imposing. The rocks, here 
about 420' high, approach so closely to each other at every turn, 
that the traveller continually expects to find himself in a huge vaulted 
cavern. The sunshine never penetrates into this gully. The report of a 
small cannon awakens the most deafening reverberations. At the point 
where the path crosses the Trient for the second time, the stream is said 
to be 40' deep ; at the end of the gallery it forms a waterfall, 30' in 
height. The gorge (which is impracticable farther up) is 8 M. long, 
extending as far as the Hotel de la Tete Noire (p. 231), from which 
its entrance is visible. — The interval between the arrival of one train 
at Vernayaz and the departure of the next suffices for the inspection of 
the Pissevache and the (Jorge. 

From Vernayaz to Chamouny by Salvan, see p. 232. 

Near Martigny, at the right angle which the Rhone valley here 
forms , on a hill to the right of the line, stands La Batiaz (1985'), 
a castle of the bishops of Sion , erected by Peter of Savoy in 1260, 
and dismantled in 1518. The steep ascent from the Dranse bridge 
occupies i / i hr. (adm. 30 c). It commands a *view of the broad 
lower valley of the Rhone as far as Sion , and some of the Bernese 
Alps (the Sanetschhorn and a small part of the Genimi being partic- 
ularly prominent); on the mountains on the S. side stands the 
Pierre-a- Voir (see below), resembling a tower; below are Martigny 
and Martigny-le-Bourg ; through the valley to the S.W. runs the 
road to the Col de Forclaz (p. 231 ), above which rise the peaks 
of the Aiguilles Rouges; to the N. the Dranse, and beyond it the 
Trient empty themselves into the Rhone. 

The train crosses the Dranse, an impetuous mountain-torrent, 
one branch of which rises on the Great St. liernard (p. 241). The 
station of Martigny is l /o M. from the town (omnibus ^ fr-)- 

HI M. Martigny (1558'; "Hotel Clerc; * Hotel de'la Tour. K. 
3, B. 1V 2 , D. 5, L. and A. l«/ 4 fr. ; * Grande- Maison et Poste, R. 
272, B. ll/- 2 , A. and L. 1 . I). 4 fr. ; *H6tel du Unnlblanc, moder- 
ate; Bellevue, at the station; Cygne; Baths near the Hotel de la 
Tour, 2 fr.), the Roman Octodururn, or Cinitas \ Htlensium , capital 
of the Veragri , is now a busy little town in summer owing to the 



PIERRE-A-VOIR. 49. Route. 209 

great influx of tourists , being the starting-point of the routes over 
the Great St. Bernard to Aosta (R. 57), and over the Tete-Noire and 
Col de Balme (RR. 54, 55) to Chamouny. The monastery of Martigny 
relieves from time to time the Augustinian monks who occupy the 
Hospice of St. Bernard (p. 243). 

Above Martigny , on the road to the Great St. Bernard , lies ( 3 / 4 
M.) Martigny-le-Bourg (Trois Couronnes, poor, good 'Coquempey' 
wine ; Lion d'Or), the vineyards of which yield excellent wine (Co- 
quempey and la Marque, both known to the Romans). 

Cretinism in its most repulsive form was formerly prevalent in this 
angle of the Rhone valley , but the disease has gradually retired before 
the modern introduction of airy dwellings and other sanitary improve- 
ments. The brown cotton material of which the men's blouses are made 
in this district is peculiar. A small kind of gnat with black , gauzy 
wings is a source of great annoyance in the marshy districts of the lower 
Rhone Valley in summer, especially towards evening; the windows of 
bedrooms should therefore be closed early. 

The *Pierre-a- Voir (8123'), a limestone peak in the mountain range which 
separates the valley of the Rhone from the Val de Bagne, is frequently 
ascended from Martigny and the Baths of Saxon (p. 269), or Sembrancher 
(p. 241). The ascent from Martigny (6 hrs.), and the descent to Saxon is 
recommended. (Bridle-path, 6 hrs. ; guide from Martigny 8, mule 10 fr.) From 
the Col, V4 hr. below the summit, the descent may either be made in a rapid, 
but not very pleasant manner on a kind of sledge to the Baths of Saxon in 
1-1 '/a hr. , or on foot in 3 hrs. The summit commands a beautiful view of 
the Alps of the Valais (from Mont Blanc to the Matterhorn), the Bernese 
Alps (from the Dent de Morcles to the Jungfrau), of the Rhone, Entre- 
mont, and Bagne valleys, and the glacier of Gietroz (p. 254). 

'Gorges du Durnanl (3 hrs. from Martigny there and back), see p. 241. 

Railway to (lOG 1 ^ M.) Sierre, see R. 63. 

50. From Geneva to St. Maurice by Bouveret. 
Lake of Geneva (Southern Bank). 

Comp. Map, p. 19 i. 

Stka.mboat to Bouveret along the S. Bank in 4'/ 2 -5 hrs.; fare 6 or 3fr. — 
Railway from Bouveret to (14'/s- M.) St. Maurice by three trains daily in 
correspondence with the steamboats , in 3 /« hr. ; fares 2 fr. 75 , 1 fr. 85, 
1 fr. 40 c. 

Those who have seen the N. Bank (R. 49) may choose this interesting 
route by way of variety. Leaving Geneva by the first boat, they will 
reach St. Maurice (and also Martigny and Sion) as soon as by the train 
from Geneva via Lausanne and Villeneuve. Excursion-tickets from Geneva 
to Chamouny by Martigny and back by Sallanches (or vice versa), see 
p. 218. Comp. also p. 193. 

The Road from Geneva to Bouveret , being the first part of the 
Simplon route constructed by Napoleon I. to connect Geneva with Milan 
(comp. p. 273), runs at a considerable distance from the lake, and passes 
through (10 M.) Douvaine and Thonon (10 M. , nearly half way). Thus 
far it is unattractive, except tMe first part, to Vesenaz (p. 192). Prom 
Amphion to Bouveret it skirts the rocky bank of the lake, and is very 
picturesque. 

As the steamboat quits the quay, it affords a fine retrospect of 
the town with its numerous villas , passes Cologny and Vesenaz 
(p. 192), and first touches at Bellerive, the station for Collonge, 
which lies a little inland. The village on the opposite bank is Geu- 

Baedekeb, Switzerland. 7th Edition. 14 



210 Route 50. KVIAN. From (ientva 

tliod (p. 180). Next station Anieres, opposite Vcrsoix (p. 195); then 
Hermance (opposite Coppet, p. 195). where the brook of that name 
falls into the lake, forming the boundary between the Canton of Ge- 
neva and Savoy. On the N. bank, opposite stat. Nernier, Nyoii 
(p. 195) is conspicuous. 

Beyond Yvoire, with its ancient castle, situated on a promontory 
the lake suddenly expands to its greatest width (between Rolle and 
Thonon 9 M.; comp. p. 194). The N. bank is now so distant that 
its villages are only distinguished in clear weather. A large bay 
opens to the S., in which the village of Excenevrex lies to the right. 
The mountains of Savoy here become more conspicuous. The 
steamboat now approaches - — 

Thonon (1401'; Hotel de I' Europe , on the terrace ; Balance; 
Ville de Geneve) , rising picturesquely from the lake , the capital 
(pop. 4825) of the Savoyard province of Chablah, and once the resi- 
dence of the Counts and Dukes of Savoy. It possesses handsome 
buildings and a lofty terrace in the upper part of the town, the site 
of the ducal palace destroyed by the Bernese in 1536. 

About 3 M. to the S. of Thonon is situated the small town of Les 
Allinges, commanded by the ruins of an old castle i}j-i hr. from the town: 
refreshments and fine view). 

From Thonon a good carriage-road ascends the pretty Vallkv ok nit 
Dkanse by <S(. Jean d'Aulph, with interesting ruins of a monastery, in 
8-9 hrs. to Morzine (Hotel du Chamois). Thence to Samoens and Sixt, see 
p. 229; to Champery in the Val dllliez, p. 213. 

The steamboat next passes the ruined chateau of llipaille, on the 
bank of the lake , a little to the N. of Thonon, formerly the seat of 
Duke Victor Amadeus VIII. of Savoy (p. 198), who died at Geneva 
in 1451. The promontory round which the steamboat now steers 
has been formed by the deposits of the Dranse, which falls into the 
lake here (not to be confounded with the stream of that name in the 
Valais, which falls into the Rhone near Martigny). In the bay, on 
the high-road, which runs close to the lake here, are the sulphur- 
baths of Ampliion , which have recently come into favour, in the 
midst of a grove of chestnuts. 

The steamboat next touches at Evian (Hotel </cs liains; *Hvtel 
Eriun, with garden on the lake ; Hotel de France ; Hotel du Aon/ ; 
* Hotel du Montblanc, moderate; Hotel Funbontie. on the lake), a 
small town picturesquely situated , with a lofty and conspicuous 
spire. High above the lake, in the centre of the town, is the Bath- 
house, with alkaline baths ; the garden-terraces at the back afford a 
beautiful view. Most of the summer residents at Evian and Am- 
pliion (between which an omnibus rims frequently) are French. 

On the lake, near station Tour-Ilonde , stands the old castle of 
Blonay with its park (not to be confounded with the castle of Blonay 
near Yevey, p. '200). On the opposite bank lies Lausanne (p. 197), 
picturesquely situated on an eminence; more to the K. is visible 
the arch of the lofty Paudeze viaduct, on the Oron line (p. 167). 
The mountains of the S. bank which the boat now skirts become 



to St. Maurice. BOUVEKET. 5U. Route. 211 

more precipitous. In a romantic situation close to the lake is Meil- 
lerie, or Millerez, where, in Rousseau's 'Nouvelle HeToise', St. Preux 
is represented as taking shelter during a storm at the house of Ma- 
dame Volmar. Napoleon I. caused the rocks here to be blown up, 
in order to provide material for the Simplon road. Meillerie was 
formerly accessible from the lake only. Charming view near Les 
Vallettes, and still more extensive from the Dent d'Oche (7300'; as- 
cent see below). 

St. Gingolph (Poste ; Lion d'Or), on a promontory opposite Ve- 
vey (p. 201), belongs half to Savoy, and half to Canton Valais, the 
boundary being formed by the Morge , which flows through a deep 
ravine. The grotto of Viviers , with its springs , may be visited by 
boat. 

A delightful excursion, with a succession of fine views , may be made 
by ascending the ravine of the Morge and crossing the mountain to Port 
Valais (see below), whence the traveller may. proceed to Bouveret or 
to Vouvry. Those who wish to extend their walk, may follow the left 
bank of the Morge for l'/2 hr. to Novel (two poor inns), ascend the Blan- 
chard (4642'; 3 hrs. there and back ; guide necessary) , and return by the 
right bank of the Morge through beautiful forest to St. Gingolph. — 
From Novel to the Dent d'Oche (7300'), an interesting ascent of 4-5 hrs. 
(with guide); to the Grammont (7146') 4 hrs., also interesting. — To the 
E. an easy bridle-path, skirting the S. side of the Grammont, and passing 
the lakes of Lovenex and Taney, leads in 4 1 .'■> hrs. to Vouvry (see below). 

Bouveret (Tour) lies at the S.E. end of the Lake of Geneva, 
3/ 4 M. to the S.W. of the mouth of the Rhone, which converts the 
adjoining land into a marsh. Its impetuous current, called la Bat- 
tagli'ere, may be traced for upwards of 1 M. in the lake. 

The train enters the valley of the Rhone to the S.E., follow- 
ing the left bank of the river. (Railway on the right bank, see 
p. 205.) Soon after leaving Bouveret, the train passes a rocky 
eminence on the right, occupied by Port Valais, the Portus Val- 
lesiae of the Romans , which then lay on the lake , but is now 
1 */ 2 M. distant from it. Near La Porte du Sex (1289')* the rock 
approaches so near the river as scarcely to leave room for the road, 
which passes through a 'Porte' between the precipice and the Rhone. 
This entrance was anciently fortified, and formed the key to Can- 
ton Valais in this direction. The railway is constructed on the bed 
of the river, which it crosses by a wooden bridge to Ckessel on the 
right bank. To the right we obtain a view of the Dent du Midi 
(p. 312). 

3 3 / 4 M. Vouvry (Poste), on the right, is the first station; beau- 
tiful view near the church. The Rhone is joined here by the Stock- 
alper Canal, which was begun a century ago by a family of that 
name for the drainage of the district and the transport of goods, 
but never finished. To the right of the line, near Colombey (fine 
view near the nunnery, which possesses an interesting porch), are 
the villages of Evionnaz and Muraz at the foot of the hills. Oppos- 
ite the former, on the right bank of the Rhone, lies Yvorne (p. 
205), to the right of which rise the serrated Diablerets and the 

14* 



212 Route r,0. triAMPERY. 

snow-clad Oldenhom. A suspension-bridge, 70 yds. long, connects 
the banks of the Rhone between Oolombey and stat. St. Triphon, 
on the railway of the right bank (p. 206j. 

On the hill near (10 M.J Monthey (1381'; Croix d'Or; Hold 
de Morgins), is an old chateau, which was occupied by the gov- 
ernor of the district down to 1798. In a chestnut-grove (guide 
desirable) 20 min. above Monthey, among a number of boulders, 
is the huge Pierre Adzo (pierre suspendue), balanced on a point 
not exceeding a few square inches in area. 

Monthey lies at the mouth of the Val d'liliez, a valley 12 M. long, 
which winds up to the S.W. towards the mountains of Savoy, and is remark- 
able for its fresh green pastures, picturesque scenery, rare plants, and 
stalwart race of inhabitants. (One-horse carr. from Monthey to Cham- 
pery 10, two-horse 15 fr. and driver's fee; omnibus in summer daily in 
3'/4 hrs., 2 fr. 90 c.) Near Monthey the new road ascends through vine- 
yards, and afterwards for 2 M. through a chestnut wood, by numerous 
windings , which the pedestrian may avoid by following the old paved 
bridle-path (the beginning of which had better be asked for at Monthey). 
Beautiful retrospect of the valley of the Rhone, Bex and Aigle, the Dia- 
blerets, and the Grand Moveran. About >/< hr. above Monthey the old 
path joins the road , which must now be followed to the left where the 
telegraph wires turn in that direction , and not again quitted (the path to 
the right leads to Morgin). The road, now nearly level, leads to (l'/j M.) 
the beautifully situated village of Troistorrents (Hotel and Pension), near 
the church of which there is a good fountain. (Here to the W. opens the 
Val de Morgin, in which are situated the Baths of that name, 3 hrs. from 
Monthey ; the waters are impregnated with iron, and are chiefly used for 
drinking. Inn tolerable.) The road in the Val d'liliez gradually ascends, 
commanding a beautiful view of the Dent du Midi all the way, to (2 1 /* M.) 
Val d'liliez, and — 

&k M.) Champery (3389' ; Hotel de la Dent du Midi, R. 2, B. l'/ 2 , D. 3, 
L. and A. 1, pension excl. R. 4V» fr. ; "Croix Federate, unpretending), the 
highest village in the valley, beautifully situated. Pleasant walk of >/» da y 
to the summit of the Culet (6453') , or to the still higher Roc d' At/erne, com- 
manding a noble prospect, especially towards the Dent du Midi. We follow 
the path to the Col de Coux (see below) for »/ 4 hr. ; then turn to the right 
by a small shrine where the path divides ; a large chalet on the left is 
next passed, and another on the right, farther up; a pine wood is then 
traversed, beyond which a narrow path ascends to the cross on the Culet 
(guide 4 fr.). Chalets and cowherds afford frequent opportunities of en- 
quiring as to the route. 

The Dent du Midi (10,450') is ascended in 7-8 (descent 4-5) hrs. from 
Champery, guide necessary (15 fr.). In unfavourable weather the ascent is 
only made as far as the (2 hrs. , fee 6'/2 fr.) chalets of Bonavaux (several 
beds, co/l'ee and milk). The last 3 hrs., over rocks and loose stones, are 
very fatiguing, but without danger to the practised walker. In the latter 
part of summer the path is almost free from snow. The view of Mont 
Blanc and the Alps of the Valais and Bern is imposing; the background 
to the S. is formed by the Alps of Dauphiny and Piedmont; the Lake of 
Geneva is visible from Villeneuve to Vevey. In descending, the traveller 
need not return to ChampeYy, but may cross the Col de Susanfe (7940'), 
the saddle between the Dent du Midi and the Tour Sallieres, to the valley 
of the Sallenche, and descend by the chalets of Van d*en Haul to Vernayat 
U>- 208), or to Salran (p. 332). — La Tour Xallirres (10,5S7') is also occasion- 
ally ascended (in 11 hrs, guide 30 fr.) from Champery. The route is diffi- 
cult and fatiguing, frequently crossing glaciers, and the view is inferior to 
that from the Dent du Midi. 

Kkiim CuAMiuiJtv to Samoi:ns a bridle-path crosses the Col de Cou.r to 
to the Dranse valley, and thence over the Vol de la (lole.ie, an easy and 
pleasant walk of hrs.; guide (13 fr.) unnecessary. At the small shrine, 



COL DE COUX. 50. Route. 213 

which is reached in 3/4 hi., we keep to the left; in 2 hrs. more we reach 
the Col de Coux (6322 ), the frontier of Savoy and Switzerland, from which 
a survey of the valley of the Dranse is obtained. The first saddle seen 
hence towards the left is the Col de la Golese. In descending , we avoid 
the paths leading to the right to Morzine (p. 210). In li/j hr. more the Col 
de la Golese (5489') is attained. Beautiful view in descending, embracing 
the sidevalley in which Les Allamans lies, and a glimpse of the more distant 
valley of the Giffre. Then (2 hrs.) Samoens (p. 229) , from which a good 
road leads to (4>/2 M.) Sixt, a preferable place for spending the night 
(comp. p. 228). 

Fkom Champery to Sixt over the Col de Sagerou, 8 hrs. (guide 
15 fr.). This is a more fatiguing route than the above, and the scenery 
is less pleasing, hut it affords nearer and more imposing views of the Dent 
du Midi and the glaciers. Leaving the Hotel de la Dent du Midi, we 
descend by a narrow cart-road leading towards the bead of the valley, 
as far as a (20 min.) bridge, and beyond it proceed to the point where 
two brooks unite to form the principal stream of the valley. Here we 
cross another bridge and avoid the path diverging to the left. After 
10 min. more we diverge by a path to the left, ascending rapidly for 
3 /i hr. ; the path then ascends gradually, skirting precipitous rocks, to the 
(40 min.) Pas d^Ancel, where a little climbing, facilitated by iron rods 
attached to the rock, is necessary. In 1 /$ hr. more the path to the Dent 
du Midi diverges to the left (see above). Our path ascends slowly over 
pastures on the left bank of the brook, crosses it (V2 hr.), and then mounts 
more rapidly, crossing several patches of snow, to the (1 hr.) summit 
of the Col de Sagerou (7917'). We descend thence to the (S/ 4 hr.) chalets 
of Vogealles and ( l /z hr.) Borce, and along an almost perpendicular rocky 
slope to the ('/« hr.) bottom of the valley. In l'/ 4 hr. we reach Nant 
Bride, and in 1'/ 4 hr. more Sixt (p. 228). 

From Sixt to Ciiamouny. By far the most interesting ways of approach- 
ing Chamouny are the passage of the Col d'Anlerne and Col du Briiienl 
(9-10 hrs.) or that of the Col Liclmud and the Buei (10-12 hrs.), both from 
Sixt, the former without, the latter with a guide (comp. p. 229). No places 
of refreshment on either route. 

The train crosses the Viege , which descends from the Val 
d'llliez. Near Massonger the mountains on the right approach nearer 
the Rhone. Near St. Maurice the railway of the right bank joins 
that of the left bank (route by Bex. p. 206). 

I41/2 M. St. Maurice, see p. 207. 

51. From Geneva by Culoz and Aix-les-Bains to 
Chambery, returning by Annecy. 

Railway to Aix-les-Bains (57 M.) in 3>/2 hrs. (11 fr. 40, 8 fr. 60, 6 fr. 
25 c), to Chambery (65 M.) in 4 hrs. (13 fr. 10, 11 fr. 20, 7 fr. 20 c), to 
Chamousset (82'/.. M.) in 53/4 hrs. (14 fr. 85, 11 fr. 20, 7 fr. 85 c). The ex- 
press trains to Lyons are lst-class only; tickets, however, need only he 
taken to Culoz (8 fr. 15 c.) , where carriages are changed, and a halt of 
20 min. is made. The trains thence to Aix-les-Bains and Chambery have 
1st, 2nd, and 3rd class. Return-tickets, available for the same day, are 
issued as far as Bellegarde. Railway from Aix-les-Bains to Annecy in 
1>2 hr. (p. 215). Diligence between Chamousset and (14 M.) Albertville, 
Albertville and (28 M.) Annecy, and Annecy and (27 M.) Geneva daily. 

The railway (Geneva-Lyons) at first traverses an uninteresting 
country, passing through numerous cuttings. Stations Meyrin, Sa- 
tigny ; on the left flows the Rhone. Near stat. La Pleine the train 
crosses the valley of the London. .Stations Chancy (the village lies 
on the opposite bank of the Rhone~l and CnUonyes. The steep 



214 Route 57. A1X-LES-BAINS. From. Genera 

slopes of the Mont Vouache (3444') on the Savoy side, and the 
huge buttresses of the highest part of the Jura chain are here 
separated by the Rhone. The lofty Fort de l'Ecluse, to the 
right, which commands this entrance into France, was founded 
by the Dukes of Savoy, reconstructed by Vauban under Louis XIV., 
destroyed by the Austrians in 1814, and rebuilt by the French 
ten years later. The train now passes (in 7 min.) through the 
Tunnel du Credo, 2*/2 M. in length, crosses the Vidserine Via- 
duct, and stops at — 

21 M. Bellegarde (Perte du Rhone), the French frontier station, 
where all the passengers alight and luggage is examined. 

Above the confluence of the Valserine and the Rhone, about 1/2 JI. from 
the hotel, and visible from the high-road to Collonges, is the so-called 
Perte du Rhone. When the river is low, the water disappears lor about 
100 paces in a cleft in the rock, which, however, has recently been con- 
siderably widened. 

The train passes through four tunnels, crosses a lofty viaduct, 
and reaches stat. Pyrimont (asphalt-mines in the vicinity). The 
valley of the Rhone expands. At stat. Seyssel the banks are con- 
nected by a double suspension-bridge. 

42 M. Culoz (774' ; *Rail. Restaurant), at the base of the (>>- 
lombier (5033') , is the junction of the lines to Lyons , Macon 
(Paris), and Turin, where carriages are generally changed, and a 
prolonged halt takes place. 

We now quit the carriages of the Lyons railway for those of 
the Victor-Emmanuel line, which diverges S.E. towards Mont Ce- 
nis. The train traverses the broad valley of the Rhone, cro-ses 
the river, and at stat. Chatitton with its old castle, on a wooded 
promontory to the right, reaches the N. end of the Lac du Bourget 
(702'j, which is 12 M. long, l l / 2 M. broad, and 250' deep. The 
line skirts the rocky E. bank, passing through a succession of 
tunnels ; to the right a pleasing view of the lake, the monastery of 
Haute-Combe opposite, and the mountains of the \V. bank. 

57 M . Aix-les-Bains (850'). — :: Gkano Hotel b'Aix (formerly Im 
ptridl), the nearest to the station, R. from 3, I). 5, L. and A. 2 fr. ; Ho- 
tel de l'Univkhs kt uks Ambasmadeurs ; Venat, with a large garden; 
(ii.oiiE: Kukopk, ]). 4 fr.; Guillanii (1'uste); the three last less ex- 
pensive. IVnsions: Villa des Flenvx. with shady grounds, 12 fr.; Chuberl, 
Hostiis, and others. One-horse carr. per drive of 25 min. 2 fr. 

Aix-les-Bains, the Roman Aquae Atlnbrrx/um, or Aquae Oratia- 
nae, is a famous, but not very attractive watering-place with 3000 
inhabitants, visited annually by upwards of 4000 patients, chiefly 
from Lyons. It possesses warm (113°) sulphur springs, the waters 
of which are drunk and u>ed for baths. The extensive Etablisse- 
ment Thermal, erected in 18(>4, deserves a visit. The space in 
front of it is adorned with a Roman Triumphal Arch, erected by 
T. Pompeius Oampanus in the 3rd or 4th cent. The other Ro- 
man antiquities (ruins of a temple, baths, etc.) are situated in 
private grounds, and can only be visited by special permission. 

I'leusant excursion to Haute Combe, a Cistercian monastery on I lie 



to Chambe'ry. CHAMBfiRY. 57. Route. 215 

N.W. bank of the Lac du Bourget, at the foot of the Mont du Chat. It 
was formerly used as the burial-place of the Princes of Savoy , until 
the Superga near Turin was employed (1731) for that purpose. The mon- 
astery , destroyed during the French Revolution , was rebuilt in 1824 by 
Charles Felix, king of Sardinia. The church contains the monuments of 
Amadeus V., VI., VII., Humbert III., Louis I., Baron de Vaud, Jeanne de 
Montfort, Count Haymon, Boniface of Savoy (Archbishop of Canterbury), the 
splendid mausoleum of Peter of Savoy, Anna of Zahringen, etc. The view 
from the neighbouring tower of Phare de Gessens has been described by 
Rousseau. About 3 /4 M. from the monastery is the intermittent Fontaine 
des Merveilles (comp. p. 134). On the site of the old Roman road a good 
high-road leads across the Mont du Chat. The traveller may combine a visit 
to the monastery with a survey of the scenery by taking a boat from Aix 
to Haute - Combe , whence it should be sent on to the village of Bour- 
deaux, at the S. end of the mad over the Mont du Chat; after visiting the 
monastery and the intermittent spring, descend by a footpath to the Mont 
du Chat road , which leads to Bourdeaux , and return thence by boat to 
Aix. Tariff: boat with 2 rowers, to Haute -Combe, inch stay of 1 hr., 
8 fr., for each additional hour 1 fr., to Bourdeaux 4 fr. 50 c. ; a previous 
understanding with the boatmen is recommended. — A Steamboat plies 
round the lake once daily, halting for 1 hr. at Haute-Combe. 

From Aix-lks-Bains to Axnf.ct a branch-line runs in 2-2'/a hrs. (fares 
4 fr. 40, 3 fr. 35, 2 fr. 45 c), by stat. Orhy-sur-Aix, Athens, Bloye, Rumilly 
(where the Che'ran is crossed) ; then through the picturesque valley of the 
Fier, by Marcellaz and Lovagny, to Annery (p. 217). 

The train now runs along the E. bank of the lake to the S. 
end. To the left of stat. Voglans are the beautifully wooded slopes 
of the Mont d'Azi and the Dent de Nivolet (4997'). 

65 M. Chambery (883'; Hotel de la Paix , near the station ; 
""Hotel de France; Hotel de I'Europe, R. 3'/2 , D. 5 , L. and A. 
!'/■> fr. ; Poste, moderate; Hotel des Princes), the capital of Savoy, 
with 20,000 inhab. , is a handsome looking town. On the pro- 
menade between the railway and the town rises a large monu- 
mental Fountain, adorned with life-size elephants, in memory of 
General de Boigne (d. 1830) , who bequeathed to Chambe'ry, his 
native town, a fortune of 3!/ 2 million fr. which he had amassed in 
the East Indies. The Rue de Boigne, a line street with arcades, 
leads from the monument to the chateau (at the beginning of the 
arcades is a side-street leading to the cathedral , see below). The 
square tower and part of the facade belonging to the ancient and 
loftily situated Chateau of the counts and dukes of Savoy, erected 
in 1'230, and now occupied by the pre'fet, are still standing. The 
choir of the chapel, to the right, is a good specimen of late Gothic. 
The terrace of the garden affords a fine survey of the environs, the 
Dent de Nivolet, and the Mont d'Azi (see above). The small, but 
interesting Gothic Cathedral, completed in 1430, has been disfigured 
by later additions. Chambe'ry is the seat of an archiepiscopal see. 
General de Boigne and Madame de Warens, the friend of Rousseau, 
are interred in the church of Lemanc, situated on a height above 
the town. 

The railway from Chambe'ry traverses a picturesque district, 
passing the castles of Batie and Chignin. The precipitous Mont 
Oranier (H358') on the right, forming the boundary between the 



216 Route .«. ALBERTVILLE. /■>"»»» Chambery 

valleys of Chambe'ry and Graisivaudan, owes its remarkable form to 
a landslip in 1248, which buried sixteen villages. A branch-line 
diverging to the right from stat. La Marche leads through the 
beautiful valley of the Isere , here called the Valley of Orai- 
sivaudan, to Grenoble. The main line now turns to the left, and 
reaches the river Isere near stat. Montmelian, where good wine is 
produced. The castle on a wooded height, of which a few frag- 
ments only are left , long served as a bulwark of Savoy against 
the French, and was defended for 13 months against the army of 
Louis XIII. by Geoffrey Benso, an ancestor of the able Italian min- 
ister Cavour. It was destroyed by Louis XIV. in 1705. The train 
now crosses the Isere, passes St. Pierre d'Albigny, and reaches 
(82i/ 2 M.) Chamousset (951'), at the mouth of the Arc, where we 
quit the railway. 

Beyond this point the railway ascends the valley of the Arc, to tlic right, 
to Modane, and runs through the great Mont Cents Tunnel (7'/» Jl. long) 
under the Col de Frijus to stat. Bardonneche and Turin (see Baedeker's 
N. Italy). 

The Road from Chamousset to Albertville (14 M. ; diligence 
daily in I^Ji hrs.) crosses the Isere by a handsome stone bridge and 
skirts the right bank of the river, which here runs through an 
artificial channel. Opposite the bridge, to the E. of the small town 
of St. Pierre d'Albigny, at the foot of the mountains on the right 
bank, rise the ruins of the castle of Miolans, which belonged to the 
Miolans family from the 9th to the 16th cent. It was afterwards 
used as a state-prison by the dukes of Savoy, and was destroyed 
during the French Revolution. The walls of the cells are still 
covered with the names of the prisoners. 

14 M. Albertville (1181'; Hotel des Balances), a small town 
(1500 inhab.) with broad streets, formerly called I'Hopital, received 
its present name in 1835 in honour of King Charles Albert. On 
the opposite mountain-spur which separates the valleys of the Isire 
and the Arly, lies the strikingly picturesque village of Conflans 
(1178'), with its green overgrown battlements, separated from 
Albertville by the Arly, which flows into the Isere a short distance 
below. 

Beyond Albertville the diligence from Chamousset continues to ascend 
the valley towards the S.E. to Movtiers en Tarentaise. Road thence by 
Bourg St. Maurice and the Petit St. Bernard to I're" St. Didier and Aosta, 
see p. 240. 

The Koad to Annkcy('28 M. ) now ascends the picturesque valley 
of the Arly, which opens to the N. To the left, on an abrupt emi- 
nence above the road, stands the church of Palud ; on the right the 
Doron emerges from the Vallee de Beaufort, which extends E. to- 
wards the Col du Bonhomme (p. '2;li\~). At (7'/ 2 >' • ) Ugine (1756'; 
Aur Balances ; Grande ' .liaison), a small, badly built town, with 
3000 inhab., commanded by the ruins of a castle on the N., the 
road quits the valley of the Arly and enters that of the Chaise to 
the left. 



to Geneva. ANNECV. 5/. Route. 217 

Fkom Ugink to Sallanches, or to the Baths ok St. Gkkvais (25 M.). 
The following is the best route for travellers proceeding from Geneva to Aix- 
les-Bains, Chamb^ry, and afterwards to Chamouny. Carriage-road through 
the valley of the Arly to (9 M.) Flumet (3008'; Poste) , a market-town at 
the mouth of the Arondine , which descends to the Arly from a lateral 
valley on the left. On a rock stands the ruined castle of the ancient barons 
of Faucigny. Flumet is on the frontier of the Dcpartement de la Haute 
Savoie. Travellers from Chamouny undergo custom-house formalities here, 
as the Haute Savoie is exempt from French imposts. Then (6 M.) Migeve 
(3701'; Soleil), 1 M. beyond which a path to the (2Va hrs.) Baths of St. 
Gervais (p. 220) diverges to the right, effecting a considerable saving to 
pedestrians proceeding to Chamouny. Near Comblovx, as the road descends 
to Sallanches, a magnificent Alpine *view is enjoyed : opposite the spectator 
rise the Aiguilles de Vareits (8831'), to the left the valley of the Arve is 
visible as far as Magland (p. 219) , to the right rises the entire Mont 
Blanc chain, with its numerous peaks and glaciers, including the summit ; 
below lies Sallanches and the bridge over the Arve to St. Martin. (9 M.) 
Sallanches, see p. 219. 

At Ugine the culture of the vine begins on the lower slopes of 
the mountains facing the S. Beyond Marlens the road quits the 
valley of the Chaise, and crosses the hardly perceptible watershed 
between the Chaise and the Eau Morte, by the side of which the 
road now descends. Above (15 M.) Faverges ('2 08'; Hotel do 
Geneve ; Poste) rises a conspicuous old castle , beyond which we 
reach ('21 M.) the S. end of the Lac d'Annecy (1463'), 9 M. long 
(steamboat three times daily to Annecy in 1 '/ 4 hr., a pleasant trip). 
The high road skirts the W. bank of the lake, affording charming 
views. To the right rise the grotesque rocky pinnacles of Mont 
Tournette (7710'). On a promontory extending far into the lake 
stands the prettily situated (24 M.) Chateau Duing (1476'), which 
the road passes, a favourite point for excursions from Annecy. On 
the opposite bank lies Talloires , the birthplace of the chemist 
Berthollet, and a little farther N., on the hill above the village of 
Menthon, is the chateau of that name (1873'), the birth-place of 
St. Bernard. 

28 M. Annecy (1476'; *H6tel Verdun and de Geneve, both near 
the lake, R. 2, D. 3, A. J /2 fr. ! Anyleterre; Aigle) is a picturesque, 
old-fashioned town (pop. 11,000) with linen manufactories. In the 
12th cent, it was the capital of the Duchy of Genevois, and was 
named Anneciacum Novum, to distinguish it from Anneeiacum 
Vetus, which lay in the neighbourhood to the N.E., on the slope 
of a beautiful hill, where numerous Roman relics have been found . 
The lofty old Chateau of the Genevois-Nemours family is now a 
barrack. The Gothic Cathedral, with its modern tower, and the 
ancient episcopal palace deserve mention. In the modern church of 
St. Francois reposes St. Francis de Sales (Bishop of Geneva, d. 
1622). The avenue on the lake affords a pleasant walk and pic- 
turesque view. Near the town, shaded by trees, is a bronze statue 
of the eminent chemist Berthollet (d. 1822) , near which is the 
modern Hotel de Ville, with a handsome fountain. Annecy, with 
its delightful environs, is recommended as a pleasant and not ex- 
pensive resting-place. Jtailwav to Aix-len-Knins^ se e p. 215. 



218 Route 61. ST. JUUEN. 

From Annecy to Geneva (27 M.) diligence in 41/2 hrs., railway 
proieoted About 2 M. from Annecy the road crosses the Fier by a 
handsome stone bridge, and ascends the Mont des Bornes. Several 
chateaux lie on the hill to the left; fine retrospect of Annecy and 
its environs. The road now traverses a picturesque, undulating 
district, and crosses the (9 M.) *Pont de la Caille, or Pont 
Charles Albert, a suspension-bridge constructed in 1839, 227 yds. 
long and TOO' above the river, spanning the Usses, and thus avoid- 
ing the long circuit described by the old road. Far below, in the 
ravine to the left lies a small sulphur bath (*Bain des Fees, unpre- 
tending), to which paths descend on both sides of the bridge. 
(Travellers from Geneva to Annecy are subjected to French custom- 
house formalities near this bridge.) 

11 M. Cruseilles (2289'), a small town (pop. 1300) with the 
ruins of an old castle, lies at the S. base of Mont Saleve. The road 
skirts the mountain, high above the picturesque landscape which 
stretches to the left; in the distance to the W. rises Mont Vouache 
(3444'- p 314)- We now ascend the pass (2106') between Mont 
Sion (2684') and Saleve (p. 192), beyond which the road commands 
a charming prospect in descending: to the right rises Mont Saleve, 
before us lies the rich plain of Geneva with the town, the lake, 
and the Jura chain. oft 

21'A, M St. Julien (1526') is the frontier town of Savoy. 2b M. 
Carouge (1260'; Balance; ten de Savoie), the Swiss frontier 
town, once threatened to become a rival of Geneva. In K8U King 
Victor Amadeus III. of Savoy attracted a number of workmen from 
Geneva hither, by offers of superior advantages ; but his plan was 
frustrated by the union of the town with France in 1<»2, and 
subsequently with Geneva in 18 l(i. Tramway from Carouge to 
Geneva 15 c. (p. 183). 

The road crosses the Arm by a bridge constructed by Napo- 
leon I., ami reaches — 

27 M. Geneva; see p. 182. 

52. From Geneva to Chamouny. 

51 M. Diligence (comp. p. 183) to SI. Gervais in 5'/ 2 lira., to Chamouny 
in V-'-i hrs. (banquette 21 fr. : coupe, not recommended, 25 tr.). l*ona 
walkers should drive as far as St. Gervais (p. 22(1) only, where the diligence 
arrives about 1 o'clock, and walk thence to Chamouny over the ( ol de w 
Forclaz (p. 220}. The rcturn-journev to Sallanehes occupies 2 1 '4 hrs., and 
from Sallanehes to Geneva 4 hrs. only. — Excursion-tickets are issued from 
Geneva to Chamouny, and back hv Martigny and Bouveret , or vice versa 
(1st el 52, 2nd el. 46 fr. ; tickets for a parte of two or more persons at 
reduced ratesl, but the saving thereby effected is very trilling. Purchasers 
should be satisfied as to the respectability of the agent who offers them 

f„ r s;i ],.. In the height of summer seats in the diligences should be 

secured two or three days in advance. Route by Samocns and Sixt, see 

p. '229. 

Carriages (p. 1H3). The ordinary charge for a one horse carriage from 
lieiicva to Chamouny is 45 fr. . two horse carriage ill HII fr. and 4-5 fr. 



BONNEVILLE. 55. Route. 219 

driver's fee. — Those who return to Geneva by carriage should make a 
previous bargain with the driver. 

The road to Bonneville traverses the new suburbs, passing villas 
and well-kept grounds in almost uninterrupted succession as far as 
the large village of Chene (1384'). The Foron separates Geneva 
from Savoy. Annemasse (1427'), 3 3 / 4 M. from Geneva, is the first 
French village (no examination of luggage, as the Departement de 
la Haute Savoie is exempt from imposts). Beyond the village, to 
the right, rises the chateau of Etrambiere, at the base of the Petit- 
Saleve, and beyond it Mornex (p. 193) becomes visible. The road 
approaches the Arve, and crosses the Menoge by a handsome bridge. 

The scenery becomes more picturesque. In the background the 
pyramid of the Mole (6127') bounds the landscape. Beyond Nangy, 
on a piiie-clad knoll, stands the Chateau de Pierre, the property of an 
Englishman. Near Contamines sur Arve (1516'), to the left on the 
slope of the hill, lies Chateau Villy ; beyond the village, on a rocky 
height, are the two ruined towers of the ancient castle of Faucigny, 
from which the province derives its name. 

15 M. Bonneville (1457'; Couronne; Balance), a small town 
with 2127 inhab., the capital of the province, is picturesquely sit- 
uated in a fertile valley, flanked by the rugged limestone rocks of the 
Brezon (6165') on the. right, and the slopes of the Mole (see above) 
on the left. A handsome bridge crosses the Arve , beyond which 
rises a Monument, 100' high, to King Charles Felix of Sardinia. 

The road now traverses flat meadow-land, which is frequently 
inundated, and then enters a broad and fertile valley bounded by 
lofty mountains. Opposite Vougy the Giffre falls into the Arve, on 
its right bank. Scionzier, a village where horses are changed, lies 
at the entrance to the wild Reposoir valley. To the left, on a hill 
which is crossed by a road to Tanninges (p. 229), stands the castle 
of Chatillon (view). The road crosses the Arve. 

24 M. Cluses (1591'; Union, at the farther end of the village), 
a small town , rebuilt since a Are in 1844 , is chiefly inhabited by 
watchmakers. To the left near the entrance is an Ecole d'Horlogerie. 
ISeyond Balme (1624'; Chalet de la Grotte de Balme), II/2 M. from 
Cluses, in the precipitous bluish-yellow limestone rock to the left, 
S00' above the road, we observe the entrance to a stalactite-grotto, 
which is hardly worth visiting (3 fr. each pers.). 

Near Magland is a spring by the road-side, supposed by Saus- 
sure to descend from the small Lac de Flaine (4695'), on the hill 
above. On the left, farther on, rise the bold precipices of the Ai- 
guilles de Varens (8831'). The cascade of Arpenaz, which presents 
an imposing appearance after rain, is not unlike the Staubbach. 

The valley now expands. The road traverses a district devastated 
by torrents of mud and detritus. At the village of St. Martin (Hotel 
du Montblanc ; Hotel des Grandes Alpes) we suddenly obtain a 
magnificent *view of Mont Blanc, whose dazzling peaks rising ma- 
jestically at the head of the vallfv seem almost to annihilate the 



220 Route r,:>. ST. GERVAIS 

intervening space, though it is in> less than 1'2 M. distant in a 
straight line. Above the broad bed of the Arve, in the same direction, 
rises Mont Forclaz (see below), with its fir- clad slopes. Beyond 
it tower the Aiguilles du Gouter (12,70?') and the Dome du Gouter 
(14,210'). A handsome bridge crosses the Arve to — 

33M. Sallanches(1788'; Hotel des Messayeries ; Bellevue; Chalet 
Suisse), a small town with 1981 inhab., rebuilt since a Are in 1840, 
where the diligence generally stops for dinner. The road divides 
here. The old road leads on the right bank of the Arve from St. 
Martin (see above) to Ch'ede anil (9 M.) Servoz. The new road con- 
tinues to follow the left bank, and (3 M.) at the foot of the The 
Noire (see below) crosses the Bon Kant. (Beyond the bridge : Hotel 
des Alpes ; Chalet des Bains de St. Gernais. ) 

St. Gervais-les- Bains (2066'; "Hotel), a small, but much frequented 
watering-place with sulphur-springs , is situated in the wooded ravine of 
Montjoie, l /-2 M. from the Chamouny road, on the Bon-Xaiit ( ; Nanf being 
the name applied to all mountain streams in Savoy), which forms a pic- 
turesque waterfall at the back of the baths ('La Citsmtlr de Crejiiu'). 
— A footpath leads in 20 min. from the baths to the - 

Village of St. Gervais (2657'; Hotels du Mont Joli, du Monthlanr, \lc 
Geneve), on the road to Contamines (p. 235), prettily situated, and visit.nl 
by invalids for the sake of its pure air. (The Pont du lion-Kant is 1 51. 
distant by the carriage-road.) 

Pedestrians may quit the diligence at St.. Gervais and walk over 
the Col de la Forclaz (5105'), a pass between the THe Noire (5800', not 
to be confounded with the Tete Noire between Chamouny and Martigny) 
and the Prarion (6460'), direct to Le Fouillij and Les Ouches in 5-6 hrs. 
(guide desirable, 6 fr.). A longer, but. more interesting route (6-7 hrs.) 
from St. Gervais to Chamouny is over the Col de Yozn (p. 235). 

From the Pont du Bon-Nant a road crosses the Arve to Chede 
and Servoz (see above). The new high road to Chamouny on the left 
bank of the Arve ascends gradually, with the impetuous stream 
almost immediately below it, passes through a tunnel, and enters 
the wooded valley of (4 M.) Le Chatclard (tavern). In the opening 
of the valley is seen the jagged Aiguille duMidi ( 12,608'). A little 
beyond the inn the road passes through a short tunnel and again 
approaches the Arve, on the opposite bank of which lies Servoz. It 
then leads past Le Lac to the Hotel des Montets, where it joins 
the road from Servoz. (The *Gorgcs de la Dioza near Servoz, re- 
cctitly made accessible, arc worthy of a visit ; l'/')-2hrs. from the 
Hotel des Montets there and back; adm. lfr.) About '/^M. farther 
on, the old Chamouny road rapidly ascends Les Montets, a rocky 
ridge separating the lower from the upper region of the valley, 
while the new road traverses the picturesque wooded defile of the 
Arve, crossing to the right bank by the Pont de Marie below the 
hamlet of Le Fouilly, and to left again below Les Ouches (p. 234) 
near the mouth of the Nant de hi Grin. The glaciers now gradually 
become visible , but owing to the vastness of the mountains in 
which they are framed, it is impossible at first to realise their extent. 
The first are the Glaciers de Gria and de Tncnnay ; then the Glacier 
des Bossons (p. 22 G ) near the village of that name, which, as it ex.- 




■Vf u 



OHAMOUNY. 



53. Route. 221 



tends farthest into the valley, is apparently the most extensive. 
In the distance is the Oiacier des Bois, the offshoot of the Mer de 
Olace. A little above the Glacier des Bossons the road crosses the 
Arve again by the Pont de Perralotaz and follows its right bank. 
51 M. Chamonix, or Chamouny (3445'). 



53. Chamouny and its Environs. 

Hotels. ''Grand Hotel Saussuke ; -Hotels Royal, Angleterre et 
Londres, and Couronne, all belonging to a company, charges at all: E. 
from 3, B. lVz-2, D. 5, L. and A. 11/-2-2 fr. — 'Hotel du Montblanc; Union; 
Palais de Cristal; in these, R. from 2, U.4'/a fr. "Hotel Pension Couttet, 
R. 2'/2-3, B. li/-j, D. 4, L. and A. 1 fr. ; -Hotel des Alpes, R. 3, B. l'/a, 
D. 4, L. and A. 1 fr. ; Hotel de France, moderate, pension from 5fr. — Hotel 
de la Paix, well spoken of; 'Croix Blanche; Balances; Reunion des 
Amis ; de la Terrasse, with cafe-restaurant; all unpretending. — It should 
be observed that as much is usually charged for a slight meal as for the 
table d'hote dinner. — Cafi-Restaurant de la Poste. 

Guides. A guide is unnecessary for the ordinary excursions to the 
Montanvert, the Flegere, and the Pierre Pointue. The paths are so minutely 
described in the following pages that they can hardly be mistaken, and 
they are so much frequented that opportunities of making inquiries con- 
stantly occur. If a guide be thought necessary for the Chapeau, one may be 
engaged merely for the passage of the Mer de Glace to or from the Chapeau 
(p. 224). The following extract is made from the 'R4glement et Tarifdes Guides 
de Chamonix\ of 8th March, 1862. Travellers are provided with guides by the 
Guide Chef, who is bound to employ each in turn, the traveller having no 
choice except in four cases : (1). When a course extraordinaire (see below) is 
contemplated ; (2)- When an excursion is made for scientific purposes ; (3). 
When the traveller speaks no French, and the guide is unacquainted with 
the language of the traveller; (4). When travellers have previously employed 
a certain guide and desire to re-engage the same, or when ladies alone 
wish to engage a particular guide. — Each guide must be furnished 
with a badge, bearing his number and the words : '■Compagnie des Guides de 
Chamonix\ Hotel-keepex'S, waiters, etc. are forbidden to recommend par- 
ticular guides. A guide who loses his way in average weather is ex- 
cluded from the ' compagnie'. Complaints to be made to the 'Guide Chef. 

The excursions are divided into Courses Ordinaires and Courses Extra- 
ordinaire*. 

Courses Ordinaires : 



Glacier des Bossons 3 fr., ditto 
inch Cascades du Dard and 
du Pelerin 4'/ 2 fr. 

Montanvert and across the 
Mer de Glace (back by the 
same route, or by the Cha- 
peau) 9 fr. 

Flegere and Source de TAr- 

veyron 6 fr. 

Pierre Pointue 8 , including 
the Aiguille de la Tour or 
Pierre a I'Echelle 9, or with 
the Plan de f Aiguille . . 10 fr. 

Montanvert, Mer de Glace, 
Chapeau , and Flegere in 
one day 12 fr. 

Col de Balme 7 fr. ; back by 
Tete Noire 9 fr. ; or by Bar- 
berine , inch Cascades de 
Barberine and de Berard in 
one day 9, in two davs . . 12 fr. 



28 fr. 



12 fr. 



Ascent of Buet and down to 
Sixt, incl. return-fee, in one 
day 23, in two days . . . 

Martigny by the Col de Balme 
or Tete Noire (incl. return- 
fee) 

Brevent by Planpraz 8 , by 
the Flegere and down by 
Planpraz 10 fr. 

Jardin, and back by Chapeau 12 fr. 

Sixt by the Brevent and Col 
d'Anterne in one day (incl. 
return-fee) 18 fr. 

Sixt by Servoz and Col d'An- 
terne 16 fr. 

Pavilion de Bellevue, Col de 
Voza or Prarion .... 

Contamines by the Col 



fr. 



du 



Tricot 



5fr. 



222 Route 53. CHAMOUNY Guides. 



Courses Extraordinairks: 



Mont Blanc 100 fr. 

Grands Mulets and back in one 

day 20, in two days ... 30 fr. 
Courmayeur by the Col du 

Geant 50 fr. 



Col du Tour and back ... 20 fr. 

Glacier - excursions on the 
Mont Blanc chain , above 
the zone of vegetation, per 
day 10 fr. 



The guides are bound on the 'courses ordinaires' to carry baggage up 
to a weight of 24 lbs.; on the 'courses extraordinaires', 14 lbs. only. — 
The following among others are recommended for difficult expeditions : 
Jean Bapt. Croz ; Franc. Jos., Henri, and Michel Devovasoud; Franc, and 
Zach. Cacliat; B. Simon C-BenonC); M. Ducros; Michel and Fred. Payot; 
Jos., Michel, Sim., and Tob. Tairraz ; J. Charlet; J. M. and Jos. Coutlet; 
A. Tournier. 

Mules. With the exception of the excursion to the Montanvert and 
Chapeau (9 fr. ), and to the Montanvert for the purpose of visiting the 
Jardin, and returning to Chamouny in the evening (7 fr.), the same charges 
are made as for the ' courses ordinaires ' of the guides. 

The Collection of Pictures of M. Loppi, a talented painter of Alpine 
scenery, situated at the back of the Hotel Royal, on the path to the 
Montanvert, merits a visit. Admission gratis. 

English Church Service during the season. 

One Day. Those who can devote one day only to Chamouny, should 
ascend the Montanvert (p. 223) in the morning (2V2 hrs.), cross the Meu 
be Glace (p. 224) to the (l'/ 4 hr.) Chapeau (p. 224), descend to (1 hr.) 
Les Praz (p. 230) , ascend the Flegere (p. 225) (2'/2 hrs.) , and descend 
thence in l 3 /4 hr. — Early in the morning the path to Montanvert is in the 
shade, in the afternoon that to the Flegere is at least partly so, and by 
this arrangement the traveller reaches the Flegere at the time most fa- 
vourable for observing Mont Blanc. For this excursion a guide (to he found 
on the Montanvert) is necessary across the Mer de Glace only. Those who 
ride must send their mules round from Montanvert to Les Tines or the 
Chapeau to meet them. The excursion to the Flegere alone occupies about 
5 hrs., and that to the Montanvert or the Chapeau about the same time. 
It is , however, needless to say that one day cannot suffice for the proper 
appreciation and enjoyment of these excursions , especially as they will 
somewhat severely tax the travellers strength. Those who come from the 
E-, and have spent the night at Argentiere should leave the road near 
Lavancher (p. 230) and proceed by way of the Chapeau, the Mer de Glace, 
and" Montanvert to Chamouny. Those who have spent the night at the 
Col de Balme (p. 233) or Tete Noire (p. 231), may quit the road before 
it. reaches Lavancher, and proceed by La Joux on the right bank of the 
Arve to the Flegere (comp. p. 230). 

Next to the Montanvert, the Glacier des Bossons (p. 22G) is the best 
object for a walk on a cloudy afternoon, when the views from the heights 
are concealed (there and back 3 hrs.). — To the Cascade de Blaitiere, on 
the hill-side E. of Chamouny, by a new path in '/2 hr. (adin. •/« fr. ; Res- 
taurant). — To the Pavili.on de la I'ierrk Pointlk (p. 226) and back, 
5-6 hrs. ; or, if the Aiguille de la Tour and I'ierre a TEchelle be included, 
a whole day nearly must be devoted to the excursion. — To the Jardin 
(p. 224) and back, 9-10 hrs. — Those who wish to economise their strength, 
or intend to descend by the Chapeau to Argentiere, or farther, should spend 
the night on the Montanvert. — The ascent of the Brevent (p. 225) from 
Chainouny and back takes 6-7 hrs.: ascent or descent by the Flegere 2 hrs. 
more. 

The Valley of Chamouny (344;")'), or ChamonU-, lf> M. long, 
•V4 M. wide, is watered by the Arrc, anil stretches in a direct line 
from N.E. to S.W., from tin: Col de Balme towards l.es Ouches. It 
i- bounded on the K.W hv the chain of Mont Blanc, with its 



Montanvert. CHAMOUNY. 53. Route. 223 

gigantic ice-cataracts, the Glacier du Tour, d'Argentfere, des Bois 
(Mer de Glace), and des Bossons; on the N.W. by the Aiguilles 
Rouges and the Brevent. 

A Benedictine priory first brought the valley into cultivation at the 
beginning of the 12th cent., but its reputation was so bad at that period 
that travellers came armed, and spent the night in tents, strictly guarded, 
rather than trust themselves under the roofs of the lawless inhabitants. 
The sobriquet of Les Montagues Maudites acted as a ban upon the district. 
On one occasion St. Francis de Sales, Bishop of Geneva (1602 to 1622), visited 
the then pathless wilds on foot, which was considered an act of the utmost 
temerity. The valley became better known in 1740, when the celebrated 
traveller Pococke and another Englishman named Wyndham visited and 
explored it in all directions, and published the result of their observations 
in the Mercure de Suisse. An impulse was thus given to the curiosity and 
enterprise of the public, which was still further stimulated by the publi- 
cations of the Genevese naturalists de Saussure, de Luc, Bourrit, Pictet, 
and others. Since that time Chamouny, like the Bernese Oberland (R. 28), 
has become a great central point of attraction for travellers, especially 
English, Americans, and French, and is visited by upwards of 15,000 
strangers annually. It is inferior to the Bernese Oberland in picturesque- 
ness of scenery, but superior in the grandeur of its glaciers ; in the latter 
respect Zermatt (R. 66) alone can vie with Chamouny. 

The *Montanvert, or Montenvers (6303'; ascent 2^2; descent 
l'/2 hrs.J , an eminence opposite the Flegere , on the E. side of the 
valley, is visited for the sake of view it affords of the immense sea 
of ice which fills the highest gorges of the chain of Mont Blanc in 
three branches (the Glacier du Giant or du Tacul , Glacier de 
Leschaux, and Glacier de Talefre), and, at length uniting in the 
form of a huge stream of ice about 12 M. long and 1-4 M. wide, 
descends into the valley of Chamouny. The upper part of this 
stream is called the Mer de Glace , the lower the Glacier des Bois. 
From Montanvert the motionless billows of the Mer de Glace arc 
visible for a distance of 6 M., but the huge pinnacles of the Glacier 
des Bois are concealed from view. The bridle-path from Chamouny 
leads past the Hotel Royal to the left, passes the small English 
church , and crosses the meadows (the middle track preferable) to 
the (*/* hr.) houses of Les Mouilles. We now ascend through the 
pine-wood to the right, past the Chalets des Planards , the path 
being steep at places, and crossing hollows formed by avalanches. 
In 1 hr. more we reach the Cuillet (4880'), a spring of fresh water 
by the wayside, formerly shaded by trees, which have been swept 
away by avalanches (refreshments at a hut). About 10 min. farther 
on, a bridle-path diverging to the left descends to the source of the 
Arveyron (p. 224). The path now ascends more rapidly, still 
traversing wood. Having reached the shoulder of the hill (1 hr.) 
we turn to the right, and the *Mer de Glace and the mountains 
enclosing it are at once disclosed to our view : facing us rises the 
gigantic Aiguille du JDru (12,517'), to the left of it the Aig. du 
Bochard (8766'), to the right the Aiguille Verte (13,540') and the 
Aig. du Moine (11,214'). 

The surface of the Mer de Glace, De Saussure observes, 'resembles 
a sea suddenly frozen, not during a tempest, but when the wind has 



224 Route .M. CHAMOUNY. Chapeau. 

subsided, and the waves, although still high, have become blunted and 
rounded. These great waves are nearly parallel to the length of the 
glacier, and are intersected by transverse crevasses, the interior of which 
appears blue, while the ice is white on the surface'. 

In 1779 Goethe viewed this magnificent scene from a hut erect- 
ed here by an Englishman named Blair. This hut still exists, and 
affords accommodation for the guides. Adjoining it is a tolerable 
Inn (250' above the glacier). 

From Montanvert it is usual to cross the *Mer de Glace to the 
(iy 4 hr.) Chapeau which lies opposite. The passage of the glacier 
('/■;> hr., guide 2 fr., to the Chapeau 4 fr.), practicable even for 
ladies, is annually rendered easy and safe by means of steps hewn 
in the ice. The services of a guide are, however, desirable, as the 
route varies with the direction of the crevasses, which are always 
changing their form. The Mauvais Pas, where for a short distance 
the path is hewn in the rock on the N.E. side of the glacier in the 
form of steps, near the Chapeau, was formerly a giddy and hazardous 
point, but the iron rods now attached to the rocks afford perfect 
security. Guides for the passage of the Mer de Glace are always 
to be met with at Montanvert, but not always at the Chapeau. Tra- 
vellers intending to cross it from the Chapeau should therefore 
bring a guide from Lavancher. 

The *Chapeau (5082' ; auberge) , a limestone precipice on the 
N.E. side of the glacier, nearly opposite the Montanvert , at the 
base of the Aiguille du Bochard, is considerably lower than the 
Montanvert , but commands fine views of the Aiguilles de Charmoz 
(11,293') and de Blaitiere (11,591') as far as Mont Blanc, the 
beautiful Olacier des Bois with its innumerable ice-pinnacles, and 
the valley of Chamouny below. A good bridle-path descends from 
the Chapeau through pine - wood to (40 min.) Lavancher (p. 230). 
Persons bound for Chamouny (or the Fle'gere) turn to the left after 
20 min., cross the moraine on the right side of the Glacier des Bois, 
obtaining excellent views of the imposing ice-minarets and of the 
source of the Arveyron, and descend to Les Bois and Les Praz(l hr. 
from the Chapeau; see below). 

The Source of the Arveyron (2'/2M. from Chamouny, carriage- 
road as far as Les Bois, 1 M. from Chamouny) is not worth visiting 
except when the vault of ice from which the stream issues is lofty 
and well-defined , which has seldom been the case of late years. 
It should be approached with caution , as stones frequently become 
detached from the ice. In 1868 a young English lady lost her life 
here from an accident of this kind. On the road side is the 
auberge Au Touriste. 

The Jardin (9141'; guide necessary, V> fr.l is a triangular rock rising 
i'rom the midst of the Olacier de Tale/re, and walled in by its moraine 
on all sides. Around a spring in the midst of this oasis in the wildernesfl 
of ice , several species of Alpine ilowers bloom in August. From the 
Montanvert. where the night is usually passed, the moraines and glacier 
I. Mer de (Haivt must l>c traversed for '2</-i-'A hrs. as far as the foot 
of the Siracs </t Tali/re, the S.W. ice-fall of tile Olacier de Talefrt 



$7 £4 



' tO,9t?4 ' 












maw *w ftjsj' 



ftOJ0' 



&0 tlN - 

/4.8W /JJ/f ftw 



wo/?' 







Brevent. CHAMOUNY. />.3. Route. 225 

(or we may proceed from the Chapenu across rocks and moraine, along the 
right hank of tile glacier, but ladies should not attempt this route). Here 
(he guides formerly turned to the left, and skirted the base of the 
f'ourenle (8852') and the Aiguille du Moine (11,2X4'.) ; but owing to the 
melting of the ice this track is no longer practicable, and we must ascend 
to the right, past the Pierre it Biranger , on the S. side of the Seracs 
( 3 .4 hr. : a wooden hut halfway up). In 25 min. we walk across the 
Tulefre Glacier to the .lardin. This excursion affords an imposing survey 
of the icy wildernesses of the Mont Blanc group, and although somewhat 
fatiguing, is frequently undertaken by ladies. 

The Tlegere (0512;")'; ascent from Chamouny 3, descent 2, or 
including a visit to the Source of the Arveyron 3hrs.), an eminence 
to the X. of Chamouny, is a buttress of the Aiguille de la Vloria 
(970;V), one of the highest peaks of the Aiguilles Rouges. We 
follow the Aigentieie road from Chamouny to (l^M.) Les Chables, 
and cross the Arve to Les Praz (Ten Haut (p. 230 ; the footpath on 
the right bank is often marshy, and should therefore be avoided, 
especially as the saving effected is slight). In the village the road 
divides, that to the right leading to the Source of the Arveyron (see 
above), and that to the left to the Flegere. At a small pine-wood 
( '/» M-) we quit the road and follow the path to the left which 
recrosses to the right bank (5 min.) , at the base of the mountain ; 
and we then ascend the barren and stony slope by a good bridle- 
path. After 35 min. we enter the wood to the right, pass (35 min.) 
the Chalet des Praz (refreshments), and in 1 hr. more reach the 
Croix de la Flegere (poor inn, high' charges). The *view embraces 
the entire chain of Mont Blanc, from the Col de Balme (the inn 
on which is clearly discernible) to the Glacier des Bossons, which 
extends into the valley to the S. ; Mont Blanc with its vast mantle 
of snow is •visible from summit to base. From no point of view do 
the serrated pinnacles surrounding the Aiguille Verte (13,540') ap- 
pear so striking as from here , and the riven peaks of the Aiguilles 
Rouges also present a singular aspect. We also survey a great part 
of the Glacier des Bois (Mer de Glace). The view is seen to the best 
advantage by evening light (comp. Panorama). 

The Brevent (8284'), the S. prolongation of the Aiguilles Rouges, 
affords nearly the same view as the Flegere (see above) ; but Mont Blanc 
is here disclosed to the spectator in all its grandeur, whilst from the 
Flegere the Mer de Glace and the Aiguille Verte are the most conspicuous 
objects. From this point the direction of the usual route to the summit 
of Mont Blanc may be distinctly traced ; and with the aid of a telescope 
the Pavilion de la l'ierre Pointue (see below), and the two stone huts on 
the Grands Mulets (p. 227), the two stations for spending the night, may 
also, be seen. The new bridle-path to the Brevent leaves the village on 
the \V., passing the church CChemin Midetier de Chamonix a Si.rt'), and 
leads to the foot of the mountain. It then ascends through wood in 
numerous windings to the (l'/a hr.) Plan de Fontatielte (pavilion with 
refreshments; fine view). Farther up the wood ceases and the path 
ascends a barren slope in zigzags to the (I 1 ,!: hr.) chalets of Flanpraz 
(6772'; Inn, poor and dear). From this point a tolerable path to the left 
ascends to the trigonometrical signal on the summit (l 1 ,^ hr.), the latter 
portion, '£« C/ieminee\ being stony and fatiguing. Guide as far as Plan- 
praz unnecessary, but thence to the summit advisable for inexperienced 
walkers (3 fr.). — The ascent of the Brevent may also he combined with 

Kakiikkkk, Switzerland. 7th Edition, j[y 



226 Route 53. CHAMOINY. Glacier des Bossons. 

that of the Flegere. The 'Koute de Planpraz", a well-defined path, not to 
be mistaken, diverges to the right tS.W.) from the Flegere path, about 
20 min. below the Croix de la Flegere, and leads along the slope of the 
mountain, commanding admirable views of Mont Blanc, and passing the 
Chalets de Charlanoz halfway, in 2 hrs. to the inn of Planpraz, which is 
visible from the Flegere. 

The Glacier des Bossons is an interesting object for a walk 
(3 hrs. there and back; guide desirable forthe passage of the glacier, 
3 fr.). On the left bank of the Arve we pass the hamlets of Le Prat, 
Conduit , Les Barats (following the upper path , to the left) , and 
Les Tsours, where we turn to the left and ascend through wood on 
the right bank of the brook. After 10 min. we cross a bridge to 
the Cascade du Dard (refreshments), a picturesque double waterfall. 
"We next cross the broad stony bed of the Nant des Pelerins. After 
'/^hr. the path to the Pierre Pointue diverges to the left(see below). 
The path then crosses two more brooks and leads to the high moraine 
of the Glacier des Bossons , whence it traverses the glacier to the 
( 3 / 4 hr.) small Hotel des Pyramides , on the lateral moraine of the 
left bank, where we obtain a fine view of the huge glacier, over- 
shadowed by the Mont Blanc du Tacul (13,981 '). On the left rise the 
Aiguilles du Midi (12,608') and de Blaiti'ere (11,608'). A visit to 
the cavern , 85 yds. long, hewn in the glacier, is interesting and 
unattended with danger. "We may now return by Les Bossons to 
the Pont de Perralotaz (p. 221), and thence to Chamouny by the 
high road on the right bank of the Arve. 

The *Pavillon de la Pierre Pointue (6722'), another favourite 
point, is reached by a bridle-path in 2'/ 2 -3 hrs. (mule 8 fr. ; guide 
unnecessary). The beginning of the route has been described above. 
About 10 min. beyond the bridge across the Nant des Pelerins the 
path to the Pierre Pointue diverges to the left and ascends in zig- 
zags on the right side of a wild valley through which the A tint Blanc 
dashes impetuously over fragments of rock. In 1 hr. we reach the 
Chalet de la Para (5266'), from which the path leads through wood 
and pastures to the (1 hr.) Pavilion de la Pierre Pointue (6722'; 
*Kestaurant, de'jeuner S'/o-S 1 /* fr.) , situated on the brink of the 
huge Glacier des Bossons, with its beautiful ice-fall. Opposite, ap- 
parently quite close to us, rise Mont Blanc, the Dome du Gotiter. 
the Aiguille du Gouter, etc. . and we also enjoy a magnificent view 
to the N. and W. 

A very interesting excursion hence is the ascent of the Aiguille de la 
Tour, which commands the best survey of the Glacier des Bossons ('a hr., 
without guide; footpath ascending to the left bv the pavilion). — The 
Pierre a l'Echelle (7910') is also an attractive point (1 hr. ; guide un- 
necessary for good walkers). The narrow path (route to Mont Blanc, see 
below) leads by the pavilion to the right, round an angle of rock, and 
ascends to a point where it leaves off on the brink of the filacier des 
Bossons. Admirable view of the riven ice masses of the glacier; above 
them the Aiguille du (loiiler. the Dome tin (boiler, the Bosse du Dro- 
madaire, and the highest peak uf Mont. Blanc: in the foreground are the 
i. rands Millets, 2'ahrs. distant (guide necessary |. — A pleasant way back 
horn the Pierre Pointue is by the Plan de 1' Aiguille (li 2 hr. ■. no defined 
path, guide therefore advisable), traversing grassy slopes and the moraine 



Mont Blanc. CHAMOUNY. 5J. Route. 227 

of the Glacier des Pelerins, and then ascending a little. The Plan de PAi- 
yiiillc, or La Tapiaz (7487'; Restaurant) lies at the foot of the huge pin- 
nacles of the Aiguille du Plan (12,053') and the Aiguille du Midi (12,608'), 
and commands a superb view of the valley of Chamouny and the country 
beyond it as far as the Bernese Oherland and the mountains of Dauphine. 
We then descend by the Chalets sur le Rocher to Tsours (p. 226) and 
(2 hrs.) Chamouny. 

Mont Blanc (15,781'). the monarch of European mountains 
(Monte Rosa 15,217', Finsteraarhorn 14,026', Ortler 12,812', the 
Pic de Nethou, or Maladetta, the highest of the Pyrenees, 11,168'), 
which since 1860 has formed the boundary between France and Italy, 
is composed chiefly of Alpine granite or protogine. It was ascended 
for the first time in 1786 by an enterprising guide named Jacques 
Balmat. On his return he fell ill, and was attended by Dr. Paccard, 
a local physician, to whom he made known his discovery. He after- 
wards accompanied the doctor to the summit, which they reached 
after a succession of perilous adventures. In 1787 the ascent was 
made by the celebrated naturalist De Saussure, accompanied by sev- 
enteen guides , and his narrative was received with great interest 
by the scientific world. In 1825 the summit was attained by Dr. E. 
Clarke and Captain (Sherwill , and in 1827 by Mr. Auldjo , who 
published a highly interesting account of his ascent. These were 
the principal pioneers of a route now annually trodden by numbers 
of tourists. The ascent is now made about forty times annually, and 
in fine weather is attended with no serious difficulty or danger. 
Travellers are however earnestly cautioned against attempting the 
expedition in foggy or stormy weather. A party of eleven persons 
perished in a storm during the ascent in 1870, and a young English 
lady and a guide fell into a crevasse near the Grands Mulets the 
same year in consequence of having neglected the important pre- 
caution of attaching themselves together by a rope. 

On the first day the travellers generally ascend by the Pavilion de la 
Pierre Poinlue (p. 226) to the (7 hrs.) Grands Mulets (10,007'), where they 
spend the night atone of the two stone huts (small Inn of Silv. Couttet); on 
the second they proceed by the Petit Plateau to the (3 hrs.) Grand Plateau 
(12,900'), whence the summit is reached by the Corridor, the Mur de la 
Cdte, and the Petit* Mulets (or, bearing to the right on the Grand Plateau, 
by the Ddme du Gouter and the Bosse du Dromadaire) in 3-4 hrs. The 
descent is then made to the Grands Mulets , and on the third day Cha- 
mouny is regained (or the whole descent may be made on the second day). 
Those who make the ascent from St. Gervais (p. 220), by the Col de Voza 
(p. 235), spend a night on the Aiguille du Gouter (12,707'), where the guides 
of St. Gervais have erected a hut (8-10 hrs. from St. Gervais); thence by 
the Dome du Gouter and the Bosse (see above) in 5-6 hrs. to the top. — 
From Courmayeur (p. 238) 16 hrs. ; to the Col du Giant 6-7 hrs. ; thence by 
the Glacier du Giant and the Vallee Blanche in 2V'i hrs. to the Cabane 
1 11,693') at the S. base of the Aiguille du Midi (12,608'), where the night 
is spent. The summit is then reached by a difficult ascent of 7-8 hm. 
along the ice slopes of Mont Blanc du Tacul and Mont Maudit to the Cor- 
ridor. — The view from the summit is unsatisfactory; owing to the great 
distance, all objects appear indistinct ; even in the most favourable weather 
the outlines only of the great chains , the Swiss Alps , the Jura, and the 
Apennines are distinguishable. The ascent is somewhat expensive; one 
traveller requires one guide (100 fr.) and a porter (50 IV.) and for each 
additional person one guide or porter more is desirable , but experienced 

15* 



228 Route H3. COL DV GriANT. 

mountaineers require comparatively fewer. Besides this there are other 
expenses for provisions, wine, etc, so that the ascent of Mont Blanc cau 
seldom he made under 220-250 fr. for ouch person. 
Tour i>u .Mont Blanc, see K. f>(>. 

From Ciiamouxv to Courmayeur (p. 238) over the Col du Qeant 
(11,030'), a difficult and fatiguing glacier-pass, not to be attempted by the 
inexperienced (guide 50 fr.). This pass was long considered the highest 
among the Alps, and although recent discoveries have assigned it an in- 
ferior rank, it is still one of the grandest and most interesting. The route 
traverses the upper part of the Mer de (Ham. which on the W. side of the 
Pie /lit Tacnl (11,2S()') merges in the Glacier tin Tacnl, or du (leant (to the 
right rises the Mont Blame du Tanil, 13,981'), and in 8 hrs. reaches the 
culminating point (new refuge hut), between Les Flambeaux (il,70J') on 
the right and the Aiguilles Marbre'es (11,529') on the left. It then descends 
past almost perpendicular rocks to the Pavilion du Fruitier (p. 238), and 
thence to the Val Ferret, Entreves, and Courmayeur (15-10 hrs. in all I. The 
fatal accident to three Englishmen on this pass in 1861 was occasioned by 
their neglecting to use the rope. — Several other passes cross the main 
range of Mont Blanc from Chamouny to Courmayeur, all of which, however, 
are very difficult, and should not he undertaken except by first-rate 
mountaineers with trustworthy guides and in settled weafher. Of these 
may be mentioned: the Col Dolent (11,624'), between the Aiguille de 
Triolet and the Mont Dolent; the Col de Triolet (12,162') and the Cm. 
de Talefke (11,430'), both at the E. head of the Glacier de Tale/re, between 
the Aig. de Triolet and the Aig. de Tale/re; the Col des Uironhellks. 
between the Petites and Grandes Jorasses; the Col des Granim.s Joi:a>-i .- 
(possible from the Italian side only); and the Coi, de Miage (H.076'1, S. 
of the Aig. de Bionnassay. — From Chamount to Orsieres over the Cm. 
iVAi:fiENTiKjtE(ll,555 , )> 20 hrs., extremely laborious and difficult; from the 
Chalets de Lognan, where the night may be passed, the vast Glacier iP A r- 
gentih-e is traversed to the col, lying to the S. of the Tour Xoire (12.608') 
and commanding a striking view"; then a long and hazardous descent over 
the Glacier de Laueiitriz to the Val Ferret and Orsieres (p. 241). Of a similar 
character are the Col de la Tour Noire, between the Tour Noire and 
the Aig. cVArgentiere; and the Col de Chardoxni.t, between the Aig. 
dArgentiere and the Aig. de Chardonnet. — From Argentiere (or better from 
the Col de Balme) to Orsieres by the Glacier du Tour and the Coi. m 
Ton: (11,213'; descent by the Glacier d'Ormj), or over the Fenetre de 
Sai.einoz (descent by the Glacier de Saleinoz\ both difficult and fatiguing, 
but unattended with serious risk. 

From Chamount to Sixt bt the Col du Bkevent and the Coi. d'An- 
tkiine, 9-10 hrs. ; mule 18 fr., return-fee included; guide (unnecessary in 
settled weather) 18 fr. — The route is by the well-defined Chemin Muletiee 
alreadv mentioned (p. 225), and can hardlv be mistaken. From Chamouny 
to the" summit of the Col du Brevent (8078') 3 '/a hrs., see p. 225; we then 
descend a slope, richly clad with bilberry, raspberry, and many other plants, 
into the valley of the Dioza (5413'). which (11,4 hr.) we cross by a wooden 
bridge. (If attended by a guide, the traveller may here turn to the right 
and proceed bv the chalets of Sillu and the Col de Salenton (82T7') in 6-6'/» hrs. 
fo the summit of the Buet, see below.] The path to the Col d'Anterne 
ascends to the left, turning afterwards to the right, and in 2 hrs. we reach 
the summit of the pass (7425), whence a magnificent retrospect of Mont 
Blanc is obtained. The path then descends past the Lite d'Anterne to the 
(2 hrs.) Chalets des Fonds (milk), above which the path unites with the 
usual Mont Buet route. The picturesquely situated house which here 
nverlooks the lower part of the valley, is the summer-residence of an 
Kuglish barrister (Villa Eagle's Nest"). The bridle-path now descends 
the picturesque Vallee des Fonds, watered by a tributary of the Oiflre 
(see below I. Near (1 hr.) Salvagmj, a fine cascade descends from the moun- 
tain on the left. Then CAhr.) Sixt (2483'; Ildtel du Fer a I'/ieral, estab- 
lished in an old monastery. R. and I-. 3, B. l'.'a, D. 3 1 i fr. , sometimes 
crowded I. Ill spring, when the brooks are swollen by the melting of the 



BUET. 53. Route. 229 

snow, Sixt is remarkable for the magnificent waterfalls which abound in 
its neighbourhood. In the upper part of the valley alone, called Vallee 
du Fer a Cheval from its resemblance to a horse-shoe, there are as many 
as thirty cascades. In summer and autumn, however, the number dwindles 
down to five or six , and a visit to the falls does not repay the fatigue. 
Near Fond de la Combe, at the head of the valley, 3 hrs. from Sixt, 
there is a vault of snow, 100 paces long , containing another waterfall, to 
which travellers may drive. Footpath from Sixt over the Col de Xogerurt 
(7917') to Champery, see p. 213. 

|The above route, the most striking of all the approaches to Wont Blanc, 
is far preferable in the reverse direction: Sixt to the Chalets des Fonds 
I 3 /* hr. ; a few min. farther the bridle-path turns to the right and crosses the 
brook (the path to the left ascends to the Col Lichaud, or Col des Fonds, whence 
the Buet may be ascended ; by this route from the chalets to the summit of the 
Buet and down to Chamouny 9-10 hrs., guide from Sixt necessary, 15 fr.); 
3 hrs. Col d\ivlertie , whence in clear weather a most striking view of 
Mont Blanc is obtained. At the foot of the Col the path turns to the left 
(that to the right leads to Servoz) ; 1 hr. bridge over the Dioza ; 2 hrs. Col 
dn'Brh'ent, where another superb survey of the Mont Blanc chain is 
enjoyed; 3 t hr. Chalets de Plan Praz ; IV4 hr. Chamouny. In fine weather 
the route by the Col des Fonds and the Buet is still more impressive.] 

In the valley of the Giffre, 4' 4 31. below Sixt, is situated Samoens (2293': 
H6tel de la Poste ; Hdtel du Coiiinieree, cuisine tolerable; both uninviting; 
Pension Balktloud), a town with 3000 inhab., whence we may either cross the 
Col de Juinplaine (6683'.) to the K. to (4 hrs.) Morzine (Hotel du Chamois), 
and thence descend the valley of the Dranse to Thonon on the Lake of Ge- 
neva (p. 210); or towards the N.E. the Col de Golise (5489') and Col de Coax 
(6322') to (6 hrs.) Champery in the Yal d'llliez (p. 212). Or we may take the 
omnibus from Samoens through the valley of the Giffre (once daily in 7 hrs., 
fare 4 fr.), via Tanninges and St. Jeoire, to Geneva (where the omnibus stops 
at the small and poor Hotel de Savoie, Rue de Rive 13). From Samoens to 
Or-neva at 4.30 a.m., from Geneva to Samoens at 11. a.m. 

Fhoji Cmamocny 10 Sixt BY AugkntiBuk and the Most Buet, an in- 
teresting, but fatiguing route, 10-12 hrs. (guide necessary, 23 fr. inc). 
return-route). To (6 M.) Argentiere, see p. 230. We then follow the Tete 
Noire route for 1 hr., as far as the entrance to the Bilrard Valley (p. 230), which 
the path ascends to the (3 hrs.) Chalet de la Pierre a Berard (where the 
night had better be spent in order that the summit may be reached early). 
Then over loose stones and snow for 3 1 /2 hrs. to the summit of the 'Buet 
(10,200'), which commands a magnificent view of the Mont Blanc range, 
Monte Rosa , the Matterhorn , the Bernese Alps with the Finsteraarhorn 
and Jungfrau, the Dent du Midi, and the Jura as far as the mountains of 
Dauphine. Descent of 2 3 4 hrs. by the Col Lichaud, or des Fonds (p. 228), 
to the Chalets des Fonds, and thence to Sixt in D/4 hr. 



54. From Chamouny to Martigny by the Tete-Noire, 
or to Vernayaz by Triquent and Salvan. 

Cumjt. Map, p. 220* 

To Le Chatelard i\ t hrs., thence over the Tete Noire to Martigny i'/,, 
or by Salvan to Vernayaz 3'/2-4 hrs. Carriage-road for light vehicles over 
the Tete Noire the whole way to Martigny (with two horses for one per- 
son 50 fr., for each additional person 10 fr. more; from Martigny to Trient 
1-3 pers. 30 fr., 4 pers. 40 fr. ; Tete-Nuire 35 or 45, Chatelard 40 or 50 fr. ; 
if a night is spent on the journey, 15 fr. additional). On the Vernayaz 
route driving is practicable as far as Le Chatelard only (1-2 persons 30 fr.). 
beyond which there is a bridle-path. If a carriage be taken to Argentiere 
(one-horse 6-8, two-horse 10-12 fr.), the rest of the route can easily be 
accomplished on foot in one day, even by ladies, if they are good walkers. 



230 linute 54. ARGfiNTtfcRK. from Chamouny 

At Le Chatelard, half-way , guides with horses returning to Martigny fre- 
quently offer their services for a few francs. Our description of the route, 
however, will enable the traveller to dispense with a guide (12 fr.). Those 
who leave Chamouny early may reach Geneva or Sierre the same day by 
railway. — By making a digression of 2 hrs. (with a guide), the view 
from the Col de Balme may lie combined with the Tete-Noire. For this 
longer route the guides (p. 232) are entitled to an additional fee of 3 fr. 

A Carriage 1!oad and two Brtdle-Paths connect the valley of Cha- 
mouny with the Valais, viz. those described in our present and follow- 
ing chapter. The path by the Trte-Xoire to Martigny and that leading li\ 
Sai.van to Vernayaz are by far the most interesting and least fatiguing, 
while the third, traversing the Col i>e Balme. commands a superb view of 
the Valley of Chamouny and Mont Blanc, which are not visible from the 
Tete-Noire route. As, however, persons quitting Chamouny are already 
familiar with this view, they had better select the Tfite-Xoire route, while 
those coming from Martigny should choose the Col de Balme in clear 
weather. The routes may be combined in the way above indicated (see 
also p. 233). — The most impressive way of approaching Mont Blanc is from 
.Sixt, over the Col d'Anterne (p. 228). 

The routes to Martigny and Vernayaz do not divide until we 
reach Le Chatelard (p. 231). The road ascends from Cliaumuny 
( 344f>') on the right bank of the Arve, and crosses it before reaching 
( 1 !/ a M.) Les Praz (*H6tel du Chalet des Praz , moderate ; A la Mer 
<ie Glace). The village and Qlacier des Bois (Source of theArveyron, 
p. '224. a digression of 20 min.) remain to the right. — l'/oM. 
Les Tines (Aux Touristes), where a path to the Chapeau diverges to 
the right (p. 224). — 3/ 4 M. Lavancher (3848'), on the right, above 
the road. On the opposite bank of the Arve, farther on , are the 
houses of La Joux, whence the Fle'gere may be ascended by trav- 
ellers coming from Argentine (comp. p. 222). On the road we pass 
the hamlets of Les lies and Les Chalets. — 2'/4 M. Argentine 
(3963'; *Couronne y moderate; *Bellevue), the third largest village 
in the valley, near which the huge *glacier of the same name des- 
cends into the valley between the Aiguille Verte (13.540') and the 
Aiguille du Chardonnet (12.. r )43'|, forming a tine ice-grotto at its 
lower extremity. 

Beyond the village the road to the Tete-Ts'oire ascends to the left, 
while the road to Tour (p. 234) crosses the Arve and ascends on its 
left bank. The rocky barrier which the road surmounts is called 
Les Montets, like that at the W. end of the Chamouny valley (p. 220). 
Beyond (20 min.) the small village of Trelerhamp we obtain a flue 
retrospect of the Glacier duTour and the magnificent Aiguille Verte. 
The (20 min.) top of the pass ( Col des Montets, 4741'), indicated 
by a heap of stones, the watershed between the Rhone and theArve, 
commands a final view of the Mont Wane chain. 

The road descends amidst huge masses of rock. At (20 min.) 
Poyuz a finger-post indicates the way to the left to the ( 20 mill. ) 
""(Uisciiite de herurd, or de J'nynz, a picturesque waterfall in a wild 
ravine, a digression to which adds :, / 4 hr. to the walk. Through this 
ravine, the I allee de herurd, runs the route to the Huet ( 10.200'), 
the summit of which is visible in the background (lihrs., guide 
If) fr. : comp. p. '?'?':'' 



to Mnrtigny. TETE-N01RE. 5 4. Rovte. 231 

Beyond Poyaz the road leads through a valley bounded by lofty, 
pine-clad mountains. Before us rises the Bel Oiseau (8609'). At 
[i/l hr.) he Nant the road crosses the Eau Noire, and in '/4 n r. more 
reaches the church of Valorcine (4232'), which is protected against 
avalanches by a barrier of masonry. This village, the largest in the 
valley (640 inhab.), consists of a long row of chalets. (Immediately 
beyond the church a finger-post indicates the path to the left leading 
direct to the fall of the Barberine mentioned below.) 

The valley contracts, the road descends to the stream which 
rushes foaming over the rocks, and the scenery becomes grander. — 
25 min. Confluence of the Barberine and the Eau-Noire ; the former 
forms a beautiful waterfall (for permission to visit which 1 fr. is 
demanded), '^ hr. from the road. — o min. Bridge over the Eau- 
-Noire (3684'), the boundary of Savoy and the Canton of Valais ; 
(10 min.) Hotel Royal du Chatelard (R. 3, B. l'/ 2 - L- and A. 1 fr.), 
halfway between Chamouny and Martigny, where the two routes to 
the valley of the Rhone separate. To the right is the well known 
route by the Tete Noire to Martigny, to the left the new and still 
more attractive path via Triquent and Salvan to Vernayaz (p. 232). 
From lb Chatelard to Martigny, 4'^ hrs. The road passes 
through a cutting in the rock (formerly closed by a gate) and cross- 
es the Eau Noire. The once dangerous but now disused Mopas 
(mauvais pas) descends to the left, while the new road leads high 
above the sombre and profound valley, and penetrates the rocks of 
the ('/ 2 hr.) Tete-Noire , or La Roche-Percee. (The Summit of the 
Tete-Noire, 6591', lies to the S., and is a peak of the chain which 
terminates in the Croix de Fer , to the N. of the Col de Balme, 
p. 233.) On the opposite side of the stream rises the Bel-Oiseait 
(8609'), to the N. of which are the Dent de Morcles (9639') and 
Grand Moreran (10,043'). About 10 min. beyond the Roche- Perce' e, 
3 hrs. from Argentiere, we reach the Hotel de la THe-Noire (4003'; 
path to the Col de Balme, see p. 233). The road here turns sudden- 
ly to the right into the dark and beautiful forest of Trient, and 
winds round the Tete-Noire. Deep in the valley below, dashes the 
brawling Trient (which joins the Eau-Noire a little farther on). 
Where the forest is quitted, the valley widens, and we reach ( >/-2 
hr.) the village of Trient (4249'; Hotel du Glacier de Trient), a 
little beyond which the present route unites with that from Chamou- 
ny over the Col de Balme (see below). 

From this'village the road ascends to the ( 1 / 2 hr.) Col de Trient, 
better known as the Col de la Forclaz (4997'; two taverns). The 
view from the summit is limited, but 1/2 hr. lower down we enjoy 
a noble survey of the valley of the Rhone as far as Sion, extended 
like a map at our feet, with Martigny immediately below, which is 
reached in 2'/4hrs. by the road, or in I '/ahr. by following the steep 
and stony old road, which cuts off the windings of the new ( p. 232 |. 
Martigny, see p. 208. 



232 Route 55. COL VV. l.A FOKCl.AZ. 

From lf. Chatki.akd to A'i'rnayaz, 3'/^ nrs - (several new inns 
on the route"). The new bridle-path to the left ascends partly 
by zigzags for 40 min., and at a cross turns to the right, in the 
direction of Finhaut, which is visible from this point. For the next 
V'i hr. the path is nearly level, affording views of the valleys of the 
Eau-Noirc and the Trient (p. 231), the Glacier de Trient, and the 
Aiguille du Tour. At Finhaut (4058'; Croix Fe'de'rale, poor), which 
is beautifully situated, the path at first ascends slightly, is then 
level, and afterwards descends in easy windings to the small vil- 
lage of Triquent (3261'), and the (1 hr.) Gorge of Triquent with 
the beautiful *Falls of the Triege, framed with rocks and pines. 
For a short way the path is again level, and then gradually de- 
scends to ('/^hr.) Salvan (3035'; * Hotel des Gorges du Triege; 
Union). 

The 'Cascade du Dailly near Salvan merits a visit. A good path leads 
ti> it in 40 min. by the hamlet of Les Granges, situated on the slope facing 
the. valley of the Rhone. The finest points of view are above and opposite 
the fall respectively, and if these be visited, the excursion occupies ahmit. 
3 hrs. from Salvan. In returning to Salvan a tine view of the snow 
mountains of the Great St. Bernard is enjoyed. Guide from Salvan 1-2 IV 
according to the extent of the excursion (not absolutely necessary). 

From Salvan a good road descends in numerous windings, shad- 
ed by chestnuts, in 50 min. to Vernayaz (railway station , p. 208). 

55. From Martigny to Chamouny. Col de Balme. 

Contp. Map, p. 220. 

S 1 ■> his. (comp. pp. 229, 230). Carriage-road from Martigny to Trient. 
and from Tour to Chamouny. Guide (12 fr.) unnecessary, if the following 
directions he observed. Mule and attendant by the Col de Balme or Tele 
Noire to Chamouny 24 fr. ; if the two routes are combined, 3 fr. additional. 
For the excursion to Chamouny by the Col de Balme and back by the 
Tete Noire (3 days) the same guide may be employed (6 fr. per day, or 
mule with attendant 12 fr. per day). 

Martigny (see p. 208) lies i/ 2 M. from the railway station. The 
road leads thence to the S. to ( 3 / 4 M.) Martigny-le-Bourg (p. 209) 
and crosses the (!/ 2 M.) Dranse (1640'), which flows from the Great 
St. Bernard (p. 241). About 4 min. from the bridge , a tablet on a 
house indicates the road to Chamouny to the right, and that to the 
Great St. Bernard to the left. The former ascends through vine- 
yards, orchards, and meadows in numerous windings, which the rug- 
ged old path cuts off; 20 min.. Les Rappes ; 25 min.. La Fontaine. 
Immediately above the latter village the old and new routes unite 
and lead to the left (the steep path to the right ascends into the 
woods only). Then, 20 min.. Sergvieu.v; 55 min. Chavans-en-Haut 
(refreshments; extensive view of the Rhone valley); 45 min. Col 
de la Forclaz (see p. 2:!1). A road here leads to the left to the Glu- 
ciir du Trient, the northernmost arm of the ice-fields of Mont Blanc, 
hut not visible hence, while the Chamouny road descends in a straight 
direction. Opposite us. slightly to the left, is visible the valley, 
along the left side of which lies the route to the Col do Balme, 



COL DE BALME. 55. Route. 233 

After ! / 4 nr - the P at h to tl ,e ^ol de Balnie diverges to the left 
from the road to the lower part of the village of Trient and the Tete 
Noire (fine view of the Glacier de Trient in descending), and in 
10 min. crosses a bridge opposite the upper houses of TWent (4249'). 
AVe now traverse the meadows to the left; 20 min., we cross the 
Xant-Noir ('Nant', probably from nature, is the Savoyard word for a 
mountain stream), which descends from the Mont des Herbaylres . 
We ascend the right bank for about 200 paces, and then, turning 
to the left, wind upwards in zigzags through the Forest of Maynin, 
which has been considerably thinned by avalanches. The path is 
steep and fatiguing for 1 hr. , but afterwards becomes more level, 
and traverses green pastures and slopes carpeted with the rhodo- 
dendron ; l /-2 hr., the poor Chalets des Herbaylres, or Zerbaziire 
(6660'), where milk may sometimes be procured. Fine retrospective 
view of the Col de Forclaz and the Bel-Oiseau to the left. 

After a gradual and winding ascent of V2 f> r - more we reach the 
summit of the pass, the *Col de Balme (7231'; Hotel Suisse, toler- 
able), the boundary between Switzerland (Valais) and France (Sa- 
voy). In clear weather the whole of the Mont Blanc range is visible 
from summit to base, surrounded by the Aiguilles duTour, d'Argen- 
tiere, Ycrte, du Dru, de Charmoz, du Midi, etc., with its huge gla- 
ciers descending to the green valley of Chamouny, which is also vis- 
ible as far as the Col de Yoza. On the right are the Aiguilles Rou- 
ges, and beside them the Bre'vent, by which the valley is bounded; 
in the rear, the snow-clad Buet (p. 229) is visible to the right. The 
retrospective view over the Forclaz embraces the Valais and the gi- 
gantic mountains which separate it from the Bernese Oberland, the 
(ieniuii with its two peaks, theJungfrau, theFinster-Aarhorn, Grim- 
sel, and Furca. 

The ; Yiew from a second eminence to the right, with a white boun- 
dary stone, about ' 4 hr. X.W. of the inn, is still more extensive. To the 
N. extends the Croix de Fer, or Aiguille de Balme (7677 1 )- the extremity 
of the precipitous hills which rise above the Col de Balme. From this 
point Mont Blanc presents a still more imposing appearance than from 
the Col, and the entire chain of the Bernese Alps is visible to theN.E., 
rising like a vast white wall with countless pinnacles. The descent may- 
be begun immediately from this point. The ascent of the Aiguille itself 
is difficult, and not recommended. The cross erected on it is to the mem- 
ory of Escher von Berg, a young native of Zurich, who lost his life in 
attempting the ascent, contrary to the advice of the guides. 

The Col de Balme and Tete- Noire routes are also connected by 
means of a footpath (2 l /-> hrs.) , which is recommended to the traveller 
who is desirous of visiting these points in one day from the valley of the 
Rhone. A guide may be dispensed with in fine weather. To the W. of 
the Col, behind the above mentioned eminence with the boundary stone, 
a narrow, but well defined path leads nearly to the (10 min.) brink of the 
Tete-Noire Valley , and then becomes indistinct. The traveller must not 
descend to the valley, but turn to the right (N.) and follow a slight depres- 
sion for a few minutes until a number of heaps of stone become visible. 
The path soon re-appears and passes to the right of these (10 min.) heaps; 
10 inin. a group of chalets, before quite reaching which the path crosses a 
small stream and descends rapidly to the left on its bank ; '.'-jlir. another group 
of chalets (paths descending to the left to be avoided) ; 20 min. a third group 



234 Route 55. TOUR. 

ul' chalets. Delightful view during the descent, embracing the entire Tete 
Noire valley, which presents a pleasant contrast to the Col de Balme 
route. The path, now well constructed and much frequented, passes 
several chalets and farms, and at length reaches (1 hr.) the Hdlel de la 
Tete-Xoire (p. 231). The views are less striking if the excursion be made 
in the reverse direction. From JIartigny to the Col de balme and back by 
this route 10-11 hrs., from Chamouny and back about 12, from Chamounv 
to Martigny 10-11 hrs. 

As we descend from the inn, the Arve, which rises on the Col de 
Balme, flows on our right. The path crosses several small brooks, 
and then passes ( a / 4 hr.J the Homme de Pierre, a heap of stones 
which serves as a landmark when the paths are covered with snow; 
l / t hr. a heap of stones, resembling a hut without a roof j '/ 4 hr. 
Tour, to the left of which is the beautiful glacier of that name. 
Carriage-road hence to Chamouny. The fragments of black slate 
brought down by the Arve are carefully collected into heaps by the 
peasants. In spring they cover their fields with these slabs, which 
being heated by the sun cause the snow under them to melt 
several weeks earlier than would otherwise be the case. (Carriage 
from Tour to Chamouny with one horse 6, with two 9-10 fr. ; tho»e 
who intend to drive should hire a carriage here rather than at Ar- 
gentine.) About '/2 ^- from Tour the road crosses the Huisme, 
which drains the Glacier du Tour, and at (l'/ 4 M.) Argentiere joins 
Route f>4 (p. 230). 

The traveller should spend the night here , and proceed next clay by 
the Chapeau and Jlontanvert to Chamouny, as (he distance from tin- base 
of the Glacier des Bois to Chamouny is thus traversed hut once. Krum 
Argentiere. to Chamouny G 31. more. From the Col de Balnic to Chamouny 
1 hrs. (ascent 5-5'/2 hrs.). 

56. Tour du Mont Blanc. 

From Chamouny to Aosta by the Col du Bonhomme and the 
Col de la Seigne. 

C'omp. Maps, pp. 220, 24". 

Hkidli; Path, well trodden, and not easily mistaken except after a fall 
of snow. An easy walk of three days to Courmayeur: 1st, to Contaminei 
G hrs.; 2nd, to jiottet 6 3 /< hrs.; 3rd", Courmayeur G 3 /< hrs.; 4th, drive to 
Aosta, 28 31. — Good walkers may reach Courmayeur from Chainuuuy iu 
two days, by spending the night at La Barme (p. 23G), Chapiu (p. '237 1, ur 
Mottet (p. 237). This may also be accomplished by taking a mule. — From 
Courmayeur to Aosta a good carriage-road; one-horse carr. 18, two-horse 
30 fr. ; diligence from 1st July to 15th Sept. only. Guides at Chamouny, 
see p. 222. Tolerable mountaineers may dispense witlt a guide in favour- 
able weather. The tour of 31ont Blanc is reckoned as live days journey, 
and costs 30 fr., besides which a gratuity is expected. 

The Tour of Mont Blanc, as this expedition is called, is frequently 
undertaken, especially by travellers from Chamouny to Aosta or those wh" 
desire to visit the Great St. Bernard without retracing their steps. I'nUw 
the rare good fortune of an unclouded prospect from the Col du Hon- 
liomme and Col de la .Seigne is enjoyed, the traveller will probably he 
disappointed in the excursion. The scenery of the Alice Blanche and the 
neighbourhood of Courmayeur, howe\ er, ranks with the grandest among 
the Alps. 

About .'i :, / 4 M . from Chamouny we quit the new road (p. '-20), cross 
the Arve. am! vt^'h ' '/.- M 1 / -r± (htvhts or Let Honehea, recognU- 



COL DE VOZA. M. Route. 235 

able by its picturesquely situated church. Two paths diverge hence 
to the left. The first (preferable) by the brook, a few paces beyond 
the church, hardly to be mistaken, ascends in 2 hrs. to the *Pa- 
villon de Bellevue (5947'), a small inn situated about l / t hr. above 
the Col de Voza , and commanding a magnificent *view (best by 
evening-light) of the valley of Chamouny as far as the Col de Balme. 
Mont Blanc, the valley of the Arve, etc. — The other path (more 
liable to be mistaken) diverges from the old road '/ 4 M. farther 
on, and ascends in 2 hrs. to the Col de Voza (5495'; Pavilion de 
Voza, situated l / i hr. to the S. of, and lower than, the Pavilion de 
Bellevue, which is not visible hence), the view from which is 
inferior to that from the Bellevue. 

From the Col de Voza and from the Bellevue paths descend in 
1 / 4 hr. to the village of Bionnassay (4364'). The longer route (4 
hrs.) hence to Les Contamines leads to the right, and descends by 
Bionnay (3192'); the more direct route (2'^ hrs.) to the left leads 
by Champel. At the small chapel of Bionnassay the footpath de- 
scends to the left, crosses the brook, and soon unites with the longer 
bridle-path. In 1 hr., the village of Champel is reached, where the 
path turns to the left by the fountain and rapidly descends the hill ; 
'/4 hr., La Villette, where the path leads to the right by the foun- 
tain, and soon joins the carriage-road from St. Gervais. In I hr. 
more we reach Les Contamines, 6 hrs. from Chamouny. The Mont- 
joie Valley, which the road traverses, watered by the Bon-Nartl 
(p. 220), and resembling that of Chamouny, extends along the K. 
side of the Mont Blanc group. The glaciers which descend into it, 
but are rarely visible from the road, are the Olacier de Bionnassay, 
which is skirted by the St. Gervais route to Mont Blanc, and the 
(ilar.iers deMiage, de la Frasse, and de Trelattte. On the Hermance, 
the N. slope of Mont Joli (see below), which bounds the view on 
the \V., stands the picturesque village of St. Nicolas de Veroce. 

[Instead of the direct route from the Pavilion or from the Col 
to Contamines through Bionnassay, the digression by the Prarion 
(6460' ; route to St. Gervais) , about 500' higher, is recommended 
by some (comp. p. 220), as it commands a beautiful view towards 
Sallanches.] 

Les Contamines (3855'; *C'ol du Bonhomrne, at the lower end; 
Lnion, in the village, tolerable), a large village with a picturesque 
church, lies on the K. slope of the valley. The Mont Joli (8373'; 
see above) is frequently ascended hence in 4 his., as well as from 
St. Gervais; admirable view from the summit; guide fi fr. , not 
absolutely necessary (guide to the Col du Bonhomme 6-8, Col des 
Fours 6-8, Chapiu 8-10, Mottet 10-12 fr. ; the higher fees heing 
charged when the guide cannot return the same day). 

Beyond Contamines the road descends to the hamlet of Pontet, 
commanding a view of the valley as far as the peaks of the Bon- 
homme. The valley contracts, and, near the (40 min.) chapel of 



236 Routt 66. NANT-FORANT From Chammtny 

"Sot re Dame tie la (inri/t. ends in a deep ravine at the toot of Mont 
Joli. Numerous pilgrims resort to this chapel on 15th Aug. annually. 

The road terminates here. The bridle-path ascends to the left, 
near a bridge, passing frequent traces of glacier-friction (see Introd. 
MY), and traverses a wood; it crosses (40 min.") the Bon-Nant 
by a stone bridge, and (7 min.) reaches the Chalets of Nant- 
Borant (4780'; tolerable inn, mule to the summit of the Col du 
Bonhomme Mr.), 4'/>2 hrs. from the Baths of St. (iervais. Ve 
now cross the wooden bridge to the left, and traverse the pastures 
by a rough and stony path, crossing the brook several times. 
Magnificent view of the Glacier de Trelatete, which descends from 
the Aiguille (1'2, 900') of that name (see below); looking back, the 
eye ranges over the whole of the Montjoie Valley as far as the 
Aiguilles de Varens ('p. *219). 

Practised mountaineers may from Xant-Borant reach the ' '"J de la 
Soigne in 6 hrs. liy the Col du Mont Tondu (9204'); guide necessary. \ 
bridle-path leads up the E. hill-side, past some line waterfalls, t • • the 
(t',2 hr.) Pavilion- Auberge de Trelatete (6483'), in a beautiful position mi 
the margin of the grand Trelatete Glacier. The latter is then ascended 
towards the S.K. to the pass, E. of Ml. Tondu; beautiful view, especially 
from an eminence adjacent, to the left. The descent lies over abrupt 
rockv slopes to the Col de la Seigne (p. 237). — Over the Col l>i. Tuk- 
i.at£te (about 11,000'), immediately to the S. of the Aiguille de Tre- 
latete, to the Glacier de V Alice' Blanche and Combat Lake (p. 237 1, 
difficult. — From Contamines over the Glacier de la Frarse, and the t'ui. 
mo RiiKioNci.K to the Glacier de Trelatete and Col de Tondu, laborious. 

The (1 hr.) Chalet de la Barme, or Balma (56*27'), is a small 
and tolerable inn. In doubtful weather, or if evening is approach- 
ing, a guide should be taken from this point to the summit of the 
pass (3 fr.); but, as guides are not always to be met with here, 
it is safer to engage one at Los Contamines. 

The path, indicated by stakes, now ascends wild, stony slopes. 
Vegetation disappears, and the Alpine rose alone finds a scanty sub- 
sistence. On the (55 min.) Plaine des Dames (6543') rises a 
conical heap of stones which is said to mark the spot where a lady 
once perished in a snow-storm. The path now ascends in windings 
on the slope to the right, and in 40 min. reaches a saddle, some- 
times called the Col du Bonhomme, but not the real summit of the 
pass. Two rocks, the Pic du Bonhomme (10, 138') and the Pic de la 
fionnef'emme (9908'), here tower aloft, like two ruined castles. 

The desolate and barren valley into which the traveller looks down 
nn the opposite side of this saddle is that of the Oitte. A path, at lirst ill- 
deiined, descends into this basin , passes the lonely Chalet de la Sauce, 
turns to the left and crosses the brook, and linallv reaches the chalet of 
La Gitte in 2 hrs.; t hence to Beaufort (p. 21o) 3 hrs. This route is un- 
interesting, but convenient for travellers proceeding to the Tarcntaise. 
Guide not absolutely necessary. 

Beyond this first saddle wc follow the slope of the mountain tn 
the left, the rocky path being indicated by stakes, and in '"4 hr. 
more attain the crest of the Col du Bonhomme (Sir).' 1 )'), which 
commands a magnificent view of the mountains of the Tarentaitt 
IP- '240). 



to Aosta. COL PK LA SETGNB. ,V,\ /Jom*«. 237 

We may now descend into the valley by one of two routes. We 
may turn to the left , continuing to ascend by the posts to the 
(}/., hr.) Col des Fours (8892'), and then descend to (2 hrs.) 
Mottet (see below). This pass is rarely quite free from snow. On 
the N. side especially, where the posts cease , fresh snow fre- 
quently conceals the path as early as the beginning or middle of 
September, in which case a guide is desirable. The path descends 
at first across stony slopes, passes (1^4 nr -) a group of chalets, and 
reaches the ('^ hr.) Hameau du Glacier (5848') at the bottom of 
the valley. Here it descends by the chapel, crosses the bridge, and 
in 20 min. more reaches the inns of Mottet. 

Or we may descend from the Col du Bonhomme in a straight 
direction, partly over loose stones, to (l 3 /4 hr.) — 

Chapiu (4951'), properly Les Chapieux, an Alpine village 
(*'Soleil; Hotel des Voyageurs ; mule to the Col de la Seigne 5 fr.), 
1 '/'2 nr - lower down the valley than Mottet. 

From Chapiu to Pre St. Didier over the Little St. Bernard (11 hrs. ; 
preferable to the route over the Col de la Seigne in doubtful weather). 
The path to (3 hrs.) Boitrg St. Mavrice (p. 240) is at lirst very stony, 
Imt afterwards improves, and commands a beautiful view of the upper Isere 
valley (Tarentaise) the whole way , until at length it unites with the 
high-road. From Bourg St. Maurire to Pri St. Didier, see p. 239. 

Mottet (6227') possesses two small inns (Repos des Voyageurs, 
and Ancien Hotel). A .well trodden , and at places carefully con- 
structed bridle-path ascends hence to the (2 hrs.) *Col de la 
Seigne (8307'). The summit of the pass, where a cross indicates 
the frontier of France and Italy, commands an extensive and impos- 
ing survey of the Allee Blanche, a lofty valley several miles in- 
length, bounded on the N. by the precipices of the Mont Blanc 
chain, upwards of 10,000' in height, and on the S. by the Mont 
Fame (10,712') and the Cramont, or Oramont (9059'). De Saussure 
not inaptly compares Mont Blanc, as seen from the Col de la Seigne, 
to an artichoke surrounded by its leaves. The eminent German 
geographer Ritter (d. 1859) maintains that the view from the Col 
is unsurpassed in the Alps, and that a parallel can only be found 
among the Himalayas. The view from the Cramont is however 
superior (see below). 

The path descends across patches of snow, which, however, dis- 
appear in warm seasons, and over rocky debris and pastures. It pass- 
es (t/ 2 hr.) a chalet, where Alpine fare may be procured in summer, 
C/q hr.) a group of chalets (milk), and the (13/ 4 hr.) pretty, green 
Lac de Combal (5774'). At the (E.) lower end of the lake the path 
crosses to the left bank of the Doire, which is formed by the dis- 
charge of glaciers, skirts the base of the lofty moraine of the Qlacier 
de Miage for i/ 2 h r -> an d then recrosses the brook (Cantine de I'Avi- 
zaille, tolerable). The valley (Val Veni) expands and becomes more 
smiling. In 1 hr. more we reach the beautiful Qlacier de Brenva, 
which once tilled the whole valley , compelling the path to follow 



238 Route 56. COURMAYEUR. From Chamouny 

the abrupt slopes of the Mont Chitif , but of late years has rapidly 
decreased. Opposite the glacier , and immediately above the path, 
rises the picturesquely situated white Chapelle du Glacier, or Autre 
Dame de la Guerison , occupied by a hermit. At the hamlet of £n- 
tr'tves (4216'), which lies to the left of the path, the Doire is joined 
by a stream descending from the Ferret Valley (see below), and below 
this point takes the name of Dora Baltea. Opposite the small Baths 
of La Saxe( 3 /4hr.)the path again crosses the brook, passes ('/4 ur .) 
the Hotel du Montblanc (see below), and in lOmin. more reaches — 
Courmayeur (3986'). - 'Hotel Roial, r. 2, b. ii, 2 , l>. 4, l. and 

A. 1 fr. ; ;! Angelo, Union, and s Mont Blanc, similar charges: the last is 
i, 2 M. from the village, on the way to the Ceil de la Seigne (see above). 
Diligence in summer to Aosta in 5>/2 hrs. , fare 5 , coupe 6 fr. (at other 
seasons from Pre St. Didier only). One-horse carriage 18, two-horse 30 fr., 
return-vehicles generally two -thirds of the full fare. A society of guides 
has recently been constituted at Courmayeur, with charges and regula- 
tions resembling those of Chamouny. Jul. Grange surnamed La Berge, 
L. Lagnier, and L. Bromont are recommended among others. 

Courmayeur, a considerable village at the upper end of the val- 
ley of Aosta, with baths, is much frequented in summer. Those 
who do not intend to scale the Mont de Saxe or the Cramont ( see 
below) from Courmayeur, should not fail to ascend the Ferret Valley 
(see below) for about 1 M. in order to obtain a view of Mont Blanc 
(not visible from Courmayeur) in all its magnificence. In the Allee 
Blanche the spectator is too near to enjoy an effective view ot the 

different groups. „ .. „ , 

From the 'Mont de Saxe (7340': ascent 2>/ 2 -3 hrs. ; guide 6 tr., ma> 
be dispensed with) the view embraces the entire E side of Mont Blanc 
with its numerous glaciers, from the Col de la Seigne to the Col de Ferret 
the Col du Geant and the Jorasses being in the immediate vicinity. 1 hose 
who come from Aosta need not ascend to the highest point , as a view 
of the Aosta Valley only is thus obtained; the chain of Mont Blanc is seen 
equally well from the last chalets (milk). . , 

The Cramont, or Gramont (9059'), the finest point of view near Cnur- 
maveur, ascended in 4 hrs. (guide, 6 fr., advisable), commands an admirantc 
survey of the Allee Blanche and the remarkable rocky pinnacles surrounu- 
ing Mont Blanc. .^w, 

From Colk.mayeur in Chamounv by the Col du Geant (comp. _p. --" 
in lo hrs. (guide 45 , porter 25 fr. ; to the summit and back guide im- 
porter 8 fr., in two days guide 15, porter 10 fr.). The 'Pavilion du Fruitier 
(7149'), situated on the Mont FrUv, on the route to the Col du t>eam. 
commanding a fine view of Mont Blanc, and the Graiun Alps towards int 
S. , is a pleasant object for an afternoon's excursion. Ascent - .« '"> 
(guide, 6 fr.. not indispensable I. — Other high glacier-passes from four- 
inayeur to Cliamounv, see p. 2'JS. . 

"Fhom I'utiiMAi'tiu to Maktiunv. Those who wish to avoid He 
digression by Aosta and the Great St Bernard on their return-journev 
may prefer the following route : through the narrow Val de Ferret, with its 
numerous glaciers, bounded on the \V. by the enormous masses of tin' 
Giant (13,156'), the Jorasses (13,800'), and the Glacier of Triolet; then 
over (he Col de Ferret (STi'-ll'), the frontier of Italv and Switeerlawt 
{Mont Dolenl, 12,566', to the N.W .if (he Col, has sine.' 1860 formed the 
boundary of France, Italy, and .Switzerland), which commands a Must 
.-Irikiug view, especially when reached from the direction of Martigny ; 
thence by ('/.-/.res (p. 241.1, where the valley of Ferret descends to the 
valley of Entreinont and the Ore.it St. Bernard route: Martigny is thus 
reached in 14 hrs.: Col de Ferret 6, Orsieies 5, Martitnv 3 hrs. A guide 



to Aosta. PRE ST. DIDIER. 56. Route. 239 

should be taken as far as the Chalets de Ferret (6 fr. , to Orsieres 12 fr.), 
and provisions carried. Beyond Entreves (see above) the path crosses a 
branch of the Doire , which flows through the Ferret valley, follows the 
right bank as far as the Chalets of Pre" Sec , and then recrosses to the 
left bank. (The path along the right bank is soon lost among the huge 
rocky fragments of a moraine.) After 3 hrs. the head of the valley is 
reached opposite a series of precipitous slopes which are connected on 
the left with the last snow-peaks of the Mont Blanc chain. Near the 
last of these the path crosses the pass. By keeping to the left, the tra- 
veller can hardly make a mistake. The two following paths , which are 
well trodden and likely to mislead, must be carefully avoided. From the 
highest chalet in the valley (Saljoan) , a considerable chalet is visible 
exactly facing us , apparently halfway up the mountain ; past this runs a 
well-beaten path, which terminates (I 1 /* hr.) in a desolate mountain basin, 
enclosed by snow-clad peaks (from which point the Hospice of St. Bernard 
is about 3 hrs. distant). The other path , which diverges at La Folly, 
farther on, leads in the same direction (comp. p. 245). 

From the chalet of Saljoan the path ascends rapidly for l'/a hr., past 
the moraine of the Glacier du Mont Dolent, to the summit of the Col de 
Ferret, and then descends to the chalets of La Folly (5240'). From this 
point we follow a well-defined path through the X. (Swiss) Vol de Ferret, 
by La Seiloz , to Praz de Fort , whence a carriage-road leads us to Ville 
d^ Insert , Som la Proz , and (4 hrs.) Orsieres (p. 241). During the ascent 
in the S. valley of Ferret, the retrospective view of the S.E. side of the 
chain of Mont Blanc as far as the Col de la Seigne is very fine. From the 
summit of the Col de Ferret, the view extends to Martigny and the W. 
portion of the Bernese Alps, the Diablerets, the Oldenhorn, and the Sanetsch. 

The route from Courmayeur to Aosta is most attractive. The 
vegetation , which becomes more luxuriant as the road descends, 
the picturesque waterfalls , and the tine views of Mont Blanc to the 
W., of the Graian Alps to the S., and Monte Rosa to the N., enable 
the Valley of Aosta to vie with the finest scenery of Switzerland. 
Cretinism in its most repulsive form is unfortunately very prevalent 
here. It is sometimes ascribed to the badness of the water, but 
there is little doubt that it is chiefly caused by the squalid habits 
of the natives. At Martigny, where sanitary matters are better at- 
tended to than formerly , the disease is on the decrease , while in 
the Aosta valley the reverse is the case , the proportion of cretins 
being now 2 per cent of the population. There are no good inns 
between Pre St. Didier and Aosta. 

Passing (2 1 / 4 M.) Palesieux, the road crosses the Doire to ( 3 / 4 M.) 
Pre St. Didier (Rosa; Posta), a village with baths, where the road 
to the Little St. Bernard diverges to the S.W. Near the hot springs 
( '/4 M. lower down) the stream forces its way between perpendicu- 
lar rocks towards the Dora valley. 

Fkoji Pke St. Didier to Bouito St. Maukick over the Little St. Ber- 
nard , 8 hrs., a route preferred by many to that over the Col de la 
Seigne (p. 237), especially in doubtful weather. The carriage - road , now 
nearly completed, ascends the valley of the T/iuille to La Thuille (4700'- 
Hotel de la Golletta), where we obtain a view of the great glacier of the 
Bui tor (which may be ascended hence, p. 252), and leads by Pont Servant 
and the Cantine des Eaux Rouges (3/jhr. below the top' of the pass, 
Alpine fare), to the pass of the Little St. Bernard (7200'; summit indi- 
cated "by a granite pillar), which has formed the boundary between France 
and Italy since 1860. On the S. side of the pass, 5 hrs." from Pre' St. Pi- 
.dier, 3 hrs. from Bourg St. Maurice, is a hospice like that on the Great St. 
Bernard (p. 243), and adioininii it an Inn. (The Poiute de Valizan may 



240 Route M. LISEROONE. 

lie a.-iended hence in 1 hi - ., nr the Belre,lere in I 3 , 4 hr. , both of which 
afford admirable views of the Mont Blahc chain.) We now descend grad- 
ually, obtaining a beautiful view of the upper valley of the Isere (La 
Tarentaise) and the mountains of Savoy the whole way, to St. Cermaii, 
(where the road becomes steeper), Srez , and (3 hrs.) Bourg St. Maurice 
(2802' ; ■ IKtel des Voywjeiirs) , a small town on the Isere , from which a 
diligence runs daily in 4' -z hrs. to Moutiers (en Tarentaise) , a small town 
with salt-works, and thence through Albertville (high-road to Geneva by 
Annecy, see p. 217) in about 6 hrs. to Chamousset (p. 216), a station on 
the railway from Geneva to Mont Cenis by Chamber)'. From (Jhaiimiisset tu 
Chambery (p. 21")) in 1 hr., to Geneva in 4-4 3/ 4 hrs., see R. 51. 

From Bourg St. Maurice to Cliapiii, see p. 237. 

Beyond Pre St. Didier the road leads on the left bank of the 
Doire by Morgex (beyond which are two waterfalls) to (4 , / i > M. ) Li 
Salle, with its mined castle (flue retrospective view of Mont Blanc ). 
It then crosses the Doire by the Pont de I'Equilive, and enters the 
fortified defile of Fort Roc, where it is hewn in the face of the rock. 
high above the brawling torrent. Opposite to us is Arise, pictures- 
quely situated on a rocky eminence , and commanded by an oM 
tower. Beyond the (6 M. ) dirty village of Liverogne (Hotel ties 
Voyayeurs) the Val Grisanche (p.2f)2) opens on the right. The road 
crosses the Grisanche by a lofty bridge and passes Arvier ((.'antine 
de> Yoyageurs) , famed for its vineyards. It next leads past the 
mouth of the Val Savaranche (p. 250) , at the union of which with 
the Val de Rhemes, to the right, rises the chateau of Mrod (p.2;)lj, 
to (;> .M .) Villeneuve, the most beautiful point in the valley, where it 
crosses the Doire. On a lofty rock above the village stands the ruined 
castle of Argent. Farther on we pass the chateaux of St. Pierre and 
La Sarra. On the opposite bank, at the mouth of the Val de Cogne, 
rises the castle of Aimaville( p. 24cS). AboutT'/.iM. farther we reach — 

Aosta (p. 246), 24 M. from Oourmayeur. 

57. From Martigny to Aosta. Great St. Bernard. 

17', a hrs. : from Martigny to the Hospice 11', •_>, thence to Aosta 6 hrs. (from 
Aosta to the Hospice 8, from the Hospice to Martignv 9 1 » hrs.); carriage- 
road to the (.'antine de Pro-/, (p. 242), thence to St. Remy (4 hrs. I bridle- 
path ; carriage-road again to Aosta (13 3 4 M.). Guide unnecessary. As the 
ascent, to (I2 1 •_■ M.) Orsieres is slight, the traveller had better drive thus far. 
or to Bourg St. Pierre, walk thence to St. Remy, and drive from St. Kern; 
to Aosta, so as to accomplish the whole journey in one day. Diligtw 
in summer daily at 6. 46 a. m. from Martigny to Bourg St. Pierre in 
5 1 u hrs.; one-horse carriage to Orsieres G-8, to Liddes 14 fr. Carriagi 
(for 1 to 3 pers.) from Martigny to the Cantine de Proz , 7 Jf. from the 
Hospice, drawn by a mule, which is ridden thence to the Hospice, 30 ft- 
Mule from Liddes'to St. Remy over the St.. Bernard 10 fr. ; one-horse carr. 
from St. llriny to Aosta, 1 pers. 10. 2 pers. 12, 3 pers. 15 fr. 

The (iiiBAT St. Bi.unako is the least interesting of the Alpin' 
passes, with the exception of those parts of the route near Aosta and 
Martigny. Those who have to choose between the Simplon, St. Gotthard, 
Spliigeii, Bernardino, and St. Bernard, should not he misled by the repu 
tation of the latter. If the traveller has already traversed the pass t*i 
Aosta and is returning )>y the same route, he may, lor variety, take the 
footpath which diverges to the \Y. of On- n,ad at Urstirrs, passes the Lar & 
('/itim/iei, on Hie W. side ol Muni i',ii,„j„, , and rejoins the road at l.es Valletta 



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ORSlfcRES. 57. Route. 241 

He may also leave the road at Sembrancher , ascend Moni Chimin (-441)3'; 

beautiful view of iMartigny and the valley of the Rhone down to the 

Lake of Geneva) , and descend to Martigny through beech-woods. These 
two routes are longer, lint more interesting than the main road. 

Martigny (1558'), see p. 208. Beyond (% M.) Martigny le 
Bourg (p. 209) the road crosses the (l'/4 M.) Dranse, a few hund- 
red paces from which the road to Ghamouny diverges to the right 
(p. 232). The St. Bernard road winds through a narrow valley, 
watered by the Dranse, and leads by Le Jirocard and Le Bourgeaud to 
(4V4M.) Les Vallettes (1978'; Restaurant des Gorges du Durnant). 

Gorges du Durnant. A new road leads from Les Vallettes to the 
(1 31.) entrance of a deep rocky gorge, through which the Durnant rushes 
down hi a succession of 14 cascades. The gorge has of late been made ac- 
cessible by means of a gallery 870 yds. in length, attached by iron cramps to 
the perpendicular rocks, and is worthy of a visit fadm. 1 fr. ; Restaurant by 
the entrance). The path is to be continued to the height of V.hampey (see 
abuvej. 

Beyond (5 M.j Bovernier (2037') the Dranse forces its way 
through a narrow gorge, where its course is impeded by huge 
masses of rock, especially near the (fi'/o M.) Gulerie de la Monnaie 
(2362'), a tunnel 70 yds. long, hewn in the solid rock. In 1818 
a great fall of rocks took place here in consequence of the bursting 
of a lake in the Vat de Bagne, which branches off to the E. near 
Sembrancher (p. 254). 

At (8 M.) Sembrancher (2329'; Inn; mule or guide to the 
Pierre-a-Yoir , p. 209, 5 fr.), the two streams which form the 
Dranse unite, one descending from the Vol de Bagne , the other 
from the Vat d'Entremont and the St. Bernard. On a hill are the 
ruins of a castle. To the S.W. of Sembrancher rises Mont Ctitogne 
(8530'). 

12V-2 M. Orsieres (2894'; * Hotel des Alpes , moderate), at the 
junction of the valleys of Ferret (p. 239) and Entremont, possesses 
a curious and very ancient tower, resembling that of St. Pierre 
(see below). The road crosses the Dranse, the channel of which is 
so deep that the stream is rarely visible. The view we obtain beyond 
the village is the most picturesque on this route; the background 
is formed by the snowy pyramid of Mont Velan (p. 242). Extensive 
corn-fields cover the undulating country which slopes towards the 
Dranse. The scenery becomes grander when the forest of St. Pierre 
is reached. 

17'/2 M. Liddes (4390'; Hotel d'Angleterre ; Union; rustic inns 
with hotel prices) is a considerable village (one-horse carriage to 
Martigny 10, mule to the Hospice 5fr.). The new road to St. Pierre 
winds along the slope of the mountain ; the old road is shorter for 
pedestrians. The wooden frames , which the traveller will observe 
here, are used for drying the corn. 

21 M. Bourg St. Pierre or St. Pierre Mont Joux (5358' ; Cheral 
Blanc; Croix, both very poor; Au Dejeuner de Napoleon, tolerable, 
but dear), a dirty village, possesses an interesting old church, dating 
from 1010. On the wall near the tower is a Roman milestone. 

Bakuk.kkr, Switzerland. 7th Edition. ^() 



242 Route 57. CANTINE DE PROZ. From Martigny 

Pleasant excursion from St. Pierre to the Valsorey Valley (7 51. in length), 
through which a good path leads on the right bank of the Dranse de Vatoorey. 
A little above its influx into the Val d'Entremont the river forms a pic- 
turesque waterfall. In 2 hrs. we reach the Chalets de Valsorey (7191'), in 
an imposing situation. The background is formed by the Glacier de Valsorey, 
and others uniting with it, (left) that of Sanation, descending from the 
Grand-Combin, and (right) that of Tzeudet. Beautiful view of the dazzling 
snows of Mont Vela n and the seriated rocks of the Aiguilles de Valsorey.— 
The night is passed at the chalets by those who are about to cross the Col 
jies Maisoks Blanches (12,005'), or the Col de Sonadon (11,483') to the 
Val de Bagne (p. 254), or the Col de Valsoket (10,728') lo the Val Ollo- 
mont (p. 255), or by those who propose to ascend the Grand-Combin (see 
below). 

Beyond St. Pierre the road crosses a deep gorge . in which 
there is a beautiful -waterfall to the left above the bridge. The 
celebrated passage of the Alps by Napoleon was begun on 16th 
May, 1800, and occupied four days. The St. Bernard had been 
reported by Marescot, chief of the engineers, as 'barely passable' 
for artillery. 'It is possible: let us start then,' was Napoleons 
energetic reply. The part which most severely tried the troops 
was from St. Pierre to the summit, the pass being still covered 
with snow. The artillery carriages were taken to pieces and packed 
on mules the ammunition was transported in the same way. 
while the guns were placed on sledges, and dragged over the snow 
by the soldiers who received 1200 fr. for each cannon. At tlm 
Hospice each soldier partook of the hospitality of the brethren. 

The new road, hewn in the solid rock, and avoiding the steep 
parts vt the old route, traverses the forest of St. Pierre and the 
Defile de Charreire. Scenery picturesque, several waterfalls. 

The (24i/ 2 MO Cantine de Pros (5982') is a solitary iiiu 
I moderate) at the beginning of the Plan de Proz. the highest pas- 
ture in the valley. A one-horse carriage to Liddes or Martigny, 
and a mule to the Hospice or St. Remy may be obtained ine 
carriage-road terminates here. Several glaciers, of which the o la- 
cier de Proz is conspicuous, descend on the left as far as the loity 
margin of the valley. . 

The Mont Velan (12,353'), a white pyramid rising i» the background, 
to the E. of the Great St. Bernard, commands a magnificent view. »'■ «„ 
ascended (difficult; for experienced mountaineers only) trom tne < .in nut 
de Proz (in 6 hrs.: two guides necessarv , each 25 fr. ; Van. and £"«'"""• 
Balle.u at St. Pierre, and Seraphin and Aug. Dorsal at the Cantine ae w 
are recommended). -- The Grand Combin (14,163'), the VR. neighbour oi 
Mont Velan, is best ascended from the (Violets de Valsonti (see above) d\ 
the Col des Muisons Blanches in 8-9 hrs. (difficult, guide 40 lr.). or Irom 
Chcrmonlane by the Col de Sonadon (comp. p. 254). 

The Bkiule Path crosses the pastures of the Plan de I'm 
in 20 miii. . ascends the wild Defile de Marevyo (13312'), alld 
in l'/ 4 hr. readies two stone huts, one of them a refuge for cattle, 
the other the old Mon/ut. or receptacle for the bodies of travellers 
who had perished in the miow . It next crosses the Dranse by 
the bridge of Xudri (7336'), skirts the \Y . slope of the mountain, 
and leads through the dreary Vallee den MorU to the (JV4 hr.) 



to AoAa. ST. BERNARD HOSPICE. ^7. Route. 243 

Hospice. The iron cross on the wayside, 20 min. from the 
hospice, was erected to the memory of Pere Francois Cart, who 
perished at this spot in November 1845. 

The Hospice of St. Bernard (8120'), a monastery situated 
at the summit of the pass, consists of two large buildings. One 
of these contains numerous apartments with wooden partitions, 
for the reception of travellers ; the other and smaller (Hotel de 
St. Louis) is a refuge in case of lire, and serves also as a granary 
and lodging for poor wayfarers. On arriving, strangers are re- 
ceived and welcomed by one of the brethren, who conducts them 
to a room and provides refreshments; and if they arrive shortly 
before dinner or supper (at 12 and 6), a place is assigned them 
at the brethren's table. Most of the monks are intelligent and 
well-educated men , and they readily give travellers every infor- 
mation in their power. French only is spoken. The table is simply 
but amply furnished; Fridays and Saturdays are fast-days. Tra- 
vellers are accommodated gratuitously , but few will deposit in 
the alms-box less than they would have paid at an hotel. Liber- 
ality should, however, be shown, in consideration of the great 
expense attending the transport of the necessaries of life to such 
a height. 

Various accounts are given of the origin of the name of St. Bernard 
as applied to this pass \ the most generally received is that Bernard de 
Menthon (p. -17), a pio\is ecclesiastic who was canonised after his death, 
founded the convent in 962. The brotherlmod consists of from 10 to 15 
Augustinian monks and 7 attendants (maroniers) , whose office it is to 
receive and accommodate strangers gratuitously, and to render assistance 
to travellers in danger during the snowy season, which here lasts nearly 
nine months. In this work of benevolence the inferior creation is taught 
to lend its assistance. The breed of dogs employed at the Hospice is 
universally known and admired. Their keen sense of smell enables them 
to track and discover travellers exposed to peril by heavy falls of snow, 
numbers of whom have been rescued by these noble and sagacious animals. 
The stock is believed to have come originally from the Spanish Pyrenees, 
but the genuine old breed is now extinct. 

The Monastery of St. Bernard comprises a society of about -10 mem- 
bers. Some of the brethren minister in the Hospice on the Simplon 
(p. 274) ; others perform ecclesiastical functions. The sick and aged have 
an asylum at Martigny. St. Bernard is the highest winter habitation in the 
Alps. Humboldt in his 'Kosmos" 1 mentions that the mean temperature at 
the Hospice of St. Bernard (45° "N. latitude) is 30° Fahr. (in winter 15% 
spring 25°, summer 4S°, autumn 32°), and that such a low temperature 
would only be found on the sea-level at a latitude of 75° (the S. Cape of 
Spitzbergen). Like the St. Gotthard (p. 90), the St. Bernard is not a single 
mountain, but a group. 

During the Italian campaigns of 1798, 1799, and 1800, the pass was 
crossed by several hundred thousand soldiers, both French and Austrian. 
In 1799 the Austrians endeavoured to avoid the hospice, but after several 
tierce engagements the French remained masters of the pass, and kept a 
garrison of 180 men in the hospice during a whole year. Napoleon's famous 
passage has already been mentioned (p. 242). It is also an historical fact 
that the Romans made use of this route in B.C. 100. After the foundation 
of Augusta Praetoria Salassorum (Aosta, B.C. 26.) it became more fre- 
quented. Cit'cina (A.D. 69) crossed it with his legions and the Gallic 
and German auxiliaries, when marching against Otho, in order to bring 
speedy succour to the fortiiied. town s, of C isalpine Gaul, Milan, Novara, 

10* 



244 Rmue 60. GREAT ST. BERNARD. From Murtigny 

(■It-.., which hail already declared in favour uf Vitellius. Comtautine caused 
the road to lie improved in 339. The I/Oiubards made the passage about 
fj-i 7 ; an uncle of Charlemagne inarched an army of 30,01)11 men by this 
route into Italy in 773, and, according to some, gave his name to the 
pass ; part of the army of Frederick Barbarossa also crossed iu 1166, under 
the command of Berfhold of Zahringen. 

Tilt; monastery was very wealthy in the middle ages. The 
beneficence of its object was widely recognised by extensive 
grants, chiefly by the emperors of Germany, and gifts from various 
parts of Christendom. At one period it possessed no fewer than 
HO benefices, but was subsequently impoverished by various vicissi- 
tudes. The 30-40,000 fr. required for its annual support are chiefly 
derived from subsidies from the Flench and Italian governments, 
and from annual collections made in Switzerland; the gifts of trav- 
ellers, it must be said with regret, form a very insignificant portion 
of the sum. Of late years 16-20,000 travellers have been annually 
ac.'ommodated, while the sum they have contributed barely amounts 
to what would be a moderate hotel charge for 1000 guests. The ex- 
penses of the establishment are increasing. Provisions are generally 
brought from Aosta , and in July, August, and September, about 
twenty horses are employed daily in the transport of fuel from the 
Val de Ferret (p. 239), 12 M. distant. 

The present massive edifice dates from the middle of the 
Kith cent., the church from 1680. The large rooms are heated 
throughout the whole year; on the ground floor are the stables 
and magazines, above which are the kitchen, refectory, and 
sleeping apartments for the poor; in the upper story the cells 
of the monks , and TO to 80 beds for travellers of the upper 
classes. The walls of the refectory are hung with engravings and 
pictures, the gifts of grateful travellers. The small room adjoining 
it contains a collection of ancient and modern medals, portraits, 
relics found in the environs, and fragments of votive brass tablets 
offered to Jupiter Pceninus after escape from danger. Another 
room in the upper story contains philosophical instruments and 
a small natural history collection. The visitors' books contain 
many well known names. The monument erected by Napoleon I. 
to General Desaix fit Desaix , mort a La bataille de Marengo) 
is on the left side of the chapel; the bas-relief, representing 
the death of the general, is by Moitte (_180(i). The traveller is 
frequently awoke at a very early hour in the morning by musical 
bells playing a hymn tune. 

Near the hospice is situated the Morgue, a depository for the 
bodies of persons who have perished in the snow. The extreme 
cold retards decomposition so remarkably that the features of the 
deceased are sometimes recognisable years after death. 

The traveller will hardly quit the hospice without a feeling 
of veneration and compassion for this devot .1 fraternity. They 
generally begin their career at the age of IS or 111. After about 
fifteen years' service the severity of the climate has undermined 



to Aosta. ST. REMY. 57. Route. 245 

their constitutions, and they are compelled to descend with broken 
health to the milder climate of Martigny or some other dependency. 
The thoughtless traveller, in the pleasure and novelty of the scene, 
is too apt to forget the dreariness of the eight or nine months of 
winter; when all the wayfaTers are poor, when the cold is intense, 
the snows of great depth , and the dangers from storms, or 'tour- 
mentes', frequent and imminent. It is at this period that the pri- 
vations of these heroic men are most severe , and their services 
to their fellow-creatures most invaluable. All honour to their self- 
denial and devotion ! 

Instead of returning to Martigny hy the same route, the traveller may 
cross the Col de FenHrc (8855') , which must not be confounded with the 
pass of that name from the Val de Bagne to Aosta (p. 255), and descend through 
the N. (Swiss) part of the Val de Ferret (p. 239), which runs parallel to 
that of Entremont, and is but little longer. Guide necessary. — The Chena- 
letta (9478') and the Mont Mart (9403'), hoth (if which may be, ascended 
from the hospice (with guide) in l'/a-2 hrs., afford a magnificent view of 
Mont Blanc and its glaciers. 

The bridle-path descending on the .S. side passes between a 
small lake and the Plan de Jupiter , where a temple dedicated 
to Jupiter Peeninus once stood. The mountain has thence derived 
its Italian name of Monte Jove, locally Mont Joux, and the range 
is sometimes called the Pennine Alps. At the end of the lake 
stands the frontier pillar between Switzerland and Italy. The 
path next traverses La Vacherie , a green pasture--, where the 
cattle of the hospice graze, with some chalets, and the Cantine, 
or road-mender's house. To the W., above the Cot de Fenetre (see 
above) rises the Pain de Sucre (9505'), recognisable by its 
sugar-loaf form (not to be confounded with Mont Catogne, p. 240, 
also called Pain de Sucre by the Vaudois). To the left of the path 
is a stone in memory of M. Martinet of Aosta, a member of the 
Italian chamber of deputies, who perished here in 1858. The path 
follows the E. slope, and descends gradually to St. Remy. 

From St. Kkmy to the Hospice. In ascending, the pedestrian should 
keep to the right on the slope of the mountain. From the (i 3/ 4 hr.) Can- 
tine mentioned above, he may proceed to the right, direct towards the 
saddle of the mountain. The culminating point of the pass is indicated by 
a pole on a rock, soon after passing which the lake and the monastery 
come in sight. The ascent occupies about 2','i hrs.; guide (1' ;'■• fr.) super- 
fluous. 

(1 hr.) St. Remy, the first Italian village, entirely fills the nar- 
row gorge. The custom-house is the first building on the right. 
The first house on the left is the Hotel des Alpes Pennines (R. 2, 
B. IV2 fr. ; one-horse carr. to Aosta, 3 hrs. drive, 1 pers. 10, 2pers. 
12, 3 pers. 15 fr. ; mule to the Hospice 3, to Liddes 10 fr. ; guide 
to the Hospice li/ 2 fr.). 

Fuom St. Remy to Couiuiayeoii. The path, which crosses the brook 
beyond the village leads by the W. side of the vallev over the Col de la 
Serena. (7385') in 9-10 hrs. to Courmaijeur (p. 238), "to which it is the 
shortest route from the St. Bernard, but somewhat uninteresting. 

The Carriage Road descending from St. Remy is well kept. The 
general cultivation of both sides of rhp vaii e y begins at (2'/d M. ) 



246 Route 57. AOSTA. From Martigny 

St. Oyen, and becomes richer at (3'/ 4 M.) Etroubles (Hotel National; 
Lion d'Or), where the road crosses the Buttier. The valley soon 
expands. The solitary inn of La Cluse (61/4 M. ) on the hill-side af- 
fords poor accommodation; li/ 9 M. farther, near two houses, is an 
excellent spring. The defile of (10 M.) Gignod (239H') was for- 
merly defended by a square tower, erected by the Romans, and still 
standing. The scenery becomes more pleasing , the villages more 
picturesque, and the southern character of the Italian side of the Alps 
more perceptible. To the left opens the Vol Pellina, from which the 
glacier-passes mentioned at pp. 247, 2"'.!"), 260. and 261 lead to the 
Val de Bagne, the Val d'He'rens , and Zermatt. The eye rests on a 
scene rich in corn, and wine, and oil; the murmuring of brooks is 
heard in every direction , and a number of snowy summits hitherto 
concealed become visible. Beyond (ll 1 ^ M) Signaye begin the ex- 
tensive vineyards of Aosta ; to the left is seen Monte Rosa, and to 
the right Mont Blanc. This prospect, combined with the view of the 
handsome town of Aosta and its fertile valley, is an appropriate ter- 
mination to the excursion. 

13^/4 M. Aosta (1913'). — 'Hotel du Moktblanu, at the upper end 
nf the town, nn the road to Courmayeur, V2 M. from the post-office, R. 2 fr. 
and upwards, B. I 1 /*, D. 4, A. 1 fr. ; Couronne in the Place Charles 
Albert, next door to the post-office, conveniently situated for diligence 
travellers, less expensive. Carriages at both hotels. Opposite the latter is 
a reading-room , provided with English and other newspapers (travellers 
admitted gratis). Beer at Zimmermann's near the Hotel de Ville. — One- 
horse carriage to Chiitillon 15, two -horse 25 fr. , to Courmayeur 18 and 
30 fr. — No supplementary carriages are provided for diligence passengers as 
in Germany and Switzerland; seats should therefore be secured in good time. 

Aosta , the Augusta Praetoria Salassorum of the Romans , and 
now the capital of the Italian province of the same name, with 7760 
inhab. , is beautifully situated at the confluence of the Buttier and 
the Doire (p. 240). The Emperor Augustus gave his name to the 
place, and garrisoned it with 3000 men of the Praetorian cohorts. 
The Town Walls , flanked with strong towers , a double Gateway 
somewhat resembling the Porta Nigra of Treves , a magnificent 
Triumphal Arch, constructed of huge blocks of hewn stone, and or- 
namented with ten Corinthian half-columns , the arch of a Bridge, 
and the ruins of a Basilica are the most interesting Roman antiqui- 
ties. The walls are reached in a few minutes by one of the streets 
leading to the N. from the Place Charles Albert. The other relics 
may be inspected in about '/ 2 hr. We follow the principal street 
towards the E. from the Place, and soon reach the Roman Gate, ami 
a few n.in. farther the Triumphal Arch. In a straight direction, 2(10 
paces beyond the latter, the narrow Rue du Pont Romain crosses a 
brook by means of a Roman Bridge, the massive construction of 
which is seen by descending a few yds. to the left. The Place may 
now be regained in '/4 nr - — The modern Cathedral possesses a 
singular portal, with some frescoes, and the Last Supper in terra- 
cotta, gaudily painted. The church of St. Ours contains handsome 



to Aorta AOSTA. 57. Route. 247 

carved choir stalls; adjoining the church are cloisters with inter- 
esting early-Romanesque marble columns. Modern Hotel de Ville in 
the Place Charles Albert, or market-place. A French patois is spoken 
in this valley, from Courmayeur near its head down to Chatillon. 

The 'Becca di Nona (10,384'), an admirable point of view, is ascended 
in 6-7 hrs. (descent 4-5 hrs. ; guide, 8 fr., unnecessary). There is a bridle- 
path two-thirds of the way to the top (mule 6 fr.). We cross the Doire 
and ascend somewhat, rapidly to the village of Charvensod , traverse a 
wood, and pass the hermitage of St. Gral and the chalets of Chamolt. 
Our path now crosses the hill to the left, and leads past the Signal Sia- 
monda (8360'; refuge-hut, with excellent view of the Uuitor and the Pen- 
nine Alps) to the Alpe Comboi, lying in a small basin at the toot of the 
Becca di Nona (4 hrs. from Aosta), and furnished with a refuge containing 
a few beds , the key of which must be brought from Aosta. The route 
hence to the summit (2'/2 hrs.) is also free from all difficulty, but is un- 
suitable for riding. The superb "prospect from the summit (comp. pano- 
rama by Carrel) embraces the whole of the Mont Blanc and the Monte 
Rosa chains, the Graian Alps with the Grrivola and the Grand Paradis, 
and immediately to the E. the beautifully shaped Mont Emilius (11,667'). 
The last-named mountain may be ascended by skilled climbers without 
difficulty from the Comboe Alp in 4 hrs. ; they follow the Col de Garin 
route (p. 248) as far as the (1 hr.) Chalets d'Arbole (p. 248), and then turn 
to the left, passing the small lakes (p. 248). The view is still more ex- 
tensive than from the Becca di Nona. 

Another route may be followed in descending from the Becca di Nona 
by leaving Comboe to the left and proceeding straight through the valley 
of the Dard. Below the basin of Comboe there is a picturesque waterfall, 
at the base of which we cross the brook and then descend to the left to 
Charvensod. Picturesque views of the Matterhorn and Monte Rosa. — Ex- 
cursion to Pont d'Ael, at the entrance to the Vol de Cogne, see p. 248; to 
Cogne, etc., see H. 58. 

From Aosta to Zkkmatt (p. 286) the shortest route is through the 
Val Pellina, and over the Col de Valpelline (11,686') ; a magnificent glacier- 
expedition, but only practicable for skilled moiintaineers attended by able 
guides. From Aosta to the chalets of Prarayen (p. 260) 9 hrs., thence 
to Zermatt 12-14 hrs., according to the state of the ice and snow. From 
Prarayen a difficult ascent over the Glacier de Cia des dans (Zardezan) 
to the pass, which lies to the S. of the Tete Blanche (12,313'); then across 
the Stock, Tiefenmatten, and Zmntl glaciers (comp. p. 260). 

From Aosta to Chatillon, and over the St. Thtodule Pass to Zermatt, 
see E. 65 ; over the Col de Colon or the Col des Bouquetins to Evolena, see 
pp. 260, 261 ; over the Col de Fenetre or the Col de Crete Seche to the 
Val de liagne , see pp. 254, 255. — From Aosta to Courmayeur and Cha- 
mounti (tour of Mont Blanc), see R. 56. 



58. The Graian Alps. 

From Aosta to Cogne , Val Savaranche (Ceresole) , Notre Dame 

de Rhemes, and Val Grisanche. 

The Graian Alps in the wider sense include the whole of the group 
of mountains between the valleys of the Dora Baltea and the Here on the 
N. and those of the Dora Biparia and the Arc on the S. This extensive 
district comprises three distinct main groups. On the E. side are the Alps 
of the Val de Cogne, with the Grivola (13,005'), the Grand Paradis (13,271'), 
the Rossa Viva (11,951'), the Tour du Grand St. Pierre (12,032'), the Punta 
di Laviua (10,837'), the Ml. Emilius (11,667'), and the Becca di Nona (10,384'). 
In the central region, extending from the Col de la Seigne on the N. to Mont 
Cenis on the S., rise the Ruitor (11,480'), the Aiguille de la Sassiere (12,322'), 
the Becca d"Inrergnuon (12,000'), the Sle. BHene (11,831'), the Ml. Isiran 



248 Route 58. PONT D"AEL. The Oruian 

(13,269'), the Mte. Levanna (11,5.16'), and the Roche Melon (11,603'). Lastly, 
in the W. part of this district, the Alps of the Tarentaise, the chief moun- 
tains are the Ml. Pourri (12,421'), the Grande Casse (12,782'), and the 
Dent Parassie (12,136'). We shall here describe a few of the most inter- 
esting routes through the B. part of this magnificent mountainous region, 
which presents so striking an appearance when approached by the 
traveller from the Pennine Alps. These routes, which are easily accom- 
plished from Aosta. lead us into the Val de Cogne and the Val Savaranche 
Vul de Khemes, and Val Grisanche. which run parallel with it on the W. 
There are two small, but good inns at Cogne, but in other parts of this 
comparatively untrodden region the traveller will generally have to be 
content with the humble accommodation procurable at the houses of the 
cures. Guides (pp. 238, 249) are required for most of the following e*- 
cursions, and a supply of provisions and wine should also be taken, as 
the chalets seldom afford anything but milk. 

The mountains of Cogne form a chasse of King Victor Emmanuel, and 
the mountain goat (Steinbock' , Ital. 'stambecco') , which is elsewhere 
nearly extinct , still occurs here. There are few carriage-roads in this 
district, but several excellent bridle-paths, leading to the royal shooting- 
lodges, greatly facilitate the pedestrian's progress. 

From Aosta to Cogne through the Val de Cogne fG 1 / 2 hrs. ). 
As far as (6 M.) Aimaville (2061') we may follow the high road 
(p. 240), but it is preferable to cross the Doire close to Aosta and to 
proceed thither via Gressan and Jovencan, across meadows and well- 
cultivated fields. The Chateau of Aimaville, erected in the 15th cent., 
now belongs to a Countess Hocca-Chalaud. The village contains 
some iron-foundries. The bridle-path ascends rapidly hence past 
the church of St. Martin (commanding a fine view of Aosta) to 
La Poya (2789'), and enters the Val de Cogne. at a great height 
above the ravine of the brawling stream (Grand' Eyrie). Far below 
us we soon observe the houses of Pont d'Ael (2'/»hrs. from Aosta |, 
where there is an admirably preserved *I!oman Bridge (formerly an 
aqueduct), 60 yds. long, and 394' above the stream. According to 
the inscription built into the structure on the farther side, it was 
erected by C. Aimus of Padua in the 13th year of the reign of Au- 
gustus. (From Villeneuve , p. 240, a direct route leads along the 
slope of the mountain to Pont d'Ael.) 

The valley contracts. Near the bridge by which we cross the 
stream, we obtain a view of the Grirola for a short time. We next 
reach (l'/ 2 hr.) Vieille, or Vieye* (376.-]'; cautine), '/4 " r - h eyoud 
which we pass Silvenoire on the right. The path leads past a 
deserted iron-foundry, and again crosses the brook by the Pont de 
Laval, where a view of the mountains of Cogne is disclosed. The 
next place is (l 1 /., hr.) Epincl (4443'), opposite which rises the 
lofty Pointe de Pousset (see below). To the right of the latter is the 
Glacier de Trujo. At ('/a hr. ) Cretaz the Valnontey, coming from tin' 
S., falls into the Grand' Eyvie. The path crosses the latter, and 
leads through beautiful meadows to (20 min.) Coyne (see below). 

From Aosta to Coonk over the Col de O.miin (9 hrs.), a very attrac- 
tive route, which may easily be combined with the ascent of the Becca 
di Nona (13-14 hrs.). Route to Combot, see p. 247. Thence to the Chalets 
d'Arbole (8228'), near two small lakes. 1 hr. , v. bore the path to the Mt. 
liniilius (p. 247) diverges to the left. The path then leads across detritus 



Alps. COGNE. 56'. Route. 249 

to the (1 hr.) top of the pass (9370'), which commands an admirable view 
of the Grand Paradis, Grivola, and other mountains. We now descend 
the grassy slopes to the Chalets d'Arj'isson , and traverse pine-wood to 
another chalet, where the path divides. The branch to the right leads to 
Epinel, that to the left to Criletz (see above). 

Cogne (5000'; *H6tel Oriroln , pension 6'/2 fr. ; Hotel Royal, 
smaller) , the chief village in the valley, is charmingly situated at 
the mouth of the Vul de Ornuson, which opens on the N., and that 
of the Valnontey , to the S., and commands a beautiful view of the 
Grand Paradis with its glaciers to the S., and of the highest peak 
of Mont Blanc, to the W. This is an excellent starting-point for a 
number of mountain excursions of various lengths. (Elisee and Alex. 
Jeantet, P. Jacquin, and Grappier are good guides.) 

Pointe de Pousset (10,746' ; 5 hrs. ; guide 6, mule 12 fr.), a superb point 
of view, is ascended without difficulty. At Cretaz (see above) the bridle-path 
crosses the Valnontey and traverses wood. It then ascends the grassy 
slopes to the chalets of Ours Dessus and (3 hrs.) Pousse! Dessus (8247'\ 
whence 2 1 . , 2 hrs. mure of steep climbing brings us to the rocky crest "f 
the Pointe de Pousset. Immediately opposite to us, above the Glacier < e 
Trajo, towers the imposing Grivola, which is hardly inferior in grandei r 
to the Matterhorn , and other mountains of the Pennine and Graian Alj s 
are also visible. 

The ascent of the Grivola (13.005') should not be attempted except by 
practised climbers (from Cogne 8-9, descent 5-6 hrs. ; two guides necessary, 
'-S fr. each). From the Clialets de Pousset (see above) we reach the Glacier 
ile Trajo in 2 hrs.. cross it ( i ' '•_' hr.) , and ascend the S.E. side of the 
Grivola, at first over steep slopes of ice, and afterwards over rock (where 
caution should be used to avoid the falling stones). In about 3 hrs. more 
we reach the lop, which commands a magnificent view. — In IK76 the 
Grivola was ascended from Val Savaranche for the first time (12 1 // hrs. 
from Dcgioux to the summit). 

The Combe Dii Valnontey, which opens to the S. of Cogne, should be 
ascended as far as the (3 hrs.) chalets of Monei, for the sake of the ad- 
mirable view obtained thence of the Grand Paradis with its glaciers, the. 
Plan de la Tribulation, Glacier de Grancrou, etc. (ascent, see p. 252). Two 
difficult glacier-passes, the Col ok Grancrou or Col Tlxkett (10,033'), bet- 
ween the Grand Paradis and Possa Viva., and the Coi. de Monei (11,316'), 
between the Rossa Viva and Tour du Grand St. Pierre, lead from the head 
of the Combe de Valnontey to Ceresole (p. 252), both requiring able 
guides ( 15 fr. each). 

From Cogne to Fort Bard by the Fenetre de Cogne, a pass frequently 
traversed, 10-11 hrs. — At ( l /y hr.) Champlong we cross the brook and 
ascend rapidly to the (2 hrs.) chalets of Plane's. A fine view is obtained 
tiere to the right of the Combe de Valelglia , through which a difficult. 
pass leads across the Col oe Telleccio (10,925'), between the Tour du Grand 
fSl. Pierre and the Pic (VOndezetna , into the Vul Piantonetto and the Val 
Oreo (p. 252). Our path next leads to the chalets of Peratza, or Peyrasas, 
whence the new royal bridle-path ascends the grassy slopes to the (2 hrs.) 
opening of the Fenetre de Cogne (or Finest ret di Camporciero, 9288'), which 
commands a striking view of the mountains of Cogne. The steep, but 
good path then descends into the bleak Val Cliainporclier or Cetmporciero 
(to the left of the chapel of A'otrr Dame de la .Ve/i/c), passes Champorcher 
and Pout Bosel, and terminates at Bard, on the road from Aosta to Ivrea 
( about 6 hrs. from the summit of the pass). 

From Cogne to the Val Soana (and to Ponte in the Val d'Orco) a 
moderately easy pass leads across the Col della Xucva (to Campiglia 7-8 
hrs.). Route to Piane's, see above. Here we turn to the right and ascend 
somewhat rapidly, passing the chalets of Charauis and Brulot. Describing 
a circuit to the left in order to avoid the glacier, we reach (3 hrs.) the 
top of the pass (about 952ff), where we enjoy an admirable view of Mont 



250 Route 5.S. VAT, SAVARANCHE. The Graian 

Blanc and the S. side of the Uraian Alps. After a sleep descent on the 
other side to the chalets of Arietta, the route leads through the Val Cam- 
piglia to (3 hrs.) Campiglia and ('/« hr.) Valprato (see below). — A longer, 
but also interesting route leads from Cogne over the Fenfire de Coyne 
(see above) into the upper Vol C/iamporclier , diverges to the right, past 
the chapel of Xoh-f Dame de la Neige, and crosses the Col de Champorchek 
or i»i Keai.i;. After a steep descent past the chalets of Reale we reach 
flan Pro, the highest hamlet in the Val Prato or Yal Soana (about 9 hrs. 
from Cogne). Passing Pianei, we next come to (2' /2 hrs.) Valpralo, at the 
mouth of the Val Campiglia (see above), and proceed by Ronco and Itigria 
to (3'/2 hrs.) Ponte in the Val d'Orcu or Val Locana (p. 2ijit). 

From Cogne to Val Savaranche (8-9 hrs.; guide 10 fr.j, 
over the Col de Lauzon, or Col de la Combe de Coyne is a very 
attractive route. The good bridle-path first leads towards the S. tn 
(I hr.) Valnontey, where it crosses the stream and ascends to the 
right. We soon obtain fine views of the Glacier de Monti and the 
Tour du Grand St. Pierre (12,032'), and passing a picturesque 
waterfall of the Lauzon, reach the (2y 2 hrs.) Camp du Hoi (851 1 '). 
a royal shooting-lodge. Of the three bridle-paths diverging hence 
we select the central, which ascends in numerous zigzags to the 
(l'/> hr.) Col de Lauzon (9500' ). From the summit of the pass 
we obtain an admirable view (which is still more extensive front a 
height a few minutes to the S. of the ColJ, chiefly of the \Y. (iraian 
Alps, with the beautiful Mt. Pourri (12, 421') rising in the back- 
ground, and, in the opposite direction, of the mountains of Cogne, 
with the Tour du Grand St. Pierre, Mt. Fmilius, etc. In descend- 
ing , we enjoy superb views of the Grand Paradis , with its glisten- 
ing mantle of snow , to the left , and of the nearly perpendicular 
slopes of the Grivola on the right. Passing (!/o hr.) the solitary 
Chalet dePilon and traversing pastures and woods,